• Title, Summary, Keyword: daily nutrients intake

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A Study on the Riboflavin Nutritional Status by Biochemical Tests in Healthy Female College Students in Korea (생화학적(生化學的) 측정방법(測定方法)에 의한 우리나라 여대생(女大生)들의 리보플라빈 영양상태(營養狀態)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Il-Eun;Paik, Hee-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.272-282
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    • 1985
  • A dietary survey by 3-day food record, clinical examination, urinary riboflavin excretion, and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient ( EGRAC ) were measured on forty -eight female college students residing in Seoul. Thirty -one students were on normal diet and seventeen were lacto - ovo vegetarians. The results are as following : (1) Students had lower intakes of energy, similar intakes of protein and higher intake of riboflavin compared to Korean RDA for their age group. Vegetarians were lower in energy and protein intakes but were similar in RF compared to omnivores. (2) Mean EGRAC values were $1.24{\pm}0.03$ for all subjects, $1.19{\pm}0.04$ for omnivores, and $1.32{\pm}0.06$ for vegetarians. Percentages of subjects with EGRAC values above 1.2 were 65% in all subjects, 55% in omnivores, and 82% in vegetarians. Therefore, it was concluded that vegetarians were more severe in biochemical lesions than omnivores despite the fact that their RF intakes were similar to omnivores. (3) Eighteen students who had EGRAC values above 1.2 were given daily supplementation of 5mg RF for one week and EGRAC determination was repeated. They all returned to normal range. (4) Correlation analyses showed that there was no significant correlation between the EGRAC values and dietary intakes of nutrients. Possible explanations for this were given. From these results, it was concluded that even though dietary RF intakes of the subjects were higher than Korean RDA levels, biochemical deficiency among the subjects was remarkably high if the criteria of EGRAC > 1.2 were used. More investigations are necessary to establish a criteria for biochemical deficiency and RDA levels of riboflavin for Koreans.

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Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intakes of Elders Who Participated in MOW and Free Congregate Meal Services (가정배달급식과 무료 회합급식 이용 노인의 건강 및 영양섭취상태 비교)

  • Chung, Eun-Jung;Shim, Eu-Gene
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.11
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    • pp.1399-1408
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to compare health and nutritional status of 45 home-living elderly people receiving free Meals on Wheels (MOW) (13 men, 32 women) and 81 low income class elderly people receiving free congregate meals (CM) (10 men, 71 women) served in Seoul. Data were obtained from questionnaires, anthropometry and interviews for the 24-hour dietary recall methods. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age and body mass index. Education level, type of housing, family type and income of the two groups also were not significantly different. In MOW, frequencies of exercise were lower while the prevalence of stroke, respiratory disease and loneliness were higher, compared with the CM. The scores of ADL, IADL and food habit of MOW were lower than those of CM. The average daily nutritional intake of both MOW and CM were as a whole under the DRI for Koreans. Energy and macro-nutrient intakes of MOW were tended to be lower than CM (except protein intakes for female). Ca, K, vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, vitamin C and folate intakes of MOW were less than 50% of DRI. Percentages of subjects consuming energy less than 75% of EER and 4 nutrients intakes less than EAR were higher in MOW (42.2%) than in CM (1.2%). Our results indicated that dietary nutritional status of MOW was very poor, especially in the case of female elderly groups. For the welfare of the home-living elderly people receiving free MOW, meal service programs should be improved in quality of diet by national supports.

Effects of Fermented feed with Agricultural by-products on the Growth Performance and Nutrients Utilization in Fattening Korean Black Goats (농산부산물 발효사료 급여가 비육흑염소의 생산성 및 영양소 이용율에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Sun-Ho;HwangBo, Soon;Kim, Sang-Woo;Cho, Young-Moo;Yoo, Yeoung-Hee;Kim, Tae-Il;Kim, Maeong-Joung;Lee, Sang-Min;Choi, Chang-Weon;Seo, Byeong-Bu;Jo, Ik-Hwan;Hong, Seonng-Gu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the feeding fermented agro-industrial by-products on estimating the productivity and nutrient utilization of fattening black goats. Four experimental groups were set up with each of 6 animals for a 30 days feeding trial on growth performance and 12 black goats on nutrient digestibility were allocated to 4 groups of 3 animals each by latin-square design, control (offered concentrate and rice straw) and 3 treatment groups (offered fermentation feed and rice straw). Average daily gain (ADG) showed a significant high in control group, T3 was lower than other groups (p<0.05). DM and OM intake (kg/head) were 718.8, 680.9 g and 634.2~699.2 g, 602.8~660.4 g for control and treatment groups, respectively. As increasing of rice bran content was decreased feed intake. Digestibility of DM and OM for control group were significantly higher than treatment groups (p<0.05), and T3 treatment group with 30% rice bran was the lowest among treatment groups. Nitrogen retention was significantly higher in control and T1 groups. Thus, these results showed that productivity and nutrient utilization were similar between fermentation feeds with agricultural by-products and commercial feeds. However, this study was suggested that it must contain less than 5.0% crude fat because of feed efficient was decreased by increasing of rice bran content.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Lactobacillus on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Intestinal Microflora, and Fecal $NH_{3}$ Emission in Laying Hens (산란계의 생산성, 영양소 소화율 분의 암모니아 발생량 및 장내 미생물 변화에 대한 유산균의 급여 효과)

  • 김상호;유동조;박수영;이상진;최철환;나재천;류경선
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.213-223
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of feeding various Lactobacillus on production performance, nutrients digestibility, intestinal microflora, and fecal $NH_{3}$ gas emission in laying hens. Three hundred and sixty ISA Brown layers, 21 weeks of age, were randomly allotted to nine treatments, with low replicates per treatment. Nine treatments consisted of Control(no Lactobacillus), Lactobacillus crispatus avibrol(LCB: KFCC-11195), Lactobaciilus reuteri avibro2(LRB: KFCC-11196), Lactobacillus crispatus avihenl(LCH: KFCC-11197), Lactobacillus vaginalis avihen2(LVH: KFCC-11198). Each Lactobacillus was added at two levels ($10^{4}$and $10^{7}$ cfu/g diets). Egg production, and egg weight were measured daily. A metabolism trial was conducted following the 12-week feeding trial, during which egg qualities, intestinal microflora and fecal $NH_{3}$ gas emission were examined. Egg production and daily egg mass improved significantly by the addition of various Lactobacillus(P<0.05), of which effect was more notable during the latter part of the feeding trial. But, no significant differences were found among Lactobacillus strains and between two levels of supplementation. Egg weight and feed intake showed no difference among all treatments. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed lactobacillus was significantly improved compared to that of the Control(P<0.05), but not different among lactobacillus treatments. Digestibility of crude protein, ether extract and crude ash improved significantly in lactobacillus treatments(P<0.05). However, there were not statistically different by adding levels and strains. Total counts of Lactobacillus spp. in ileum of layers fed Lactobacillus were significantly higher than that of the control, but no consistent trend was found in cecum. There were no significant differences in intestinal yeast and anaerobes counts among all treatments. The Lactobaciilus supplementation did not exert my effect on the eggshell quality and Haugh unit. Fecal $NH_{3}$ gas emission decreased significantly in Lactobacillus treatments, and showed no difference between the two supplementation levels. From the result of this study, it could be concluded that dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus, regardless of their species, Improves the laying performance and decreases the fecal ammonia gas emission. The proper level of supplementation appears to be $10^{4}$ cfu/g of diet.

Effects of Probiotics as an Alternative for Antibiotics on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Noxious Gas Emission and Fecal Microbial Population in Growing Piglets (항생제 대체 생균제가 자돈의 생산성,영양소 이용률, 유해가스 발생량 및 분내 미생물 수에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Chung, Heung-Woo;Shim, Kum-Seob;Park, Seung-Young;Ju, Jong-Cheol;Song, Jae-Jun;Lee, Kyung-Ho;Park, Joong-Kook;Park, Do-Yun;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.527-539
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of probiotics as an alternative for antibiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, noxious gas emission and fecal microbial population in growing piglets. A total of 96 piglets ($22.5{\pm}1.3$kg average body weight) were allotted to 3 different treatment groups and replicated 4 times with 8 piglets per replicate in randomized complete block design. Treatments were T1) (Control, basal diet+0.2% antibiotics), T2) 0.2% probiotics complex and T3) 0.3% Bacillus probiotics. During the whole experiment period, there were no differences (p>0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency. However, digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen free extract and crude ash were showed higher in probiotics groups (T2 and T3) than those of control. In noxious gas emission, ammonia, amine, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in T2 and T3 treatments compared to those in control. Moisture content of feces was not significantly different among treatments. The colony forming units (CFU) of total bacteria, E. coli and thermoduric bacteria in feces were significantly different among treatments. The CFU of total bacteria, E. coli and thermoduric bacteria in T3 treatment were reduced by feeding probiotics B. From this study, we suggest that probiotics A and B are likely able to improve the growth performance and nutrients digestibility, reduce noxious gas emission and change the fecal microbial composition in growing piglets.

Effect of Continuous Feeding of Probiotics on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Urea Nitrogen and Immune Responses in Pigs (지속적인 생균제의 첨가가 돼지의 성장, 영양소 이용율, 혈중 요소태 질소 및 면역능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Kil, D.Y.;Lim, J.S.;Tian, J.Z.;Kim, B.G.;Kim, K.S.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of continuous feeding of probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen(BUN) and immune responses in pigs. Treatments were 1) Control(basal diet), 2) P-O.l(basal diet + 0.1% probiotics) and 3) P-0.2(basal diet + 0.2% probiotics). In growth trial, a total of sixty pigs(6.17 $\pm$ 0.45 kg average body weight) weaned at 21 days of age were used. All pigs were assigned according to sex and body weight, and each treatment had 5 replicates of 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block(RCB) design. During 0${\sim}$8 weeks, there was no significant difference in average daily gain(ADG), average daily feed intake(ADFI) and gain:feed ratio(GfF) among treatments. During 9 - 20 weeks, ADG was improved significantly in pigs fed P-O.I or P-0.2 diets when compared to the pig fed control diet(P <0.05), but there was no significant difference in ADFI and GfF ratio. During overall period, ADG, ADFI and GfF ratio were not significantly different among treatments. In the first metabolic trial(17.93 $\pm$1.45kg average body weight), apparent digestibility of OM, protein, fat in pigs fed P-O.l and P-0.2 diets were greater than in pigs fed control diet(P <0.05) and ash digestibility in pigs fed P-0.2 diet was significantly higher than in pigs fed control diet(P <0.05). Calcium digestibility in pigs fed P-0.2 diet was significantly higher than in pigs fed control and P-O.I diets(P <0.05). Fecal-N excretion was lower in pigs fed P-O.! and P-0.2 diets than in pigs fed control(P <0.05). In the second metabolic trial(41.80 $\pm$ 2.68kg average body weight), there was no significant difference among treatments in apparent digestibility of nutrients and N-retention. In blood assay for the BUN and immune responses investigations, there was no significant difference among treatments during overall period of experiment. Therefore, this experiment suggested that probiotics supplementation could improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility of pigs.

Study on Comparison of Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency and Carcass Characteristics for Holstein and F1(Holstein ♀ x Hanwoo ♂) Steers and Heifers (Holstein과 교잡종 거세우 및 처녀우의 성장발육, 사료이용성 및 도체특성 비교 연구)

  • Kang, S.W.;Oh, Y.K.;Kim, K.H.;Choi, C.W.;Son, Y.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.593-606
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    • 2005
  • Present study was conducted to investigate the optimal feeding levels for producing the high quality meat on the basis of the information deriving from the comparison of the growth performance and carcass characteristics among breeds(Holstein vs F1, Holstein♀×Hanwoo♂), sex(steer vs heifer) and interaction between breed and sex. Thirty two animals on 4 treatments(i.e. eight head each) were used for 540 days from seven to 24 months of age. The results obtained are summarized as follows; the range of average daily gains was 0.733 to 1.018, 0.994 to 1.255, 0.947 to 1.259 and 0.736 to 0.824kg for the growing, the early-fattening, the mid- fattening and the finishing periods, respectively. The range of average daily gains for the entire period was 0.882 to 1.061kg. The gains were higher for Holstein(7.3%) and the steers(10.5%) than F1 and the heifers, respectively. Concentrates and total digestible nutrients intakes per kg gain were higher for Holstein and the heifers than F1 and the steers, respectively. These findings may indicate that feed utilization is higher for Holstein than F1, and higher for the steers than the heifers. In carcass characteristics, back fat thickness was thicker for Holstein than F1, and rib-eye area was smaller for Holstein than F1. The rib-eye area per kg carcass weight was larger for F1 and the heifers than Holstein and the steers, respectively. Meat color was better for Holstein than F1, but the sex distinction did not show any differences. In physicochemical properties of longissimus dorsi, shear force, cooking loss, water holding capacity and the panel test scores of juiciness, tenderness and flavor for F1 and the heifers were better than those for Holstein and the steers, respectively. According to the above results, we may conclude that F1 and heifers rather than Holstein and steers are recommended for high quality meat production. In steers and heifers of Holstein and F1, the optimal feeding levels may be 1.9% of apparent body weight for concentrates and 25% of concentrates intake for rice straw.

Studies on the Dietary Self-selection by Egg-type Layers (난용계(卵用鷄) 산란기(産卵期)의 선택채식(選擇採食)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, K.H.;Lee, D.S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 1994
  • In order to get information for the improvement of feeding systems of egg-type layers, a dietary self-selection study was conducted. Corn diet, soybean meal diet, wheat bran diet, soybean meal+fish meal diet, and limestone diet were individually prepared for self-selection regime. Forty brown layers were offered either a control laying diet (C) or one of the 3 self-selection regime consisted of corn-soybean meal-limestone diet ($T_1$), corn-soybean meal-wheat bran-limestone diet ($T_2$) and corn-soybean meal+fish meal-wheat bran-limestone diet ($T_3$) for one wk each at 31 wk and 41 wk of age. In all dietary treatments, most of the eggs were laid from 0700 h 1300 h and hens consumed more feed, energy and protein on egg forming days than on non-forming days. On egg forming days, hens fed self-selection regime consumed less energy and protein than those fed control diet. On egg forming days, the consumption of feed, energy and protein increased continuously from 1000 h 2200 h in the control diet group but they decreased during the last 3 hours from 1900 h to 2200 h in self-selection regime groups. Up to 1600 h, calcium intake of the self-selection regime groups were much less than that of the control group but after that time, they increased markedly and were much more than that of the control group. The results of the study suggest that the practical self-selection regime for layers should be developed to meet the daily cyclic requirement for nutrients without consuming an excess energy and protein at certain times of the day.

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Prevalence of Constipation, Bowel Habits and Nutrient Intakes of College Students in Incheon Area (인천지역 대학생의 변비유병률, 배변습관 및 영양소섭취)

  • You, Jeong-Soon;Chin, Jeong-Hee;Chang, Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.702-713
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of constipation, bowel habits and nutrient intakes of college students. The subjects were 353 college students (166 males and 187 females) aged 19 to 29 years in Incheon area. The subjects were asked about bowel habits and dietary intake using questionnaires during march, 2008 and the prevalence of functional constipation (FC) was based on the Rome II criteria. The prevalence of FC in male and female students was 12.7% and 28.9%, respectively. The prevalence of self-reported constipation in male and female students was 12.0% and 36.9%, respectively. Both were higher in female students compared to male students. Among the subjects that have self-reported constipation, proportions of FC were 35.0% in male students and 55.1% in female students. Of subjects that did not self-reported constipation, the proportions of FC were 9.6% in male students and 13.6% in female students. Over 90% of respondents that self-reported constipation in male students, had neither visited a hospital and nor used laxatives or functional foods for constipation relief. Seventy five point three percent of male students, and 40.1% of female students, had a defecation frequency of over 5 times per week (p < 0.001). Ratios intaken under the estimated average requirement (EAR) of Vit A, Vit C, folic acid and Ca were over the 50% regardless of functional constipation. Mean daily consumption of total dietary fiber was 15.0 g/day in male students and 13.5 g/day in female students. According to these results, both functional constipation and self-reported constipation are more frequent in female college students and further studies are required in case-control study and related to psychological factors as well as nutrients to relieve of constipation.

Breakfast Consumption Pattern, Diet Quality and Health Outcomes in Adults from 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey (2001년 국민건강영양조사에 나타난 아침식사유형에 따른 식사의 질과 건강상태)

  • Shim, Jae-Eun;Paik, Hee-Young;Moon, Hyun-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.451-462
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate breakfast consumption pattern in relation to diet quality and health outcomes of Korean adults. Data are from 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary information of 3406 adults aged $30{\sim}49$ years and their socio-demographic characteristics, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements were analyzed. According to the breakfast consumption of the subjects, they were classified to breakfast skippers and eaters and the eaters' breakfast staple types were defined as RICE, BREAD, NOODLES, MIXED (mixed types including several grain-based dishes), and OTHERS. The proportions of breakfast consumption patterns were 18.4% for skippers, 71.1% for RICE, 2.6% for BREAD, 1.6% for NOODLES, 4.0% for MIXED, and 2.4% for OTHERS. Breakfast skippers had lower daily nutrients intake than breakfast eaters but their health outcomes did not differ from those of eaters. Instead, men with BREAD pattern had higher blood cholesterol and women in NOODLE pattern had higher blood glucose and lower HDL cholesterol. The BREAD pattern breakfast had higher energy contribution from fat and lower nutrient densities and the subjects in BREAD pattern had higher level of household income. Men's BREAD pattern breakfast consisted more animal products than that of women. There was high probability of undernutrition among women in NOODLE pattern and their mean household income was the lowest. From these results, in Korea, breakfast staple types have different food patterns and there was need for developing healthy food patterns appropriate to each staple type. The breakfast consumption pattern had influences on nutrient adequacy of the diet and health outcomes and seemed to represent socio-economic status. These could be used in doing nutrition education in community.