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Black gram (Vigna Mungo L.) foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

  • Dey, Avijit;De, Partha Sarathi;Gangopadhyay, Prabir Kumar
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.187-191
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    • 2017
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods: Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus${\times}$Bos indicus) cows (body weight $330.93{\pm}10.82kg$) at their second and mid lactation (milk yield $6.77{\pm}0.54kg/d$) were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum) to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results: The daily feed intake was increased (p<0.05) with the supplementation of black gram foliage. Although the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract did not vary (p>0.05), the fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05), which ultimately improved (p<0.05) the total digestible nutrients content of composite diet. Although, the average milk yield (kg/animal/d) and composition did not differ (p>0.05) among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98) was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion: Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders' animal production.

A Study on Ca Metabolism of College Women eating Usual Korean Diet (한국인의 일상식이를 섭취하는 여대생들의 칼슘 대사에 관한 연구)

  • 유춘희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1049-1055
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    • 1995
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of calcium supplementation on calcium metabolism in seven healthy college women, aged from 19 to 21 years old. For this purpose, metabolic studies were conducted for two weeks. During the first week, the subjects ate experimental diet which nutrients composition was similar to their usual intake. And during the consecutive second week, they ate the same experimental diet supplemented with 500mg of calcium daily. The results were summarized as follows ; 1) Fecal excretion of calcium increased significantly (P<0.05), but urinary excretion of that did not show any change after supplementary intake of calcium. 2) Mean apparent calcium absorption was 28.5% and retention was 182mg/day when subjects ate the experimental diet without calcium supplementation. Calcium retention was significantly ate the experimental diet without calcium supplementation. Calcium retention was decreased to 24.1% by additional intake of calcium. 3) Phosphorus balance did not show any change after additional intake of calcium. 4) Serum calcium level was also not changed by additional intake of calcium. 5) Serum calcium level increased significantly(P<0.05) but serum phosphorus level did not show any change after additional intake of calcium. The above results showed that supplementation of 500mg calcium daily can be helpful to increase calcium retention as well as the peak bone mass in young women eating usual Korean diets.

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A Study on the Relationship between Milk Consumption, Dietary Nutrient Intake and Physical Strength of Adolescents in Middle and Small-Sized Cities in Korea for Dietary Education of Home Economics Subject at Middle and High Schools (중등학교 가정교과 식생활교육을 위한 청소년의 우유 섭취, 영양 섭취 및 체력과의 관계 연구)

  • Kim, Sun-Hyo
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.159-167
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to investigate the relationship between milk consumption, dietary nutrient intake, and physical strength in Korean adolescents for dietary education of home economics subject at middle and high schools. Intake of milk and milk products, that of dietary nutrients, and physical strength records were surveyed for 298 high school students resided in small and medium-sized cities in Korea. Intake of milk and milk products was collected from three-day dietary survey, and daily dairy equivalent of calcium was calculated by dividing daily calcium intake(mg) from milk and milk products by calcium content(200 mg) of 200 mL milk. Dietary survey was performed during three days including two-weekdays and one-weekend by food record method. Dietary nutrient intake was analyzed by CAN-Pro 3.0. Physical strength records were offered from subjects' schools. Subjects were divided into low intake group(${\leq}0.29/d$), medium intake group(0.30-0.78/d) and high intake group(0.79-5.66/d) according to daily mean dairy equivalent of calcium taken by them, and most of them consumed milk and milk products less than '2' of the recommended value. Daily mean dairy equivalent of calcium was significantly related with high records of '50 m running' and 'stand long jump'(p<0.05), however it was not related with other records of physical strength. Intakes of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin E were significantly correlated with high record of '50 m running'(p<0.01). Intakes of nutrients were related with '50 m running' except fat were significantly correlated with high record of 'stand long jump'(p<0.05). Intakes of protein, phosphorus, iron, zinc, vitamin A, $B_6$ and E were significantly correlated with high record of 'long distance running'(p<0.05). In conclusion intake of milk and milk products was related with physical strength records('50 m running' and 'stand long jump') and intakes of most nutrients including energy nutrient, vitamin and mineral were correlated with physical strength records('50 m running', 'stand long jump' and 'long distance running') in Korean adolescents. Therefore, optimal consumption of milk and various nutrients for balanced nutrition during adolescents should be emphasized in dietary education of home economics subject for their strong physical strength.

Daily Intakes and the Blood Levels of Heavy Metals of the College Women Living in Choongchung-NamDo Area (충남지역 일부 여대생의 식이를 통한 중금속 섭취량과 혈중 중금속 농도)

  • 박수진;조여원
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2001
  • As the severity of environmental pollution increases, the foodstuffs are contaminated more the ever. There are 40 kinds of heavy metals that we are able to consume through the heavy metal contaminated-foodstuffs. Arsenic, lead, cadmium, and chromium out or them have been know to be a potential cause for a alzheimers disease, kidney diseases, and cancer. However, research data on the daily intakes of such heavy metals are limited. This study was performed to evaluate the daily intakes of nutrients and the dietary heavy metals of the college women living in Choongchung-NamDo Area, where had been reported to have high contents of heavy metals for the seafoods. We also investigated the blood levels of the heavy metals. The mean age, height, weight, BMI and percent ideal body weight(PIBW) of the subjects were 20$\pm$1.0yr, 158.4$\pm$0.7cm, 55.1$\pm$1.4kg, 22.4$\pm$.04, and 103.3$\pm$2.5 %, resp-ectivly. The mean of daily energy intake was 1,717.03$\pm$55.99kacl/day(86% of RDA for women). The ratio to energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein was 60: 24: 16. Daily intakes of Vit A, Vit B$_2$, CA, and Fe were under the RDA for those nutrients. The mean adequate ratio of the subjects was 0.92 . The daily intakes of heavy metal, such as As, Pb, Co, Cr and Mn , were 1.80$\pm$0.27mg, 75.21$\pm$4.12$\mu\textrm{g}$, 21.12$\pm$12.34$\mu\textrm{g}$, 60.07$\pm$6.24$\mu\textrm{g}$ and 6.23 $\pm$0.12mg respectively. the blood levels of As, Pb, Co, Cr and Mn were 16.10$\pm$2.10$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, 4.32$\pm$0.58$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, 0.02$\pm$0.01$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, 4.23$\pm$0.41$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, and 4.40$\pm$0.21$\mu\textrm{g}$/dl, respectively. In conclusion, daily intake of heavy metals for the college women living in Choongchung-NamDo area was lower than that of WHOs re-commendation, however, the blood levels of each heavy metals were higher than those of Japanese, american, and italian, There were no correlations between the dietary intakes and blood levels of each heavy metals. (Korean J Nutrition 34(1):48-53, 2001)

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A Survey of Nutrition and Blood Pictures of Senior High School Girls in a Korean Rural Area (일부(一部) 농촌지역(農村地域) 여고생(女高生)의 영양실태(營養實態)및 혈액상(血液像)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Chong-Mi;Chung, Kook-Rye
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 1985
  • The purpose of this study was to provide the proper nutritional management, and help to improve the health of girl students in a rural area. The nutritional survey, and blood sampling was conducted for five days, from April 26 to 30, 1983. The subjects of this survey were 110 students of girl's high school in Cheongyang area. The results were summerized as follows; 1) The daily food intake was 842.3g and that of animal foods was 34.4g. The average intake of calorie, protein, Ca, Fe, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin except Vit. A and Vit. C was below the RDA. Total calorie intake was l,802kcal. The ratio of carbohydrate, protein and fat was 81:11:8. 2) The extent of malnutrition was explained in terms of the amount of calorie, protein, Ca, Fe, and Vit. C. The predicted percentage of deficiency was 47.3% in calorie, 46.4% in protein, 61.8% in Ca, 48.2% in Fe, and 15.5% in Vit C of total subjects. 3) The mean values of Hgb, Hct and MCHC were 13.15g/dl, 39.57% and 33.2%, thus, the anemic prevalences were 10.9%, 2% and 78.2% respectively. The mean values of SI.TIBCand TS were $109.86{\mu}g$/61, $317.11{\mu}g/dl$ and 34.59%. 4) The correlation between the economic levels and nutrients intake was significant. Correlation between weight and nutrients intake was also significant but nutrients intake was not significantly correlated to blood contents.

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Development of Nutrition Education Material for Nutrient Intake and Prevention of Disease and the Effects of Nutrition Education for the Elderly - Focused on Items related to Health and Nutrients Intake - (노인을 위한 영양소 섭취와 질병예방에 대한 영양교육 자료 개발 및 영양교육의 효과 - 건강관련 사항과 영양소섭취량 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Myoung-Sook;Kim, Ju Yeon
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.467-478
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to develop nutrition education materials for nutrient intake and the prevention of disease for the elderly and to test their effects on the health-related matters and nutrition intakes after nutrition education. The mean age of the subjects was 71.6 years old. Diet adjustment for health increased a little bit from 2.2% to 11.1% after education but with no significance. The highest reported chronic illness was hypertension. The drinking of the subjects decreased a little bit after their education but wasn't significant. There were no significant changes to the frequency of food consumption across all the items after education, but there was a small increase to the daily intake of milk and dairy products and fruits and to a balanced diet three times per day. There was a significant increase in the intake of such nutrients as energy(p<0.05), protein(p<0.01), lipid(p<0.05), phosphorus(p<0.05), sodium (p<0.05), vitamin $B_2$(p<0.05), vitamin $B_6$(p<0.05), and niacin(p<0.001) after education. Those findings show that nutrition education provided to the elderly had no clear effects on the items that required memorization such as nutrition knowledge but did have some effects on dietary life. If the nutrition education requiring memorization is provided repeatedly with data supplemented, more effective nutrition management will be possible.

Nutrient Intakes and Obesity-Related Factors of Obese Children and the Effect of Nutrition Education Program (비만아동의 영양소 섭취실태, 비만관련 요인과 영양교육 효과)

  • 최현정;서정숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.477-484
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate nutrient intakes and obesity-related factors of obese children by interviewing the subjects aged from 11 to 13 in Daegu. The collected data were consisted of items on general characteristics, dietary behavior, nutrition knowledge and daily nutrient intakes of subjects. The subjects were classified into obese and non-obese control groups according to their relative weights. Frequency of skipping breakfast and eating rate of obese group were significantly higher than those of control group. There was no significant difference between obese and control group in the nutrition knowledge score. Except vitamins $B_1$, $B_2$ and iron, the average daily intakes of other nutrients in obese were greater than control group. The most contributing factor to BMI turned out to be cholesterol intake. After the nutrition education targeting obese children, their nutrition knowledge scores improved, but the dietary behavior score was not significantly changed. Therefore, childhood obesity may be prevented by continuous education programs including the behavior modification of obese children. (Korean J Community Nutrition 8(4) : 477-484, 2003)

A Study on Nutrient Intakes in Kang Won Province (강원도 일부지역의 영양섭취실태에 관한 연구)

  • 지의상;김동원
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 1990
  • The survey was conducted for the period from 25 th to 29 th July, 1990. The survey area were selected the mountain area in Kang Won Province. Intake of foods and nutrients of all members in the households surveyed by means of questionnaire was computed based on number of meals a day. On the other hand, daily intake of nutrients by an individual was calculated by sex, age and type of work based on the conversion rate of RDA (Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances for Adult). 1. Status of food intake. The average food intake per person per day in surveyed area was 1103.49 g. The total intake of food was consisted of 44.17% grains, 23.31% vegetables, 10.66% fruits, respectively. These findings led us to the conclusion that people in the surveyed area depended heavily on plant foods. 2. Status of nutrient intake, 1) The average intake of Calorie was 2567.54 Cal Per day, which was slightly higher than 2500 Cal of RDA. 2) The average Intake of protein was 82.92g per day, which was higher than 70g of RDA. Though the quantity was above the RDA, it was largely from plant foods 3) The average intake of calcium was 383.93 mg per day, which was much lower than 500 mg of RDA. 4) The average intake of iron was 11.88 me per day, which was nearly the same quantity as 10 mg of RDA. 5) Intake of vitamin group were high among the inhabitants than recommended by RDA 3. The Kinds of food intake The kinds of food intake in surveyed area were totally 66 different kinds. 4. Economic status. As for the education level, almost of the food handlers finished the primary school and the average monthly income was 364,600 in surveyed area. Households used gas(100%) for fuel.

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The Nutritional Intakes of the Stomach Cancer Patients in the Daegu and Gyeongbuk Areas, Korea (대구.경북지역 위암환자의 식품과 영양섭취상태)

  • 서수원;구보경;최용환;이혜성
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.202-219
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    • 2003
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate the food and nutrients intakes of stomach cancer patients in the Daegu and Gyeongbuk areas in order to find out the dietary risk factors for stomach cancer. The subjects of the study were 102 patients who had recently been diagnosed with stomach cancer at the Gyeongbuk National University Hospital. The control subjects were 105 people including patients from the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and healthy volunteers who did not have any gastrointestinal diseases. Estimates of nutrients intakes were determined from the food intake frequency data obtained by individual interviews using questionnaires. The mean daily calorie intakes of the control and the case groups were not significantly different. However the energy intake from protein was significantly higher in the case group as compared to the control group. With regard to the nutrients intakes, the case subjects consumed significantly higher amounts of nutrients such as protein, calcium, sodium, phosphorus and niacin than the control group. The case group showed a tendency to consume higher amount of protein, fat, calcium and iron from animal food sources. In the present study dietary factors which were suspected as being risk factors for stomach cancer included high consumption of animal foods, specific nutrients such as protein, sodium and niacin, specific food groups such as meat, spices, and low consumption of fruits and mushrooms. Therefore, it is recommended that more extensive and systematic surveys be conducted to confirm the risk factors for stomach cancer, taking into consideration the dietary cultural characteristics of this region. (Korean J Community Nutrition 8(2) : 202∼219, 2003).

Effect of Family Type on the Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status in Elderly Women (가족형태에 따른 여자 노인의 영양소 섭취 및 영양 상태에 대한 연구)

  • 이현숙;장문정
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.934-941
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    • 1999
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of family type on the nutrient intake and nutritional status in elderly women. Blood samples and anthropometric data of elderly women aged from 60 to 78 years were collected in 1996, who visited a health examination center in Seoul to screen their health status. They were divided into two groups by their family type, one was extended family(extended family elderly, n=37) and the other was independently living(independently living, n=29). Nutrients intake was measured by interview using a simplified questionaire. Albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride(TG), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, Ca, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase activity of serum were analyzed. Intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, Fe, vitamin A, niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin C were not different between the two groups. However, fat and Ca intakes were higher(p<0.05) in extended family elderly than indepen dently living elderly. There are no significant difference in hematocrit value and serum concentrations of Hb, TG, and Ca. Serum Mg and cholesterol levels tended to be higher in extended family elderly. However, serum albumin level was lower(p<0.05) in extended family elderly. These results show that the indepen dently living elderly women had intakes of daily energy, fat and Ca compared to the extended family elderly. Therefore, the nutritional education for the independently living elderly will be focused on the health risk resulted from less intakes of Ca and total energy.

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