• Title, Summary, Keyword: delamination percentage

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Evaluation of Bonding Strength of Larch Cross-Laminated Timber

  • Song, Yo-Jin;Hong, Soon-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.607-615
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    • 2016
  • The delamination along the annual ring on the cross-section of laminae and the bonding strength according to the tangential angle between laminae were evaluated for the production of 3-ply cross-laminated timber (CLT) using domestic larch. Since there is no standard for CLT in Korea, the production and test of specimens for bonding strength followed the standard procedure of "Structural glued laminated timber" (KS F 3021). The standard specifies to exclude any measurement from the cracks of timbers resulted from drying or knots during delamination test of the glued laminated timbers. However, the failure of cross-sectional tissues along the annual rings was observed near the glue-line of all specimens during the delamination test. Because this phenomenon can generate defects in the CLT that may be exposed to various temperatures and relative humidities after the actual construction, the delamination percentage was measured by including this wood failure. As a result, the delamination percentage of the CLT which had been combined in such a way that the annual rings of outer lamina were directed inward was the lowest, which was around 13%, regardless of the annual ring direction of the middle lamina. On the other hand, the delamination percentage of the CLT which had been combined in such a way that the annual rings of outer lamina were directed outward was the highest, which was around 26%. Furthermore, end-split occurred in the outer lamina during the drying process of the boiling delamination test, which affected the delamination percentage. Therefore, the soaking delamination test was found to be more appropriate for evaluating the delamination strength of CLT. The block shear strength of larch CLT was $3.9{\pm}0.9$ MPa on average, which was 46% lower than the block shear strength requirement (7.1 MPa) of the standard, but satisfied the criteria of the block shear strength (3.5 MPa) of the European Standard (prEN 16351: 2013).

Results of Delamination Tests of FRP- and Steel-Plate-Reinforced Larix Composite Timber

  • LEE, In-Hwan;SONG, Yo-Jin;SONG, Da-Bin;HONG, Soon-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.655-662
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    • 2019
  • This study evaluated the multi-bonding performances of timbers as well as those of reinforcement and timber to obtain data for preparing guidelines regarding the use of timbers as large structural members. For the multi-bonding performances of timbers, four types of bonding surfaces were prepared according to the pith position. For the bonding performances of FRP (fiber-reinforced plastic)/steel plate and timber, a total of 11 types of specimens were produced for the selection of the appropriate adhesive. The bonding performances of the produced specimens were evaluated through a water soaking delamination test, a water boiling delamination test, and a block shear strength test. The test results showed that the bonding strength of the bonding surface according to the pith position was highest in the specimen for which the two sections with the pith at the center of the cross-section on timber and between the bonding surfaces (the tangential and radial sections were mixed) were bonded. Furthermore, the specimens for which the section (radial section) with the pith on the bonding surface of the timber was bonded showed a high delamination percentage. The results of the block shear strength test showed that the bonding section did not have a significant effect on the shear strength, and that the measured wood failure percentage was higher than the KS standard value. The PVAc adhesive showed the highest bonding strength between larix timber and GFRP (glass FRP). Furthermore, the epoxy and polyurethane adhesives showed good bonding strength for CFRP (carbon FRP) and structure steel, respectively.

Characterizing the damage mechanisms in mode II delamination in glass/epoxy composite using acoustic emission

  • Dastjerdi, Parinaz Belalpour;Ahmadi, Mehdi
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.67 no.5
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    • pp.545-553
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    • 2018
  • Mode II delamination propagation is an important damage mode in laminated composites and this paper aims to investigate the behavior of this damage in laminated composite materials using acoustic emission (AE) technique. Three different lay-ups of glass/epoxy composites were subjected to mode II delamination propagation and generated AE signals were recorded. In order to investigate the propagation of delamination behavior of these specimens, AE signals were analyzed using Wavelet Packet Transforms (WPT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). In addition, conventional AE analyses were used to enhance understanding of the propagation of delamination damage. The results indicate that different fracture mechanisms were the main cause of the AE signals. The dominant mechanisms in all the specimens were matrix cracking, fiber/matrix debonding and fiber breakage, with varying percentage of the damage mechanisms for each lay-up. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations were in accordance to the AE results.

Adhesive Performance and Fracture Toughness Evaluation of FRP-Reinforced Laminated Plate (FRP 보강적층판의 접착성능 및 파괴인성평가)

  • Jung, Hong-Ju;Hong, Soon-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.868-875
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    • 2015
  • In order to replace existing slit type steel plate on the wooden structure joint, the FRP-reinforced laminated plates were produced. Four types of FRP-reinforced laminated plates were produced according to the type of reinforcement and adhesive, and before applying to the joint, the adhesion performance test according to KSF 3021 and KSF 2160 and the Compact Tension (CT) type fracture toughness test specified in ASTM D5045-99 were carried out. As a result of adhesion performance test, all GFRP textile, GFRP sheet, and GFRP Textile-Sheet type FRP-reinforced laminated plates satisfied the requirement of soaking delamination percentage with smaller than 5% based on KS standard. However, aramid type specimen satisfied the standard as the soaking delamination percentage of 4.8% but it did not satisfied the standard as the water proof soaking delamination percentage of 70%. As a result of fracture toughness test, the volume ratio of reinforcement to timber became 23% so that the strength of FRP-reinforced laminated plates increased by two to four times in comparison to the control specimen. It was confirmed that the GFRP Textile-Sheet type specimen was most resistant to the fracture most since the ratio of stress intensity factor compared with that of the control increased to 61% owing to the parallel arrangement of glass fiber to the load. As a result of tensile shear strength test using FRP-reinforced laminated plates and nonmetal dowels, it is about 12% lower than metal connectors.

INFLUENCE OF INVESTMENT/CERAMIC INTERACTION LAYER ON INTERFACIAL TOUGHNESS OF BODY CERAMIC BONDED TO LITHIA-BASED CERAMIC

  • Park, Ju-Mi
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.683-689
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    • 2006
  • Statement of problem. Interfacial toughness is important in the mechanical property of layered dental ceramics such as core-veneered all-ceramic dental materials. The interfaces between adjacent layers must be strongly bonded to prevent delamination, however the weak interface makes delamination by the growth of lateral cracks along the interface. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the reaction layer on the interfacial fracture toughness of the core/veneer structure according to the five different divesting. Materials and methods. Thirty five heat-pressed Lithia-based ceramic core bars (IPS Empress 2), $20mm{\times}3mm{\times}2mm$ were made following the five different surface divesting conditions. G1 was no dissolution or sandblasting of the interaction layer. G2 and G3 were dissolved layer with 0.2% HF in an ultrasonic unit for 15min and 30 min. G4 and G5 were dissolved layer for 15min and 30min and then same sandblasting for 60s each. We veneered bilayered ceramic bars, $20mm{\times}2.8mm{\times}3.8mm$(2mm core and 1.8mm veneer), according to the manufacturer's instruction. After polishing the specimens through $1{\mu}m$ alumina, we induced five cracks for each of five groups within the veneer close to interface under an applied indenter load of 19.6N with a Vickers microhardness indenter. Results. The results from Vickers hardness were the percentage of delamination G1:55%, G2:50%, G3:35%, G4:0% and G5:0%. SEM examination showed that the mean thickness of the reaction layer were G1 $93.5{\pm}20.6{\mu}m$, G2 $69.9{\pm}14.3{\mu}m$, G3 $59.2{\pm}20.2{\mu}m$, G4 $0.61{\pm}1.44{\mu}m$ G5 $0{\pm}0{\mu}m$. The mean interfacial delamination crack lengths were G1 $131{\pm}54.5{\mu}m$, G2 $85.2{\pm}51.3{\mu}m$, and G3 $94.9{\pm}81.8{\mu}m$. One-way ANOVA showed that there was no statistically significant difference in interfacial crack length among G1, G2 and G3(p> 0.05). Conclusion. The investment reaction layer played important role at the interfacial toughness of body ceramic bonded to Lithia-based ceramic.

Bonding Quality of Cylindrical LVL and Surface Durability by Its Painting (원통형 단판적층재의 접착성 및 도장처리에 따른 표면내구성)

  • Suh, Jin-Suk;Kim, Jong-In;Hwang, Sung-Wook;Park, Sang-Bum
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.418-423
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    • 2012
  • In order to develop the end use of cylindrical laminated veneer lumber (LVL) such as wooden crafts, the water proof-bonding strength, the resistance to abrasion and the surface hardness by painting the surface of LVL were investigated. The study results were as follows; The water proof-bonding strength through 5 cyclic test by boiling in water immersion and drying were favorable without delamination of glue line. Then the formulation of glue was resorcinol resin (100) to hardener of paraformaldehyde (5) by mixed weight percentage. The resistance to abrasion was relatively higher at cross section than tangential section. When tangential section of LVL was painted by UV protection oil, the resistance to abrasion was improved. In case of an cross section of LVL, the higher surface hardness appeared at larch core than radiata pine LVL. Also, in case of an tangential section of LVL, the higher surface hardness appeared at glue line than veneer side.