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The Sleepy Child (졸린 소아에 대한 평가와 치료)

  • Kang, Seung-Gul;Kim, Leen
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.56-60
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    • 2009
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness in childhood might be abnormal phenomenon and often related to the sleep disorders or insufficient sleep duration. The most common cause of excessive daytime sleepiness would be insufficient sleep. However, narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, medication, medical illness and other sleep disorders that could cause insomnia and poor quality of sleep also result in excessive daytime sleepiness. The misdiagnosed and untreated excessive daytime sleepiness in childhood can lead to serious developmental and educational problem.

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How to Measure Daytime Population in Urban Streets?: Case of Seoul Pedestrian Flow Survey (도시 거리의 주간활동인구 측정과 해석: 서울시 유동인구 조사 사례)

  • Byun, Mi-Ree;Seo, U-Seok
    • Survey Research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.27-50
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    • 2011
  • It is increasingly important to estimate daytime population for the sake of urban administration and urban economy. The estimation of daytime population using a census data on commute, however, has its own limits, particularly when applying to the metropolis such as Seoul which is dominated by the service industry. This study suggests a pedestrian flow as another estimate of daytime population and presents a methodology of Seoul Pedestrian Flow Survey. The data of pedestrian flow gives us a view into hourly and spatial distribution of daytime population, which cannot be provided by the use of census data. In addition, comparing with a census-based daytime population on the borough level show some features of a pedestrian flow as another estimate of daytime population.

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Statistical Analysis of Ship Collision Accidents by Day and Night Times

  • Yoo, Sang-Lok;Jung, Cho-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.339-345
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    • 2018
  • Sunrise and sunset times differ depending on location and date. Previous studies conveniently but monotonously applied day and night times set up. This research defined the daytime and nighttime while considering the time of twilight according to the date and the location of ship collision accidents. Classifying the frequency of ship collision accidents with this standard, we conducted a chi-squared test for the difference between daytime and nighttime. The frequencies of ship collision accidents according to daytime and nighttime was compared by season, month, and time, and all of them showed statistically significant differences. The highest number of daytime ship collisions was 11.6 %, in June, and nighttime collisions peaked at 13.7 %, in December. The most frequent hour for daytime ship collisions was 0700h-0800h, at 10.2 %, and nighttime collisions peaked between 0400h-0500h, at 16.9 %. It is clear that the criteria used in previous studies cited was applied without any theoretical basis and likely only for the convenience of the researchers. It was found that results depend on what criteria are applied to the same research data. This study shows that statistical analyses of marine accidents, traffic volume, and congestion density should be carried out quantitatively while considering daytime and nighttime hours for each particular location and date.

Discriminant Analysis of Factors Affecting Traffic Accident Severity During Daytime and Nighttime (판별분석을 활용한 주·야간 고속도로 교통사고 영향요인 비교연구)

  • Kim, Kyoungtae;Lee, Soobeom;Choi, Jihye;Park, Sinae;Seo, Geumyeol
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2016
  • PURPOSES : Low visibility caused by dark surroundings at nighttime affects the likelihood of accidents, and various efforts, such as installing road safety facilities, have been made to reduce accidents at night. Despite these efforts, the nighttime severity index (SI) in Korea was higher than the daytime SI during 2011-2014. This study determined the factors affecting daytime and nighttime accident severity through a discriminant analysis. METHODS : Discriminant analysis. RESULTS : First, drowsiness, lack of attention, and lighting facilities affected both daytime and nighttime accident severity. Accidents were found to be caused by a low ability to recognize the driving conditions and a low obstacle avoidance capability. Second, road conditions and speeding affected only the daytime accident severity. Third, failure to maintain a safe distance significantly affected daytime accident severity and nonsignificantly affected nighttime accident severity. The majority of such accidents were caused by rear-end collisions of vehicles driving in the same direction; given the low relative speed difference in such cases, the shock imparted by the accidents was minimal. CONCLUSIONS : Accidents caused by a failure to maintain a safe distance has lower severity than do accidents caused by other factors.

Daytime Activities Support Plan for Meaningful Days of Adult Developmental Disabilities (성인 발달장애인의 의미 있는 낮 시간을 위한 주간활동서비스 지원 방안)

  • Choi, sun-kyoung
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 2019
  • Daytime activity services based on community care signify 'participatory integrated community care service' fused with diverse forms of community participation and care for adults with developmental disabilities after school graduation. They have the characteristics of lifelong care by life cycle in that adults with developmental disabilities 18 years and older receive daytime care and community participation programs. The purpose of this study is to examine community care based daytime activity services and to search for vitalization plans for daytime activity services that must unfold in the future for care programs that can be meaningful social participation opportunities for adults with developmental disabilities. Through literature review, we analyzed the state of daytime and social activity of adults with developmental disabilities as community care.Based on these findings, we devised ways to improve the daytime activities for the significant daytime of adults with developmental disabilities. At this, it proposed an increase of activity support vouchers, daytime activity service time expansions, expanded budget formulation for an increased number of daytime activity service subjects, expanded applications for the prioritization of the 20% of those with the most severe developmental disabilities and the composition of separate teams, and the role reinforcement of support centers for people with developmental disabilities.

Social Stratification of the Great Seoul Area: A Comparative Study Using Two Types of Population (상주인구와 주간인구의 계층구조 비교분석 : 서울을 중심으로)

  • 은기수
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.41-65
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    • 2001
  • This study aims a comparative analysis of social stratification in the Great Seoul area using two types of population. One type of population is a resident population(常住人口), and the other is a daytime population주간인구(晝間人口). In most demographic studies, only resident population have been considered. There has been less attention to daytime population. However, a resident population have a character of night population야간인구(夜間人口). In fact, most people move and work in the areas where they do not live in everyday life in the contemporary period, which indicates that the concept of a daytime population is more significant than that of a resident population. This study reveals that a number of people, on the one hand. come together to the downtown area to work or study while they live in other areas. On the other hand, resident population in downtown area do not move so much. When we analyze the social stratification structure of the Great Seoul area using a resident population, we find that the resident population of downtown area consist of those of low social status. On the contrary, the daytime population of downtown area in Seoul consist of those of high social status. This means that most people of high social status live in the southern area of Seoul or outside Seoul, but make a living in downtown area in everyday life. From this study, we find that the concept of a daytime population is as important as that of a resident population. The more residence becomes separate from work place, the more the significance of the concept of a daytime population grows in making policy as wall as in demographic studies. This study implies that we need to pay more attention to the concept of daytime population in demographic and sociological Studies.

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Assessment and Analysis of Noise Pollution in Cheongju Area (청주지역 환경소음도 조사 및 분석)

  • 연익준;주소영;김광렬
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.18-26
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    • 2001
  • The increase of economic growth has brought out the noise pollutions in city regions. To evaluate these problems, this study was investigated to assessment and analysis of noise pollutions at Cheongju area in winter and summer seasons. The noise levels were measured and analyzed at the general areas the 4 roadside areas (park, residential, commercial, and industrial area). As a result, following facts have been found. The equivalent sound levels(Leq) at general are in winter were 51.3∼78.2 dB(A) at the daytime and 41.1∼63.1 dB(A) at the nighttime And in summer there were 53.5∼77.3 dB(A) at the daytime and 41.9∼64.0 dB(A) at the nighttime, respectively. These values were higher than average value of Korea. At the roadside area, the values of Leq were 51.9∼72.8 dB(A) at the daytime, 44.3∼68.2 dB(a) at the nighttime in winter, and in summer there were 62.5∼73.1 dB(A) at the daytime and 50.4∼68.3 dB(A) at the nighttime, respectively. These values were lower than average value of Korea. The calculated traffic noise index(TNI) were 64.6∼93.6 at the daytime and 26.5∼106.6 at the nighttime in winter, In summer, there were 65.0∼90.7 at the daytime, and 32.3∼91.8 at the nighttime. The TNI values varied wide ranges at the nighttime according to traffic volumes.

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Relation of Health Promotion Behaviors and Metabolic Syndrome in Daytime Workers (주간근로자의 건강증진 실천행위와 대사증후군과의 관계)

  • Ko, Dae-Sik;Park, Bu-Yeon;Seok, Gyeong-Hyu
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.8 no.12
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    • pp.1941-1948
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    • 2013
  • This study aims discover the relations between health promotion behaviors and metabolic syndrome in daytime workers, in order to present importance for health promotion behaviors of patients with metabolic syndrome. Based on Year 1 data of the 5th Korean National Health Nutrition Examination Survey, emrolled were 1,034 daytime workers. This study discovered that the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome of the Korean daytime workers was significantly higher as they got older, they had less education level and smoking more, increasing number of health promotion practice behavior were decrease the metabolic syndrome prevalence. Effective appropriate lifestyle intervention were considered to management and prevention of daytime workers with the metabolic syndrome for low-cost and efficiently.

Sleep patterns and school performance of Korean adolescents assessed using a Korean version of the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale

  • Rhie, Seon-Kyeong;Lee, Si-Hyoung;Chae, Kyu-Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Korean adolescents have severe nighttime sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness because of their competitive educational environment. However, daytime sleep patterns and sleepiness have never been studied using age-specific methods, such as the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS). We surveyed the daytime sleepiness of Korean adolescents using a Korean translation of the PDSS. Methods: We distributed the 27-item questionnaire, including the PDSS and questions related to sleep pattern, sleep satisfaction, and emotional state, to 3,370 students in grades 5-12. Results: The amount of nighttime sleep decreased significantly with increasing age. During weekday nights, $5-6^{th}$ graders slept for $7.95{\pm}1.05h$, $7-9^{th}$ graders for $7.57{\pm}1.05h$, and $10-12^{th}$ graders for $5.78{\pm}1.13h$. However, the total amounts of combined daytime and nighttime sleep during weekdays were somewhat greater, $8.15{\pm}1.12h$ for $5-6^{th}$ graders, $8.17{\pm}1.20h$ for $7-9^{th}$ graders, and $6.87{\pm}1.40h$ for $10-12^{th}$ graders. PDSS scores increased with age, $11.89{\pm}5.56$ for $5-6^{th}$ graders, $16.57{\pm}5.57$ for $7-9^{th}$ graders, and $17.71{\pm}5.24$ for $10-12^{th}$ graders. Higher PDSS scores were positively correlated with poor school performance and emotional instability. Conclusion: Korean teenagers sleep to an unusual extent during the day because of nighttime sleep deprivation. This negatively affects school performance and emotional stability. A Korean translation of the PDSS was effective in evaluating the severity of daytime sleepiness and assessing the emotional state and school performance of Korean teenagers.

Response of Electrocardiogram of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to Electric Stimulus (전기자재에 대한 역돔의 심전도)

  • 한규환;양용림
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.278-283
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    • 2002
  • The response of electrocardiogram(ECG) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus [Linnaeus] was studied to the electric stimulus which was given to a certain part of body The experiments were performed in such a way that three levels of electric stimulus (20, 30, 40 Vp ; 10 msec) were given to fishes with electrode inserted into their bodies and then their ECGs were recorded continuously for 60 minutes in the water temperature of 16~18$^{\circ}C$ The results of the experiments were divided by day and night, and then were analyzed by experimental conditions as follows; 1. Nile tilapia reached a stable condition within 3 minutes after the electrode inserted into their bodies during anesthesia. In stable condition, the heart rates average was 45.8 beat/min during daytime and 45.0 beat/min at night. The action potentials average was 1.76 $mutextrm{V}$during daytime and 1.75 $mutextrm{V}$ at night. 2. The heart rates average by three levels of electric stimulus were \circled1 In the stimulus condition, the heart rates were 34.9 beat/min during daytime and 33.4 beat/min at night for the 20 Vp level, 36.8 bea/min during daytime and 36.0 beat/min at night for the 30 Vp level, and 38.0 beat/min during daytime and 36.4 beat/min at night for the 40Vp level. \circled2 In the recovery condition, the action potentials were 45.5 beat/min during daytime an 45.1 beat/min at night for the 20Vp level, 47.9 beat/min during daytime and 49.0 beat/min at night for the 30Vp level, and 51.4 beat/min during daytime and 50.7 beat/min at night for the 40Vp level 3. The action potentials average by three levels of electric stimulus were, \circled1 In the stimulus condition, action potentials were 2.54 $mutextrm{V}$ during daytime and 2.39 $mutextrm{V}$ at night for the 20 Vp level, 3.30 $mutextrm{V}$ during daytime and 2.30 $mutextrm{V}$ at night for the 30 Vp level and 6.05 $mutextrm{V}$ during daytime and 3.23 $mutextrm{V}$ at night for the 40 Vp level. \circled2 In the recovery condition, action potentials were 1.92 $mutextrm{V}$ during daytime and 1.95 $mutextrm{V}$ at night for the 20 Vp level and 2.78 $mutextrm{V}$ during daytime and 2.21 $mutextrm{V}$ at night for the 30Vp level and 3.6 0 $mutextrm{V}$ during daytime and 2.98 $mutextrm{V}$ at night for the 40 Vp level.