• Title, Summary, Keyword: descriptive epidemiologic study

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Epidemiologic Survey of Infantile Cancer in Iran based on the Data of the Largest Pediatric Cancer Referral Center (Ali-Asghar Children Hospital), 1996-2005

  • Bahoush-Mehdiabadi, Gholamreza;Habibi, Roshanak;Shariftabrizi, Ahmad;Vossough, Parvaneh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1211-1217
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    • 2014
  • Background: Cancer in infants younger than one year of age represents a unique problem with distinct epidemiological, clinical and genetic characteristics compared with older age groups. No report is yet available from Iran regarding epidemiological and survival rate of cancers diagnosed in this age group. Materials and Methods: The population under study comprised of patients which were diagnosed and admitted to Ali-Asghar hospital between years 1996-2005. In total, 287 infants were included in the retrospective descriptive survey. Patient files were evaluated for age of patient at the time of diagnosis, sex, geographical residence, consanguinity of parents, histological diagnosis, site of cancer involvement, type of therapy, date of last follow-up and cause of death (if applicable). Results: The average age at the time of diagnosis was 7.2 months old. The most frequent malignancy was retinoblastoma (44%), followed by leukemia (19%) and neuroblastoma (10%), with five-year overall survival rates of 77.7%, 41% and 90%, respectively Parents of 40 infants (13.9%) had consanguinity relationships. Conclusions: Although we cannot make any conclusions regarding the incidence of infant cancer subtypes based on this study, survival rates for major types were similar to the developed countries, which signifies strict adherence to standards of care in Ali-Asghar hospital, the main infant cancer care centre in Iran. A Childhood Cancer Registry with high-resolution data collection and also advanced genetic testing is advocated for in-depth analysis of variation in incidence and survival.

Descriptive Epidemiology of Acute Pyelonephritis in Korea, 2010-2014: Population-based Study

  • Kim, Bongyoung;Myung, Rangmi;Kim, Jieun;Lee, Myoung-jae;Pai, Hyunjoo
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.33 no.49
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    • pp.310.1-310.11
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    • 2018
  • Background: Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is one of the most common community-acquired bacterial infections. Recent increases of antimicrobial resistance in urinary pathogens might have changed the other epidemiologic characteristics of APN. The objective of this study was to describe the current epidemiology of APN in Korea, using the entire population. Methods: From the claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea, the patients with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes N10 (acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis) or N12 (tubulo-interstitial nephritis, neither acute nor chronic) as the primary discharge diagnosis during 2010-2014 were analyzed, with two or more claims during a 14-day period considered as a single episode. Results: The annual incidence rate of APN per 10,000 persons was 39.1 and was on the increase year to year (35.6 in 2010; 36.7 in 2011; 38.9 in 2012; 40.1 in 2013; 43.8 in 2014, P = 0.004). The increasing trend was observed in both inpatients (P = 0.014) and outpatients (P = 0.004); in both men (P = 0.042) and women (P = 0.003); and those aged under 55 years (P = 0.014) and 55 years or higher (P = 0.003). Eleven times more women were diagnosed and treated with APN than men (men vs. women, 6.5 vs. 71.3), and one of every 4.1 patients was hospitalized (inpatients vs. outpatients, 9.6 vs. 29.4). The recurrence rate was 15.8%, and the median duration from a sporadic episode (i.e., no episode in the preceding 12 months) to the first recurrence was 44 days. The recurrence probability increased with the number of previous recurrences. The average medical cost per inpatient episode was USD 1,144, which was 12.9 times higher than that per outpatient episode (USD 89). Conclusion: The epidemiology of APN in Korea has been changing with an increasing incidence rate.

A Descriptive Study of The Way of Life and Health Status of Nursing Students (간호대학생들의 생활습관과 증상호소 및 관련요인)

  • Kim, Myung-Soon;Cho, Yoo-Hyang;Jung, Moon-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Li
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.358-372
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the way of life (such as smoking habits, alcohol consumption, exercise, duration of sleep, eating habits etc.), physical. psychological and overall health complaints and to identify the relationship between the way of life and health complaints of the nursing students. Data was collected with the self-administered OMI( Okayama Medical Index Health Questionnaire, devised Cornell Medical Index) from 766 nursing students and was analyzed. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and an ANOVA with an SPSS/PC+ program were used. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age of subjects was 21.0557(2.7618) years old in their 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year-classes of nursing departments and college students in 4 regions of Korea. 62.1% of subjects were of the proper body weight, 2.0% were overweight, and 28.3% were underweight. Most subjects did not have a past history of disease, but 1.8% of subjects had experienced a blood transfusion. 2. 28.3% of the subjects had averaged 7 hours of sleep, 98.5% were nonsmokers, 91.2% were nondrinkers, 74.7% of subjects had milk intake sometimes, 53.7% of the subjects had an average salt intake, 49.6% of the subjects usually had a green vegetable intake, 45.4% of the subjects sometimes had fatty food intake, 64.8% of the subjects had good taste, 29.5% of the subjects enjoyed physical exercise. 3. The highest percentages of 'yes' among physical. psychological and overall health complaints were observed in the question 'Do you have gastric pain?'(60.2%), 'Are you confused of disorderly?' (37.2%), 'Physical body was burdensome and fatigued.'(57.3%). 4. The total O.M.I. score ranged from 1 to 89 with an average of 22.91(SD=12.10). A statistically significant difference was observed for the physical. psychological complaints for alcohol consumption. and for the psychological complaints for salt and fatty food intake. These conclusions should provide grounds for future studies of strategies for health promoting lifestyle for nursing students and their health concerns. Further research is required to investigate the life environmental and psychological factors affecting the way of life for nursing students and their health status, to analyze the health behavior of nursing students related with their culture and consciousness. Also epidemiologic research methodology, such as prospective cohort study should be considered to explore the performing process of nursing student's health behavior related with the occurrence of diseases.

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Predictors of Depression In Middle-School Girls (일 여자중학교 학생의 우울 예측요인)

  • Um, Hwa-Yun;Lee, Hae-Jung;Jee, Young-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.470-477
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of depression and predictors of depression in middle-school girls. Method: A self-report survey was conducted with 2nd and 3rd grade students in a girls'middle school (N=401) in Pusan. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and simultaneous multiple regression using the SPSS program. Results: The mean score for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was 20.63. The level of depression was negatively related to problem-solving ability, self-esteem, total household income, school achievement, self-perception of body-image, and satisfaction in relationships with siblings, parents, and friends. A multivariate approach showed that predictors explained 61% of variance in depression. Significant predictors of depression were self-esteem (${\beta}$=-.38), problem-solving ability (${\beta}$=-.34), and satisfaction in relationships with friends (${\beta}$=-.14) and parents (${\beta}$=-.08). Conclusion: The findings suggest that it is important to develop educational programs to increase self-esteem and problem-solving abilities in middle school girls. Considering the high levels of depression in middle school girls, school nurses play an important role in detecting and reducing emotional tension among these students. Nursing interventions, including art therapy, problem-solving counseling, and bibliotherapy could be useful in enhancing self-esteem, problem-solving abilities, and satisfaction in relationship with friends, siblings and parents.

Gender Differences in Factors Influencing Quality of Life among Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (성별에 따른 관상동맥질환자의 삶의 질 영향 요인)

  • Park, Soo-Kyeong;Kim, Hwa-Soon;Cho, In-Sook;Ham, Ok-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.497-505
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the level of quality of life and gender differences in predictors of quality of life among patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: Participants for this descriptive survey were 67 men and 65 women who signed informed consents. They were patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or were on medication therapy after a heart attack. The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Personal Resource Questionnaire-part (II), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used to measure quality of life, social support, and depression respectively. Gender and age were controlled because they were reported as influencing factors in previous studies. Results: There were significant differences in depression and quality of life between men and women however, social support was not significantly different by gender. In multiple regression analysis, depression was a significant predictor and explained 51.9% of quality of life for men. In women, depression and social support were significant predictors and explained 50.9% of quality of life. Conclusion: Factors influencing quality of life for men and women were different, and therefore, nurses need to consider their patients' gender and use specific strategies to improve quality of life for patients with coronary artery disease.

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The Serverith Leverls and Patterns of Perimenstrual symptoms among Korean Women in relation to their Ages (여성의 연령과월경 전후기 증상 정도 및 유형에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Young-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.162-175
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    • 1999
  • The study was intended to investigate and explore the preimenstrual symptoms, their severity levels, their patterns and the relationships of the age to those symptoms and patterns among Korean women. The data were collected from 844 women in one highschool, one Nursing college and one Korea National Open University in Seoul, from Nov, 1997 to Jun. 1998. The instruments were the Menstrual Symptoms Questionnaire developed by Chesney and the Center for Epidemiologic studies Depression scale developed by Radloff. the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Duncan's multiple comparison test, $X^2$-test, simple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis using pc-SAS program. The results were as follows ; 1. Korean women had more symptoms of abdominal bloating, fatigue, abdominal discomfort and backache in perimenstrual period. There Teenages had more symptoms of depression and uterine cramps in the day before or the first day of menstruation. Women in their twenties had more symptoms of abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort, backache, abdominal bloating and the sensitiveness /discomforts in the lower back, abdomen and inner part of thighs. women in their thirties had more symptoms of abdominal bloating, fatigue, tension and nervousness before the menstruation, abdominal discomfort and backpain in the first day of menstruation. Women in their forties had more symptoms of backache, breast discomforts, abdominal pain and discomforts. 2. The severity levels of the perimenstrual symptoms showed the highest score(mean=2.73) in twenties and the lowest score)mean=1.96) in forties The perimenstrual symptom patterns were prevailed the spasmodic menstrual symptoms in teenage and twenties and the congestive menstrual symptoms in thirties and forties. The age was a determinant of perimenstrual symptom patterns and the precipitative equation was log[p(age)/(1-p(age)]=2.7356-0.0982 age. 3. The relationship of the age to perimenstrual symptoms was vanished or lessened, controlling for parity as a test factor. this finding supports the notion that parity is an extraneous variable.

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Clinico-Epidemiologic Patterns of Laryngeal Cancer: 5-year Results from a Regional Cancer Centre in Northeastern India

  • Nallathambi, Chandran;Yumkhaibam, Sobita Devi;Singh, Laishram Jaichand;Singh, Thaodem Tomcha;Singh, Indibor Yengkhom;Daniel, Nithinraj
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2439-2443
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To determine the risk factors, clinical symptoms and patterns of spread in laryngeal cancer. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the Regional Cancer Centre, Imphal, Manipur, India. One hundred and sixteen patients with laryngeal cancer were retrospectively reviewed for epidemiological data and descriptive statistics were reported for various variables. Results: Median age at presentation was 65 years and 32.8% were undernourished at presentation. The male to female ratio was 5.4:1. Heavy smoking and tobacco chewing was associated in 91.4% and 33.6% of patients respectively. Tracheostomy was required in 21.5% leading to diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. Almost all were squamous cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine and verrucous carcinoma accounting for less than 2%. Supraglottic, glottic and trans-glottic tumors were 56.9%, 36.3% and 6.9% respectively. Nodal metastases were seen in 81.8% of supraglottic cancers and 31.6% of glottic cancers with supraglottic involvement. Level II neck nodes were the commonest site followed by level III. Distant metastases (only liver) were apparent in 1.7% at presentation. Including these liver metastases, unresectable cases were limited to 6% of the patients. Conclusions: Tobacco use is implicated in almost all of the cases and the sex ratio has also decreased due to increased female smokers. The supraglottis remains the commonest site and incidence of nodal metastases is higher than in other countries. There is also a higher requirement for tracheostomy at presentation in this region.

A Descriptive Study on the Tuberculosis Mortality in a Tuberculosis-Centered Hospital (한 결핵전문병원의 입원 결핵환자 사망에 대한 기술통계학적 고찰)

  • Kim, Soo-Young;Byun, Joo-Nam;Choi, Jin-Su
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.595-601
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    • 1993
  • Background: Today, tuberculosis continues as an important cause of death in Korea despite the effective treatment and prevention. So we have studied charicteristic distribution of death by pulmonary tuberculosis through epidemiologic survey. Subjects and Method: The mortality data were obtained from 684 pulmonary tuberculosis cases who died in a tuberculosis-centered hospital in Seoul during the period of 5 years from 1986 to 1990. In order to estimate the distribution of death by tuberculosis, t-test and $x^2$-text were performed on the data. Results: 1) 19.9% of patients died among the total 3,441 hospitalized pulmonary tuberculosis cases during 5 years. 2) In distribution of sex and age, male death occupies 81% of total death. Significantly high proportions of younger female death (under 40 years-old) were also observed. 3) In terms of medical security status, medical assistance group occupies 42.3% of medical insurance group while the non-security group also occupies 11.8% of total death. 4) Treatment interruption was observed in 78% of total death. Conclusion: Special attention should be given to the identification, management and follow up of high risk group in nationwide tuberculosis control program.

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Trends in Malignancies among Korean Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era

  • Lee, Shinwon;Lee, Sun Hee;Lee, Jeong Eun;Kang, Jin Suk;Lee, Seung Geun;Chung, Joo Seop;Kwak, Ihm Soo
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.9
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    • pp.1445-1450
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    • 2017
  • Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the life span of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDS (PWHA) has been extended significantly. Therefore, the importance of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs), as well as AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) has increased. There is little information concerning the epidemiology of malignancies in PWHA in Korea. A descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. PWHA who visited Pusan National University Hospital from January 2000 to October 2014 were included. Demographics and clinical data were obtained from the medical records and analyzed. A total of 950 PWHA were observed for 4,439.71 person-years. Forty-eight episodes (5.05%) of cancers were diagnosed in 47 patients. Mean age of the enrolled patients was $40.66{\pm}12.15years$ and 88% were male. Among the 48 cancer episodes, 20 (42%) were ADCs and 28 were NADCs. The most common ADCs was non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (53.6%), followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (17.9%). The most common NADCs were lung cancer (25%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (25%). The overall incidence of total cancers, ADCs, and NADCs was 10.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.0-14.3), 4.5 (95% CI, 2.8-7.0), and 6.3 (95% CI, 4.2-9.1)/1,000 person-years, respectively. NADCs accounted for 12/15 (80%) of cancers among PWHA with good adherence to care. The 5-year survival rate of PWHA and NADC was 26.3%. NADCs have become the main type of malignancy among Korean PWHA with good adherence to care. Effective strategies to improve screening of NADCs among PWHA are required in Korea.

An Epidemiologic Study on Death Caused by Cancer in Pusan (부산지역의 암 사망에 관한 역학적 연구)

  • Kim, Hwi-Dong;Koo, Hye-Won;Kwak, Moon-Suk;Kim, Jong-Ryul;Son, Byung-Chul;Moon, Deog-Hwan;Lee, Jong-Tae;Cho, Kyu-Il;Ohm, Sang-Hwa;Jung, Kui-Oak;Chun, Jin-Ho;Lee, Chae-Un
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.765-783
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    • 1996
  • This study surveyed and measured the level and structure of cancer deaths and their trends over time for offering the fundamental data of e cancer prevention and control in Pusan city in the future. Authors conducted the study of descriptive epidemiology using materials derived from the computerized data of total 3,722 certified cancer deaths in Pusan city from January 1 to December 31, 1993 registered on the National Statistical Once, the Republic of Korea. The obtained results were as follows: 1. According to the total registered cases of deaths(16,331 cases) in Pusan city during 1993, cancer(3,722 cases) and cerebrovascular disease(2,118 cases) were the first and second cause of deaths as 23.1% and 16.9%, respectively. These pattern showed the change between cancer (14.7%) and cerebrovascular disease(18.5%) in order of frequency in comparison to 1982. Also, the total number of cancer deaths was increased in comparison to 1982. The rate of death certification by physicians was 87.1% of all registered deaths, which was increased to 6.8% in comparison to 1982(80.3%). 2. Crude death rate and cancer specific death rate was 4.06 per 1,000 populations and 93.8 per 100,000 populations(male:117.8, female:70.0), respectively. The former was similar to that of 1982, but the latter was increased to 1.6 times as that of 1982. 3. Age-adjusted cancer specific death rate by standardization with whole country population was 111.9(male:141.5, female:106.7) per 100,000 populations, higher than not age-adjusted cancer specific death rate(93.8), and the sex difference was statistically significant with male predominance (p<0.05). 4. Cancer specific death rate by age was generally increased with age and most of cancer deaths(male:91.8%, female:88.5%) occurred since 40 years old. 5. The major cancer(cancer specific death rate per 100,000 populations) in male was liver(30.6) followed by stomach(25.6), lung(21.9), and GB and EHBD(5.7), in female stomach(15.7), liver(9.9), lung(7.3), and uterus(6.9). The relative frequency of the leading three cancer among total cancer deaths marked 66.3% in male and 47.l% in female, and decreased in comparison to 1982(male:72.2%, female:54.5%). 6. The total ratio of male to female cancer specific death rate showed 1.68 to 1 with male predominance. And the ratio was above 2.0 in larynx, oral cavity & pharynx, esophagus, liver, lung, bladder cancer and the ratio was $1.0\sim1.9$ in stomach, pancreas, gall bladder and EHBD, brain, rectum and anus cancer, leukemia, but the ratio was reversed in thyroid and colon cancer. In conclusion, cancer was the first cause of deaths. The proportion of lung cancer was increased, that of stomach & uterine cancer was decreased relatively, and liver cancer was constantly higher proportion. In the future, it is necessary to conduct the further investigations on the cancer risk factors considering areal specificity.

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