• Title, Summary, Keyword: daily nutrients intake

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Seasonal and Regional Variations in Nutrient Intakes of Korean Adolescents as Assessed as 3-Day Dietary Records (식사기록법으로 조사한 일부 사춘기연령층의 영양소 섭취상태의 계절 및 지역별 비교연구)

  • 현화진;이정원
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.592-603
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    • 2001
  • Seasonal variations of nutrient intake ware evaluated through a 3-day dietary records in 196 Korean adolescents(86 males, 108 females) aged 13 - 15 years and living in urban and rural areas of Chungnam. The seasonal differences of nutrient intake were tested by repealed measure ANOVA. Comparing nutrient intakes among flour seasons using repealed measure ANOVA, mean values of daily intakes were higher in winter and autumn for most nutrients, and were the lowest in summer in the urban areas and in spring in rural areas. Girls recieved the largest amount of nutrients, except Ca and vitamin $B_12$, in winter and the lowest amount in summer, while in boys significant differences were not observed among the four seasons for meet nutrients, except fats, Mg, and vitamin E. Interestingly, the seasonal differences for many nutrients were more evident in rural areas than in urban areas. Vitamin A intake in urban areas was higher in winter and spring, while in rural oreas, in summer. Mean values of daily intakes as a percent of the RDA throughout the year in boys and girls ware 82.2% and 84.2% for energy and 88.9% and 82.7% for protein, respectively. Ca and vitamin A intakes were as low as 32.4% and 24.2% of the RDA in boys and 39.7% and 30.6% in girls. Intakes of Fe, Zn, folic acid and vitamin B$_{12}$ ranged from 40 - 60% of the RDA. The nutrients which showed the largest seasonal difference in the percent of RDA were vitamin E in boys and vitamin C, vitamin E, and Fe in girls. The index of nutritional quality(INQ) for Fe was significantly lower in autumn in both genders. The INQ for vitamin C in girls of both areas was much higher in winter. Annual mean adequacy ratio(MAR), an index of overall nutritional quality, ranged from 0.57 - 0.69, which was higher in winter than in other seasons. Conclusively, nutrient intakes of Korean adolescents showed seasonal variations, particularly in girls and in rural area. Thus, seasonal variations should be considered in the assessing nutritional status, particularly ill the rural areas of Korea.a.

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Seasonal Variation of Dietary Intake and Quality from 24 Hour Recall Survey in Adults Living in Yeonchon Area (연천 지역 성인의 계절별 영양소 및 식품섭취 비교 연구)

  • 백희영;송윤주
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.775-784
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    • 1998
  • This study was conduced to investigate the seasonal variation of dietary intake and quality obtained by 24 hour recall method in Korean adults living in rural area. The mean daily intakes of 4 seasons were 1,692kcal for energy, 63g(14.8% of energy) for protein, 30g(15.7% of energy) for fat, 257g(60.7% of energy) for carbohydrate. Mean daily intakes were significantly highest in winter for most of the nutrients, and lower in summer for energy, fat, calcium, iron. Mena adequacy ratio(MAR), an index of overall nutritional quality was 0.65 in winter, 0.67 in spring, 0.65 in summer and 0.72 in autumn and nutrient adequacy ratio(NAR) was significantly different fro vitamin C agmong different seasons. Subjects consumed usually 15.3 different foods in winter, 14.5 in summer, 13.9 in spring and 13.7 in autumn. The number of food consumed was positively correlated with intake of most nutrients, especially in autumn. For variety among the five major food groups(grain, meat, dairy, fruit, vegetable) with a dietary diversity scores(DDS) calculated, the average socre of DDS was 3 in all seasons and omitted food groups were usually dariy and fruit. In conclusion, dietary intake and quality of Korean adults were different according to seasons.

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Nutritional Intake Status of the Elderly Taking Free Congregate Lunch Meals Compared to the Middle-Income Class Elderly (무료점심급식을 이용하는 저소득층 노인의 영양소 섭취상태와 중류층 노인과의 비교)

  • 이정원;김경아;이미숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.594-608
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    • 1998
  • Comparative studies regarding the nutritional status of 93 home-living elderly people taking free congregate lunch meals(FL) and 87 middle income class elderly people(MI) were performed in Taejon city. Data was obtained from questionaires, anthropometry and interviews for the 24-hour dietary recall of 2 nonconsecutive days during August, 1996. The average age for FL was 75.8 years. The monthly familly income for FL belonged to the low-income class. FL females had lower heights and weights than MI females. The average daily nutritional intake of both FL and MI were low, particularly in FL whose %RDA of energy was 68.5%, protein 65%, Ca 29.6%, Fe 50.8%, vitamin A 34.5%, vitamin E 30.5%, riboflavin 40.6%, vitamin C 76.9%. MI's %RDA of energy was 76.4%, protein 80.a2%, Ca 48.1%, Fe 78.6%, vitamin A 67.3%, vitamin E 117.4%, riboflavin 45.6%, vitamin C 136.5%. Comsumption of Zn, vitamin $B_6$ and folic daily average. There was no nutrient having average INQ(Index of nutritional quality) over 1 for either group. The INQs for protein, Ca, Fe and vitamin A were 0.802, 0.377, 0.625 and 0.296 in FL, and 0.900, 0.601, 0.784 and 0.602 in MI, respectively. The MAR(Mean adequacy ratio) was low with the value of 0.500-0.518 in FL and 0.630-0.723 in MI. The percentage of main nutrients from lunch was the highest among the three meals for FL males, while that from breakfast was the highest for MI. Free lunches taken by FL supported higher percentages of main nutrients than home-lunches taken by MI. Eating-out was done more frequently by MI than by FL and that eating-out brought them more nutritional intake. The above data indicated that the dietary nutritional intake status of the FL elderly was very poor in both quantity and quality and that free congregate lunch significantly contributed to the daily nutrient-intake for the FL elderly.

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Nutrition Survey in Younghung Island (영흥도 주민의 영양실태조사)

  • Kim, Joung-Kyun;Min, Kyung-Chan;Yi, Taek-Ku
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 1978
  • Younghung-myun is located on a small island under the jurisdiction of Gyunggi province. The island occupying a total of approximately 40sq km is populated by 5,850 people. Two areas within the island were selected for this survey; 1) Nae 4-ri in Younghung-myun (mainly engaged in farming) 2) Nae 5-ri in Younghung-myun (mainly engaged in fishery) The survey was conducted for the period of 5-12 august 1978. Intake of foods and nutrients of all members in the households surveyed by means of questionnaire was computed based on number of meals a day. On the other hand, daily intake of nutrients by an individual was calculated by sex, age and type of work based on the conversion rate of RDA (Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances for Adult). The results obtained are summarized; 1. Status of food intake Average daily food intake of an individual in the surveyed areas was 1,018gm. Out of 1,018gm above, 490gm which represent 48% of the total intake were from cereals, grains or other vegetative products. Ratio of animal-origin foods was determined as only 16% of the total intake. These findings led us to the conclusion that people in the surveyed areas live heavily on vegetative foods. 2. Status of nutrients intake 1) Overall average intake of calorie by an individual in the surveyed areas was 2026.3Kcal per day. On the other hand, average calorie intake by adult persons was 2,491.3 Kcal per day, which is lower than 2,700 Kcal recommended by RDA by approximately 7.7%. Furthermore, it was observed that most of 2,491.3 Kcal obtained by adult persons was from such vegetative foods as cereals, grains, ect. 2) Overall average intake of protein by an individual in the areas surveyed was 52.2gm per dar. On the other hand, average protein intake among adult persons was 67.7gm a day, which indicates lower intake of protein than 80gm of RDA. It was also found that 84.3% of the protein intake by an adult person was of plant origin. 3) Overall average of fat intake by an individual in the areas surveyed was 18.9gm per day, whereas average fat intake among adult persons was 23. 2gm a day. It was brought to our attention that the average fat intake by adult persons is much lower than 36gm recom mended by RDA. 4) Average calcium intake among adult persons in the areas surveyed was 457.1mg per day, that is somewhat lower than 500mg in RDA. However, average iron intake among adult persons in the areas was slightly higher with 10.5mg a day than 10mg of RDA. 5) With exception with vitamin C, intake of all other vitamin groups, such as vit. A, vit. $B_1$, vit. $B_2$ and niacin, were lower among the inhabitants than recommended by RDA. 3. Economic status Average schooling years of food handlers was 6.5 years with average monthly income of \89,000 in the areas surveyed. Petroleum was used by majority of the households for fuel.

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A Study on the Nutrients Intake and Serum Lipid Pattern in Smoking College Men (흡연 남자 대학생의 영양소 섭취 및 혈중 지질양상에 관한 연구)

  • 이성숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.489-498
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    • 1996
  • In order to investigate the effect of smoking on serum lipid pattern and nutrient intake, the subjects, 134 smokers and 113 nonsmokers, were selected from college men student in Kwangju area. We examined the serum lipid pattern of 15 smokers and 18 non-smokers who agreed to venipunture among the subjects and also examined nutrients intake. The results obtained were as follows ; Mean concentrations of 새심 cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were 187$\pm$12.1mg/dl, 41.5$\pm$1.7mg/dl, and 87.3$\pm$7.4mg/dl in smokers and 182.6$\pm$8.2mg/dl, 45.5$\pm$1.5mg/dl, and 96.3$\pm$4.3mg/dl in nonsmokers, respectively. The total energy intake was 2264kcal/day and mean constitutional rationof protein, fat and carbohydrate was 12.7 : 24.8 : 62.5 in smokes and 2287kcal/day, 14.1 :25.4 : 60.5 in nonsmokers, respctively. Mena daily intakes of calcium, iron, vitamin C and vitamin A were 612.2mg, 15.7mg, 48.2mg 2029.4 IU in smokers and 629.4mg, 15.3mg, 68.4mg 2339.1 IU in nonsmokers, respectively. Vitamin C intake was significantly different at p<0.05 between the smokers and nonsmokers. Intakes of cholesterol, SFA and MUFA were not significantly different between the two groups. Mean daily PUFA intake of smokers and nonsmokers were 5.5g and 6.9g respectively. PUFA intake was significantly different at p<0.05 between the two groups. The results of this study showed that smoking have a tendency to raise coronary heart disease occurrence in the respect of serum lipid levels and vitamin C, PUFA intake were significantly different.

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Relationships between Nutrient Intake Status and Sugar-containing Food Intake of Elementary School Students in Daegu-Kyungbook Area (대구경북지역 초등학생들의 영양소 섭취상태와 가당식품 섭취와의 관련성)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Jung;Oh, Hyun-Mee;Cho, Young-Ji;Yoon, Jin-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.573-581
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the association of nutrients intake with sugar-containing food consumption of elementary school students in Daegu-Kyungpook area. We analyzed the dietary information from 164 elementary school students (82 boys, 82 girls) participated in "Dietary Intake Survey of Infants, Children and Adolescents" conducted by Korea Food & Drug Administration and Korea Health Industry Development Institute. Information on habitual dietary intake of sugar-containing foods was collected by food frequency questionnaires. Daily nutrients intake of each subject was calculated from 24-hour recall data for two non-consecutive days. As a result of average daily intake of major foods of elementary school students was analyzed from 1 to 50 ranking that show up higher ranking of white milk and white rice but include many kind of sugar-containing food. Dietary intake of energy, carbohydrate, Ca, P, Fe and riboflavin were significantly lower for girls with higher sugar-containing food frequency scores. Significantly negative associations between Index of Nutrition Quality (INQ) and sugar-containing food frequency scores were observed for calcium (r = -0.34) and iron (r = -0.32) among girls. Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) was significantly lower for girls with higher sugar-containing food frequency scores (r = -0.26). Our results indicated that nutrition education for elementary school students should focus on the importance of reducing the sugarcontaining food consumption with more attention for girls.

Relationship between Nutrients intake and Anthropometric indices using '98 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (24시간 회상법으로 조사된 영양섭취 상태와 신체계측결과 비교분석: '98 국민 건강,영양 조사)

  • Sim, Jae-Eun;Mun, Hyeon-Gyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.174-183
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    • 2004
  • This analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and anthropometric indices using the data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, '98 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey. Subjects were selected by stratified multistage probability sampling design and completed dietary questionnares including food intakes for one day by 24-hour recall method. For this analysis, 6566 subjects were selected by age(over 20 years old). For anthropometry, height, weight, and waist- and hip- circumference were measured. They were classified by body mass index(BMI, weight(Kg)/$height^2 $($m^2 $)) and waist-hip ratio(WHR, waist circumference(Cm)/hip circumference(Cm)). The nutrients intake of subjects were compared with the recommended daily allowances(RDA). Mean adequacy ratio(MAR) was calculated. Mean heights, weights, BMIs were higher in the groups with nutrient intake over 125% of RDA than the lower intake groups for most nutrients. However, Mean WHR was the highest in the groups with nutrient intake under 75% of RDA for most nutrients excluding iron intake of women aged 20-64 years. Among women aged 20-64 years, means of MAR were 0.71 for obese individuals(BMI>30), 0.72 for subjects with underweight(BMI<18.5), and 0.76 for subjects with normal weight(18.5$\leq$BMI<25). Normal subjects has statistically significantly higher MAR than those of other groups. However, among elderly people aged over 65 years, obese group had the highest MAR, 0.68. Women with abdominal obesity(WHR>0.9) had lower MAR, 0.71 than those with normal weight(MAR=0.76). From these results, obesity and abdominal obesity seems to be the results of malnutrition including both undernutrition and overnutrition rather than simple problem of excess energy intake. Obesity in elderly people needs to be handled differently from adults.

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Assessment of Dietary Intake Obtained by 24 -hour Recall Method in Adults Living in Yeonchon Area(1) ; Assessment Based on Nutrient Intake (24시간 회상법으로 조사한 연천지역 성인의 식생활 평가(1) : 영양소 섭취평가)

  • 이심열
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.333-342
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    • 1998
  • To assess the nutrient intake and diet quality of Korean adults living in rural area, dietary survey with one day 24 -hour recall method was given to 2037 subjects over 30 years of age living in Yeoncho-gun, Kyungki province of Korea, together with health survey. The mean daily energy intake was 1583 kcal, with 65.4% of energy intake being supplied by carbohydrate, 15.9% by protein and 18.7% by fat. Eighty percents of total food intake were supplied by vegetable food and the rest in the form of animal food . As well as insufficiencies in calcium and iron intake, the bioabailability of calcium and iron is considered to have been low because most of those intakes came form plant origins. For most nutrients except phosporous, proportions of subjects with intake levels less than 75% of RDA was over 40% and highest in the elderly. Those proportion of low intake among female were higher than those among male. The mean adequacy ration(MAR) , an index of overall dietary quality was 0.62 for females and 0.68 for males and decreased with increase of age. The indexes of nutritional quality (INQ) were over 1 for most nutrients except 0.06 of vitamin A, 0.73 of calcium and 0.85 of vitamin C, Nutrient intake levels less than 75% of RDA may be appropriate as a criteria for insufficiency of nutrient intake. Based on these results, it is evident that some of adults in rural areas did not consume enough nutrients, especially vitamin A, calcium and vitamin B$_2$, and that the dietary intake of female and the elderly was not adequate .

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A Study on Nutritional Intakes in Elderly People in Wando Area (완도지역 성인 및 노인의 영양소 섭취 실태조사)

  • Cha, Bok-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.880-891
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate nutrients intakes and nutritional quality of Adults and Elderly People in an island area (Wando). A three-day dietary intakes survey, using a 24 hour recall method was obtained from 187 subjects aged 46 to 84 (mean age 65.3) living in an island area (Wando). Nutient intakes were analyzed using CAN-Pro soft program and compared to Korean RDA. The quality of nutrients was assessed by analyzing nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and index of nutritional quality (INQ). The average daily mean energy intakes were 1869.0 kcal for males and 1943.9 kcal for females, respectively. Daily intakes of protein for males and females were 28.0 and 30.4 g and those of fat were 31.5 and 28.51 g, respectively. Nutrient consumed below $75\%$ of Korean RDA was protein, vitamin A, Ca and Zn in both males and females. Average CPF ratio of males and females were 78.8 : 6.0 : 15.1 and 80.0 : 6.4 13.4, respectively. Energy intake ratio from protein was significantly higher in over 60 years males. Carbohydrate dependency decreased with age. Protein dependency increased with age. Nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) of energy, protein vitamin A and vitamin E were increased with age in males. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR), an index of overall dietary quality, were not significantly different by age group. Average MAR for males and females was 0.77 and 0.78, respectively. The index of nutritional quality (INQ) showed the tendency to decrease with age. Especially, there were significantly decreases in INQ of all nutrients, except protein, with age. Based on these results, it is evident that people in the island area did not consume enough nutrients. Specially, dietary intake of protein, vitamin A, vitamin E, and Ca were not adequate. (Korean J Community Nutrition 10(6) : $880\∼891$, 2005)

A Study on Nutrients Intake and Serum Calcium Concentration in Perimenopausal Women (갱년기 여성의 영양섭취상태와 혈청 Ca 농도에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Sun-Myeong;Kim, Hyeon-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.361-372
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the status of calcium intake and serum calcium level in perimenopausal women. The age distribution of the subjects was 49-55 years. Daily nutrient intake and dietary sources of calcium were analyzed by a convenient method and a food frequency questionnaire. At the same time, fasting blood samples were collected and serum calcium concentration was measured. The BMD of subjects was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Fifty percent of the subjects under 50 years of age ($\leq$49 yr group) and 66.9% of the subjects from 50 years and up ($\geq$50 yr group) were classified as osteopenia or osteoporosis. Intake of energy (p<0.001), protein (p<0.05), fat (p<0.05), calcium (p<0.01) was significantly different between $\leq$49 yr group and $\geq$50 yr group. Mean daily intake of calcium was much lower than the Korean RDA : 94.9% in $\leq$49 yr group and 87.4% in $\geq$50 yr group. The average concentration of total calcium in serum was within the normal range in $\leq$49 yr group. Serum calcium concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) different between $\leq$49 yr group and $\geq$50 yr group. It was noteworthy that serum calcium concentration was positively related to the intake of protein, fat and calcium. Lettuce, sea mustard, bean-curd, anchovy, radish and perilla leaf was included among the major sources of dietary calcium. Further investigation is necessary to make sure of the relations between BMD and serum calcium level and calcium intake.

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