• Title, Summary, Keyword: definition

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TRIZ Problem Definition through Requirements Engineering (요건공학을 통한 TRIZ 문제정의)

  • Jeong, Jin-Ha;Park, Young-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.440-448
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    • 2010
  • Recently, there are many corporations, schools and institutes that apply TRIZ to solve technical problems. However, in reality, only a few cases of brainstorming applications exist in utilizing forty principles of TRIZ due to the difficulty at TRIZ problem definition. In order to facilitate TRIZ applications, this study proposes the utilization of requirement definition and description tool of systems engineering in TRIZ problem definition. No requirement definition exists in general problem types that TRIZ approach is used in implementing system solution. At most of problem situations, TRIZ users reversely infer that certain problem belongs to which requirement definition it is and recommends TRIZ tools to be used for the exact problem definition. This study also proposes TRIZ problem definition method by applying the results of requirement definition process. The application of TRIZ is demonstrated to the general situation with no problem definition where the proposed method enables the proper use of TRIZ.

A Study on the Definitions Presented in School Mathematics (학교수학 교과서에서 사용하는 정의에 관한 연구)

  • 우정호;조영미
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.363-384
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this thesis is, through analysing the characteristics of the definitions in Korean school mathematics textbooks, to explore the levels of them and to make suggestions for definition - teaching as a mathematising activity, Definitions used in academic mathematics are rigorous. But they should be transformed into various types, which are presented in school mathematics textbooks, with didactical purposes. In this thesis we investigated such types of transformation. With the result of this investigation we tried to identify the levels of the definitions in school mathematics textbooks. And in school mathematics textbooks there are definitions which carry out special functions in mathematical contexts or situations. We can say that we understand those definitions, only if we also understand the functions of definitions in those contexts or situations. In this thesis we investigated the cases in school mathematics textbooks, when such functions of definition are accompanied. With the result of this investigation we tried to make suggestions for definition-teaching as an intellectual activity. To begin with we considered definition from two aspects, methods of definition and functions of definition. We tried to construct, with consideration about methods of definition, frame for analysing the types of the definitions in school mathematics and search for a method for definition-teaching through mathematization. Methods of definition are classified as connotative method, denotative method, and synonymous method. Especially we identified that connotative method contains logical definition, genetic definition, relational definition, operational definition, and axiomatic definition. Functions of definition are classified as, description-function, stipulation-function, discrimination-function, analysis-function, demonstration-function, improvement-function. With these analyses we made a frame for investigating the characteristics of the definitions in school mathematics textbooks. With this frame we identified concrete types of transformations of methods of definition. We tried to analyse this result with van Hieles' theory about levels of geometry learning and the mathematical language levels described by Freudenthal, and identify the levels of definitions in school mathematics. We showed the levels of definitions in the geometry area of the Korean school mathematics. And as a result of analysing functions of definition we found that functions of definition appear more often in geometry than in algebra or analysis and that improvement-function, demonstration-function appear regularly after demonstrative geometry while other functions appear before demonstrative geometry. Also, we found that generally speaking, the functions of definition are not explained adequately in school mathematics textbooks. So it is required that the textbook authors should be careful not to miss an opportunity for the functional understanding. And the mathematics teachers should be aware of the functions of definitions. As mentioned above, in this thesis we analysed definitions in school mathematics, identified various types of didactical transformations of definitions, and presented a basis for future researches on definition teaching in school mathematics.

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Communication-Centered Project Management for Requirements Definition Phase

  • Ishii, Nobuaki;Muraki, Masaaki
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2012
  • Requirements definition, which determines a project baseline, has a strong impact on the success of a project. However, since in-depth requirements are gradually revealed through the requirements definition process, the requirements definition is not a straight forward process and often falls into disorder. Thus project management standpoints are critical for the success of the requirements definition. In this paper, we present a framework and mechanisms of communication-centered project management, which controls the requirements definition process based on the situation of communication-oriented activities among stakeholders. In addition, we present a communication-centered project plan with a planning method. The project plan, which represents a time schedule of requirements definition activities, is made by a simulation-optimization algorithm using a stakeholder matrix showing the relations of requirements domains and relevant stakeholders. The effectiveness and the significance of communication-centered project management at the requirements definition phase are demonstrated by numerical examples.

An Analysis and Criticism on the Definition of the Similarity Concept in Mathematical Texts by Investigating Mathematical History (수학사 고찰을 통한 교과서의 닮음 정의에 대한 분석과 비판)

  • Choi, Ji-Sun
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.529-546
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    • 2010
  • This study aims to analyze and criticize the definition of the similarity concept in mathematical texts by investigating mathematical history. At first, we analyzed the definition of Pythagoras, the definition of Euclid's ${\ll}$Elements${\gg}$, the definition of Clairaut's ${\ll}$Elements of geometry${\gg}$, the postulate of Brkhoff's postulates for plane geometry, the definition of Birkhoff & Beatly의 ${\ll}$Basic Geometry${\gg}$. the definition of SMSG ${\ll}$Geometry${\gg}$. and the definition of the similarity concept in current mathematics texts. Then we criticized the definition of the similarity concept in current mathematics texts based on mathematical history. We critically discussed three issues and gave three suggestions.

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Definition Sentences Recognition Based on Definition Centroid

  • Kim, Kweon-Yang
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.813-818
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    • 2007
  • This paper is concerned with the problem of recognizing definition sentences. Given a definition question like "Who is the person X?", we are to retrieve the definition sentences which capture descriptive information correspond variously to a person's age, occupation, of some role a person played in an event from the collection of news articles. In order to retrieve as many relevant sentences for the definition question as possible, we adopt a centroid based statistical approach which has been applied in summarization of multiple documents. To improve the precision and recall performance, the weight measure of centroid words is supplemented by using external knowledge resource such as Wikipedia and redundant candidate sentences are removed from candidate definitions. We see some improvements obtained by our approach over the baseline for 20 IT persons who have high document frequency.

The Consideration of Definition of Physical Therapy in South Korea (한국 물리치료 정의에 관한 고찰)

  • Song, Min-Young;Choi, Mun-Hee;Kim, Kyoung-Mo;Lee, Kyung-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : To contribute to the development and globalization of physical therapy in south korea. In the near future setting up the new definition of physical therapy making up for present problem and analysis of the physical therapy business. Methods : Checking the definition of physical therapy be in use, and then we draw a new concept and definition according to the job description at ICF of WHO, WCPT, Korea Job Information System, National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board Analyses. Results : The existing Definition of the korea physical therapy is focus on physical factor and rehabilitation. But, new Definition of physical therapy is contain prevention, functional limitation, therapy of disorder and be made up of definition more detailed and specialized. Conclusion : If definition of the physical therapy out of WCPT used modify and supplement for Korean society, help globalization as well as public relations of national at the Korea physical therapy and take rights physical therapist.

A Study on Teaching and Learning of the Limit Concept in High School (고등학교에서의 극한개념 교수.학습에 관한 연구)

  • 박임숙;김흥기
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.557-579
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to find out the problems which are caused when the limit concept of sequences is learned through an intuitive definition and to suggest a way of solving those problems. Students in Korea study the limit concept of sequences through an intuitive definition. They fail to apply the intuitive definition properly to the problems and they are apt to have misconception even though the Intuitive definition is applied properly. To solve these problems, this study examined the develop- mental process of the limit concept of sequences from the Intuitive definition to the formal definition, and looked into the way of students' internalization of the process through a field study. In this study, the levels of the limit concept of sequences possessed by the students at ZPD are as follows; level 0 : Students understand the limit concept of sequences through the intuitive definition. level 1 : Students understand the limit concept of sequences as 'The difference between $\alpha$$_{n}$ and $\alpha$ approaches 0' rather than 'The sequence approaches $\alpha$ infinitely.' level 2 : Students understand the limit concept of sequences through the formal definition. The levels of students' limit concept development were analysed by those criteria. Almost of the students who studied the limit concept of sequences through the intuitive defition stayed at level 0, whereas almost of the students who studied through the formal definition stayed at level 1. Through the study, I found that it was difficult for the students to develop the higher level of understanding for themselves but the teachers and peers could help the students to progress to the higher level. Students' learning ability was one of major factors that make the students progress to the higher level of understanding as the concept was developed hierarchically from Level 0 to Level 2. If you want to see your students get to the higher level of understanding in the limit concept, you need to facilitate them to fully develop understanding in lower levels through enough experiences so that they can be promoted to the highest level.

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Inquiry of Quadratic Curves According to Definition on Taxicab Geometry (택시기하에서 이차곡선의 정의 방법에 따른 그래프의 개형 탐구)

  • Heo, Nam Gu
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.103-121
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    • 2017
  • Taxicab geometry was a typical non-Euclid geometry for mathematically gifted. Most educational material related quadratic curves on taxicab geometry for mathematically gifted served them to inquire the graph of the curves defined by focis and constant. In this study, we provide a shape of quadratic curves on taxicab geometry by applying three definitions(geometric algebraic definition, eccentricity definition, conic section definition).

Smoking Behavior and Hardiness in University Students (대학생의 흡연행위와 강인성간의 상관관계)

  • Lee Kyu-Eun;Kim Nam-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.51-68
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to explain the relationship between smoking status, smoking behavior and hardiness in university students in Gangnung City. The subjects were a convenience sample of 315 students. The data were collected by a questionnaire given to the students between May 22 to June 2, 2000. An instrument developed by Akers & Gang(1996) and translated by Sohn, Jung-Nam(1999) was used in this study to measure definition of smoking, differential reinforcement of smoking and smoking behavior. The differential peer association scale developed Krohn et al.(1982) and translated by Sohn, Jung-Nam(1999), and the hardiness scale developed by Pollock(1984) and translated by Suh, Mun-Sa(1988) were also used. The data were analyzed using the SAS/PC+ Program and included descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Spearman correlation coefficients. The results of this study are as follows : 1. The smoking rate for university students was 50.5% of which 44.7% started smoking in high school. 2. The mean score for level of hardiness was $3.14{\pm}0.43$ 3. The mean score for smoking behavior was as follows : 1) The mean score for the neutralizing definition was $2.16{\pm}0.57$ 2) The mean score for the negative definition was $2.37{\pm}0.71$ 3) The mean score for the positive differential reinforcement was $1.89{\pm}0.63$ 4) The mean score for the negative differential reinforcement was $2.96{\pm}0.64$ 5) The mean score for the differential peer association was $2.67{\pm}1.05$ 4. The data showed positive correlations between hardiness and the neutralizing definition(r=.1951, P<.001), between hardiness and the positive differential reinforcement(r=.1128, P<.05), between hardiness and the amount of smoking per day(r=.1452, P<.05) between the neutralizing definition and positive differential reinforcement(r=.4212, P<.0001), between the neutralizing definition and differential peer association(r=.1856, P<.001), between the neutralizing definition and age at smoking initiation(r=.1582, P<.05), between the negative definition and negative differential reinforcement(r=.2985, P<.0001), between the positive differential reinforcement and differential peer association(r=.3451, P<.0001), between positive differential reinforcement and the amount of smoking per day(r=.4431, P<.0001), between differential peer association and the duration of smoking(r=.2789, P<.0001), between differential peer association and the amount of smoking per day(r=.5410, P<.0001), between the duration of smoking and the amount of smoking per day(r=.4245, P<.0001). The data showed negative correlations between the neutralizing definition and the negative definition(r=-.2065, P<.001) between the neutralizing definition and negative differential reinforcement(r=-.3943, P<.0001) between the neutralizing definition and duration of smoking(r=-.1957, P<.05), between the negative definition and positive differential reinforcement(r=-.2093, P<.001), between the negative definition and the amount of smoking per day(r=-.2282, P<.001), between positive differential reinforcement and negative differential reinforcement(r=-.5555, P<.0001) between negative differential reinforcement and differential peer association(r=-.3653, P<.0001), between negative differential reinforcement and the amount of smoking per day(r=-.4570, P<.0001), between the age at smoking initiation and the duration of smoking(r=-.4594, P<.0001).

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An Analysis of the Characteristics of Definitions and Exploration the Levels of Definitions in Mathematics Textbooks - In the Area of Geometry - (수학교과서에서 사용하는 정의의 특성 분석과 수준 탐색 - 기하 영역을 중심으로 -)

  • Cho, Young-Mi
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.15-27
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this thesis is, through analysing the characteristics of the definitions in Korean school mathematics textbooks, to explore the levels of them. Definitions use din academic mathematics are rigorous. But they should be transformed into various types, which are presented in school mathematics textbooks, with didactical purposes. In this thesis we investigated such types of transformation. With the result of this investigation we tried to identify the levels of the definitions in school mathematics textbooks. We tried to construct, with consideration about methods of definition, frame for analysing the types of the definitions in school mathematics. Methods of definition are classified as connotative method, denotative method, and synonymous method. Especially we identified that connotative method contains logical definition, genetic definition, relational definition, operational definition, and axiomatic definition. With these analyses we made a frame for investigating the characteristics of the definitions in school mathematics textbooks. With this frame we identified concrete types of transformations of methods of definition. We tried to analyse this result with van Hieles' theory about let·els of geometry learning and the mathematical language levels described by Freudenthal, and identify the levels of definitions in school mathematics. We showed the levels of definitions in the geometry area of the Korean school mathematics.

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