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Ventricular Septal Defect with Aortic Insufficiency: A Report of 7 Cases (대동맥판막 폐쇄부전증을 동반한 심실중격결손증 -7례 보고-)

  • 조대윤
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 1979
  • The development of aortic insufficiency radically alters the physical findings which are generally associated with ventricular septal defect that was not hemodynamically significant, and the combination of the two lesions produces a typical clinical picture, that may be serious and life-threatening when it is left untreated. Therefore, the selection of patients, type and timing of surgical treatment is considered to be important. Among 114 cases of ventricular septal defect treated surgically utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, 7 cases were associated with aortic insufficiency. 1. Five cases were male, and 2 cases were female. Ages were from 4 years to 24 years, and mean age was 11.9 years. 2. In all cases, ventricular septal defect was closed with Teflon patch. In a case, a aortic valvuloplasty and in another, a aortic valve replacement with Hancock valve 23 mm., 5 months after the closure of ventricular septal defect were done. 3. Four cases were type I ventricular septal defect by Kirklin`s classification, 3 cases were type II ventricular septal defect, and diameters of ventricular septal defect were from 3.5 cm. to 0.7 cm. A PDA. was combined to a type I ventricular septal defect. 4. In 5 cases, herniation of the aortic cusp through the ventricular septal defect and in a case, annulus dilatation on the aortic valve was noted. 5. Two cases with type I ventricular septal defect and severe pulmonary hypertension expired. A re-opened case with type II ventricular septal defect expired. 6. Four cases were alive, and all of them show decrease of pulse pressure and aortic insufficiency.

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Surgical Treatment of Mitral Stenosis (승모판막 협착증의 외과적 요법)

  • 김용진
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 1977
  • Atrial septal defect is one of the most frequently encountered congenital heart disease. Up to December 31, 1976, 1682 cardiac patients received cardiac catheterization in the cardiac department of Yonsei university medical college. Out of the 1682 cardiac patients 723 cases had congenital heart disease and only 116 cases had congetial atrial septal defect. This amounted to 16.04% of all those with congenital heart disease. 58 cases of congenital atrial septal defect operated in the chest surgery department were presented. Of these 58 cases of atrial septal defect, 27 cases were male and 31 cases were female. Their ages ranged from 5 years to 54 years. The systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery of 40 out of the 58 cases of atrial septal defect was below 40% of that of the systemic blood pressure: in 6 cases, the range of the systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery was 50-90mmHg; in 12 cases, the range of the systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery was 40-50mmHg. Average age of these was 30. 1 years. This study tends to show that Korean patients with atrial septal defect even though younger have a slight higher systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery than Western patients have. The pulmonary blood is 1.5-2.5 times of systemic blood flow in 52 cases out of 58 cases of atrial septal defect.In only one of the 58 cases of atrial septal defect, the Rp was found to be as high as 45% of Rs. All other cases were below this level.51 cases had ostium secundum defect, 4 out of these cases had ostium secundum defect combined with mitral incompetence and 6 out of them had double ostium secundum defect. The remaining 7 cases had ostium primum defect. Their atrial defects were repaired under direct vision utilizing extracorporeal circulation, by hemodilution technic combined with moderate hypothermia. 44 cases [2nd atrial septal defect] were repaired by direct sutures while 14 cases, including the 7 cases ostium primum defects needed patches [1 pericardium and 13 teflon patch]. In 4 cases there were single defects while showed two defects. However the associated septal defect was so small that it could be closed by direct sutures. The size of the defect ranged between 6.0cm2and 10.0cm2 in 19 cases[33.7%]: the smallest being 0. 5cm2 and the largest 24cm2. The surgical mortality was 2 cases [3.4%]. These one case with ostium primum defect, could not be resuscitated on operation table. The cause of death in this case was myocardial failure and MI. The other, a case of ostium primum defect had a second operation on the first operative day due to massive bleeding from LV vent-line insertion site.The patient died on 26th post-operative day due to sepsis.

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Clinical Studies on Congenital Atrial Septal Defects in Koreans (심방중격결손증에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • 이두연
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.230-240
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    • 1977
  • Atrial septal defect is one of the most frequently encountered congenital heart disease. Up to December 31, 1976, 1682 cardiac patients received cardiac catheterization in the cardiac department of Yonsei university medical college. Out of the 1682 cardiac patients 723 cases had congenital heart disease and only 116 cases had congetial atrial septal defect. This amounted to 16.04% of all those with congenital heart disease. 58 cases of congenital atrial septal defect operated in the chest surgery department were presented. Of these 58 cases of atrial septal defect, 27 cases were male and 31 cases were female. Their ages ranged from 5 years to 54 years. The systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery of 40 out of the 58 cases of atrial septal defect was below 40% of that of the systemic blood pressure: in 6 cases, the range of the systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery was 50-90mmHg; in 12 cases, the range of the systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery was 40-50mmHg. Average age of these was 30. 1 years. This study tends to show that Korean patients with atrial septal defect even though younger have a slight higher systolic pressure of the main pulmonary artery than Western patients have. The pulmonary blood is 1.5-2.5 times of systemic blood flow in 52 cases out of 58 cases of atrial septal defect.In only one of the 58 cases of atrial septal defect, the Rp was found to be as high as 45% of Rs. All other cases were below this level.51 cases had ostium secundum defect, 4 out of these cases had ostium secundum defect combined with mitral incompetence and 6 out of them had double ostium secundum defect. The remaining 7 cases had ostium primum defect. Their atrial defects were repaired under direct vision utilizing extracorporeal circulation, by hemodilution technic combined with moderate hypothermia. 44 cases [2nd atrial septal defect] were repaired by direct sutures while 14 cases, including the 7 cases ostium primum defects needed patches [1 pericardium and 13 teflon patch]. In 4 cases there were single defects while showed two defects. However the associated septal defect was so small that it could be closed by direct sutures. The size of the defect ranged between 6.0cm2and 10.0cm2 in 19 cases[33.7%]: the smallest being 0. 5cm2 and the largest 24cm2. The surgical mortality was 2 cases [3.4%]. These one case with ostium primum defect, could not be resuscitated on operation table. The cause of death in this case was myocardial failure and MI. The other, a case of ostium primum defect had a second operation on the first operative day due to massive bleeding from LV vent-line insertion site.The patient died on 26th post-operative day due to sepsis.

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Surgical Treatment of Atrial Septal Defect: Secundum Type (심방중격결손증의 외과적 요법)

  • 안광필;이영균
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 1975
  • Up to October 31, 1975, 34 cases of atrial septal defect, secundum type, operated in this department, were presented. This is 23.2% of all congenital heart diseases, operated utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass, in this department during this period [34 out of 146]. Out of 34 cases, 32 cases are pure ostium secundum type and one case is sinus venosus and another one is ostium secundum type with partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Six cases of endocardial cushion defect and 3 cases of trilogy of Fallot are excluded in this report. All 34 cases are repaired under direct vision utilizing extracorporeal circulation. Among 34 cases of atrial septal defect, 16 cases are male, and 18 cases are female. Their ages range between 3 to 48 years, but over 59% of the cases are below the ages of 20 years. Thirty-two cases are repaired by direct sutures while 2 cases are repaired with Teflon patches. The average perfusion time is 30 minutes; the shortest 12 and the longest 81 minutes. The number of the defect is single in 31 cases, double in 2 cases, triple in one case. But the associated defect except the main defect are so small as can be closed by simple direct suture. The size of the defect is average $12cm^2$; the smallest 0.7 and the largest $25cm^2$. The surgical mortality is 2 cases [5.6%] and other cases are found to be excellent in the follow up studies.

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Clinical Evaluation of 70 Cases of Ventricular Septal Defect in Korea (심실 중격결손증에 대한 임상적 고찰 [70예])

  • 조규석
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 1978
  • Ventricular septal defect was the most common congenital Heart disease admitted to the Severance Hospital from December, 1963 to June 30. 1977. A total of 1,811 cardiac patients received cardiac catheterization in the CardiacCenter of Yonsei University Medical College. Out of the 1,811 cardiac patients, 791 cases had congenital heart disease and of these 172 cases had ventricular septal defect. This amounted to 21.7% of all those with congenital heart disease. Seventy cases of ventricular septal defect operated on in the chest surgery department are presented. Of these 70 cases of ventricular septal defect, 54 cases were male and 16 cases were female. Their ages ranged from 4/12 months to 32 years. The ratio of systolic pressure of the main pulmonary to systemic artery [Pp/Ps] for 29 of the 59 isolated ventricular septal defects was below 45 percent. Pp/Ps ratio for 19 of the 59 isolated ventricular septal defects was 75 percent. The patients were mostly below fifteen years of age. Out of 64 cases, there were 36 cases of type II defects, 20 cases of type I, 4 cases of type III , 2 cases of type IV, one case of both type II and one case of left ventricular right atrial communication. The anomalies associated with ventricular septal defect were 13 in all; 4 cases of aortic insufficiency, 3 cases of ruptured aneurysm of the sortie sinus of valsalva, 2 cases of ruptured aneurysm of the sortie sinus of valsalva with aortic insufficiency, 2 cases of patent ductus arteriosus, one case of ruptured aneurysm of the aortic sinus of valsalva with atrial septal defect [secundum type] and one case of atrial septal defect [secundum type]. Overall mortality was 8.6 percent. The mortality in pulmonary artery banding was 37.5 percent. The causes of mortality were in one case congestive heart failure, in one case asphyxia and in one case respiratory insufficiency. Tile mortality in ventricular septal defect associated with pulmonary hypertension was 7.1 percent. The cause of mortality was in one case low cardiac output syndrome. There was no mortality in the ventricular septal defects without pulmonary hypertension and mortality in the ventricular septal defect. In ventricular septal defect associated with combined anomalies, the causes mortality were in one case respiratory insufficiency and in one case congestive heart failure.

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Surgical Treatment of Atrial Septal Defect (심방중격결손증의 외과적 요법)

  • 조형곤
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.174-181
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    • 1985
  • From Jun. 1980 to Mar. 1984, 33 cases of atrial septal defect, secundum type, operated at the department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, were analyzed retrospectively. They were 24.3% of all congenital heart diseases operated in the same period. Among the 33 cases, 17 cases were males and 16 cases were females. Their ages were ranged from 4 to 42 years and cases of over 15 years of age were 60.6%. Main symptoms at admission were exertional dyspnea [69.7%], palpitation [63.6%] and frequent upper respiratory infections [51.5%], but 2 cases [6.1%] were asymptomatic. All 33 cases were operated under the direct vision with cardiopulmonary bypass. All cases were secundum type defect of atrial septal defect and single defect were in 29 cases [90.6%], and oval type defect were in 31 cases [96.9%]. In 7 cases [21.9%], other lesions of cardiovascular system were associated, and the most common lesion was pulmonic valvular stenosis [4 cases; 12.5%]. The defects were closed directly in 27 cases and in 6 cases with Dacron patch. Postoperative complications were occurred in 8 cases [24.2%], and they were pleural effusion, congestive heart failure, and alopecia mainly. One case died due to air embolism postoperatively and operative mortality was 3.1%.

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Coexistent Atrial Septal Defect with Mitral Valve Disease: a report of 6 cases (승모판막질환을 합병한 심방중격결손증의 수술요법6례 보고)

  • Jo, Sung-Rae;Chae, Hurn;Rho, Joon-Rhyang
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.339-345
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    • 1979
  • Mitral valve disease is the most common disease of the acquired heart diseases, and atrial septal defect is also one of common congenital heart diseases. Coexistence of these two lesions is rare, but of great hemodynamic interest. Among 443 cases with mitral valve disease and 90 cases with atrial septal defect experienced in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, there were 6 cases with atrial septal defect complicated by mitral valve disease. 1. Of the 6 patients, four were female and two were male. The age was ranged from 18 to 46. 2. Atrial septal defect was ostium secundum type in all cases, and the mitral valvular lesions were regurgitation in four and stenosis in two. Type II ventricular septal defect was also combined in one of the cases. 3. The atrial septal defect was corrected by, primary closure and the mitral valve was replaced with the prosthetic or bioprosthetic valve in all cases. The combined ventricular septal defect was closed using Teflon felt patch. 4. The operative result was good except in one who was expired of bacterial endocarditis 4 months after hospital discharge.

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Sural Artery Flap for Skin Defect of Lower Legs (비복동맥 피판술을 이용한 하지 피부결손의 치료)

  • Jin, Jin-Woo;Yoon, Jong-Ho;Jung, Sung-Weon;Paeng, Jung-Wook
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: We reconstructed the skin defect of lower legs exposing muscles, tendons and bone with fasciocutaneous sural artery flap and report our cases. Materials and Methods: Between March 2005 and September 2006, 8 cases of skin defect were reconstructed with fasciocutaneous sural artery flap. Defect site were 4 case of ankle and foot and 4 cases of lower leg. The average defect size was $4{\times}4\;cm^2$. There were 5 men and 3 women and mean age was 52.2 years. We evaluated the viability of flap, postoperative complication, healing time, patient's satisfaction. Results: There was no flap failure in 8 cases. But recurrent discharge in 2 cases was healed through several times adequate debridement and delayed suture without complication. Flap edema may be due to venous congestion was healed through leg elevation and use of low molecular weight heparin. Mean time to heal the skin defect was 4 weeks. No infection and recurrence in follow up period. Cosmetic results as judged by patients were that 5 cases are good and 3 cases are fair. Conclusion: Sural artery flap is good treatment method among the numerous methods in the cases of skin defect, with soft tissue exposed, which is not covered with debridment and skin graft. Sural artery flap is useful method for the skin defect of lower legs because it is simple procedure, has constant blood supply and relatively good cosmetic effect.

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Clinical study of Endocardial Cushion Defect [7 Cases Report] (심내막상 결손증의 임상적 고찰7례 보고)

  • 김승철
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.283-287
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    • 1985
  • Seven patients had undergone repair of endocardial cushion defect from Jan. 1977 to Dec. 1984 at National Medical Center. Most patients had no associated anomalies except one who had PFO, and mortality case was absent. Five patients had partial ECD and two had complete ECD [Rastelli type A]. In P-ECD patients, the atrial septal defect was closed with patch in all cases and mitral cleft was approximated with 2-3 direct stitches. In two cases of C-ECD, atrial and ventricular septal defect was closed with single patch in one case and atrial septal defect was closed with patch but ventricular septal defect was closed with patch but ventricular septal defect was closed it direct suture in the other case. Atrioventricular cleft was approximated with 2-3 direct sutures. Postop. transient A-V block was noted in 2 cases but returned to regular sinus rhythm after 2 to 6 months.

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Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect: Report of 2 cases (근육형 심실중격 결손증 (치험 2예))

  • 임승평
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 1979
  • The muscular variety of congenital ventricular septal defect [Type IV VSD] comprises from 2 to 18% of the total number of patients and has multiple defects. It is difficult to diagnose by usual angiographic study. Out of 116 cases of isolated ventricular septal defects repaired at this hospital in 20 years period from 1959 and to May 8, 1979, 2 cases had muscular defect which was treated through vertical right ventriculotomy without any problems. Single defect was found in both cases and in one case PDA was associated with Type IV VSD.

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