• Title, Summary, Keyword: cytogenetic response

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PHA-Induced Peripheral Blood Cytogenetics and Molecular Anslysis : a Valid Diagnostic and Follow-up Modality For Acute Primyelocytic Leukemia Patients Treated With ATRA and/or Arsenic Tri-oxide

  • Baba, Shahid M;Azad, Niyaz A;Shah, Zaffar A;Afroze, Dil;Pandith, Arshad A;Jan, Aleem;Aziz, Sheikh A;Dar, Fayaz A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1999-2006
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    • 2016
  • Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is characterized by the reciprocal translocation t(15;17) (p22;p12) resulting in the PML-$RAR{\alpha}$ fusion gene. A dual diagnostic and follow up approach was applied including cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and detection dg PML-$RAR{\alpha}$ chimeric transcripts by molecular means. Purpose: Conventional cytogenetics involving bone marrow is beset with high probability of poor metaphase index and was substituted with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced peripheral blood culture based cytogenetic analysis as a diagnostic & follow up modality in APML patients of Kashmir (North India). Both qualitative (RT-PCR) and quantitative (Q-PCR) tests were simultaneously carried out to authenticte the modified cytogenetics. Materials and Method: Patient samples were subjected to the said techniques to establish their baseline as well as follow-up status. Results: Initial cytogenetics revealed 30 patients (81%) Positive for t(15;17) whereas 7 (19%) had either cryptic translocation or were negative for t(15;17). Two cases had chromosome 16q deletion and no hallmark translocation t(15;17). Q-PCR status for PML-$RAR{\alpha}$ was found to be positive for all patients. All the APML patients were reassessed at the end of consolidation phase and during maintenance phase of chemotherapy where 6 patients had molecular relapse, wherein 4 also demonstrated cytogenetic relapse. Conclusions: It was found that PHA-induced peripheral blood cytogenetics along with molecular analysis could prove a reliable modality in the diagnosis and assessment of follow up response of APML patients.

Radiation exposure dose in human blood lymphocytes as assessed by the CBMN assay

  • Ryu, Tae Ho;Kim, Jin-Hong;Kim, Jin Kyu
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2014
  • The chances of accidental exposure are augmented as the application of ionizing radiation increases in various fields. Such accidental exposures may occur at nuclear power plants, laboratories, and hospitals. Cytogenetic assays have been used for estimating radiation dose in the situation of the accidents. The micronucleus assay has several advantages over the other cytogenetic methods as it is simple and fast. The present study aimed at investigation of the micronuclei frequencies in cytokinesis-block cells in human blood lymphocytes after ${\gamma}$-irradiation and at establishment of a standard dose response relationship. The samples of peripheral blood were obtained from 6 different donors aged between 24 and 30 years old. The bloods were irradiated in vitro with 0-5 Gy. A linear quadratic dose-response equation was obtained by scoring the micronuclei in binucleated cells; $y=27.87x^2+46.13x+2.08$ ($r^2=0.99$). Irradiation caused a significant decrease in the nuclear division index. Necrotic and apoptotic cells increased in number after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the conventional cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has proven to be the great technique in biological dosimetry. Dose-response calibration curve derived from CMBN assay could be used to estimate the exposure dose during a radiological emergency.

Diagnosis and Monitoring of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Chiang Mai University Experience

  • Tantiworawit, Adisak;Kongjarern, Supanat;Rattarittamrong, Ekarat;Lekawanvijit, Suree;Bumroongkit, Kanokkan;Boonma, Nonglak;Rattanathammethee, Thanawat;Hantrakool, Sasinee;Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree;Norasetthada, Lalita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2159-2164
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    • 2016
  • Background: A diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is made on discovery of the presence of a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. The success of the treatment of this form of leukemia with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is monitored by reduction of the Ph chromosome. Objective: To compare the role of conventional cytogenetic (CC) methods with a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of CML patients. The secondary outcome was to analyze the treatment responses to TKI in CML patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of CML patients who attended the Hematology clinic at Chiang Mai University Hospital from 2005-2010. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, risk score, treatment response and the results of CC methods, FISH and RQ-PCR. Results: One hundred and twenty three cases were included in the study, 57.7% of whom were male with a mean age of 46.9 years. Most of the patients registered as intermediate to high risk on the Sokal score. At diagnosis, 121 patients were tested using the CC method and 118 (95.9%) were identified as positive. Five patients failed to be diagnosed by CC methods but were positive for BCR-ABL1 using the FISH method. Imatinib was the first-line treatment used in 120 patients (97.6%). In most patients (108 out of 122, 88.5%), a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) was achieved after TKI therapy and in 86 patients (70.5%) CCyR was achieved long term by the CC method. Five out of the 35 analyzed patients in which CCyR was achieved by the CC method had a positive FISH result. Out of the 76 patients in which CCyR was achieved, RQ-PCR classified patients to only CCyR in 17 patients (22.4%) with a deeper major molecular response (MMR) in 4 patients (5.3%) and complete molecular response (CMR) in 55 patients (72.4%). In the case of initial therapy, CCyR was achieved in 95 patients (79.1%) who received imatinib and in both patients who received dasatinib (100%). For the second line treatment, nilotinib were used in 30 patients and in 19 of them (63.3%) CCyR was achieved. In half of the 6 patients (50%) who received dasatinib as second line or third line treatment CCyR was also achieved. Conclusions: CML patients had a good response to TKI treatment. FISH could be useful for diagnosis in cases where CC analysis failed to detect the Ph chromosome. RQ-PCR was helpful in detecting any residual disease and determining the depth of the treatment response at levels greater than the CC methods.

A Clinico-Horomonal and Cytogenetic Studies in Patients with Gonadal Dysgenesis (성선 발육 부전 환자에 대한 임상 및 세포 유전학적 연구)

  • Lee, Y.J.;Yang, Y.H.;Kim, D.H.;Kim, Y.M.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.25-37
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    • 1983
  • As the cytogenetic developed, cytogenetic study has also developed progressively. This study is a systematical cytogenetic and clinico-hormonal analysis of 20 cases Wp.ere gonadal dysgenesis was diagnosed and deferred to the Dept. of obstetrics and Gynecology, Yonsei University, Medical School from Jan. 1974 to Aug. 1983. Twenty patients with the diagnosis of gonada dysgenesis have been assesed as to possible correlations between clinical, homonal and cytogenic findings. The desults were as follows; l. Gonadal dysgenesis were found in 20 cases, consisting of 15 cases (75%) of turnurs syndrome, 4 case of pure gonadal dysgenesis (20%), 46. XX and 1 case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis, 45,XO/46,XY. 2. Patients with XO karyotype, turner's ryndorme, have a resonably constant clinical picture of sexual infantilism with streak gonads, short status and webbed neck. 3. 17 cases were found primary amenorhea and two cases were noted with 2 ndary amenorrhea. one case has been presented with menstruation. 4. The rudimentary streak gonads were found in 7 cases of 8 cases and one case has a rudimentary streak gonad on one side and a testis on the contralateral side. 5. The study showed that potients with gonadal dysgenesis had an average of about 4-8 times higher basal FSH and about 3-7 times higher basal LH than that of the early follicular phase of normal menstrual cycle. 6. Two cases of three gonadal dysgenesis patieats, who performed LH-RH challage test, showed that the serum FSH levels reached the maximal level at 30 min after injection of CHRH and the serum LH level reached the maximal level at 60 min ofter injection of LHRH one case showed no significant response to LH-RH injection. Thus, bu studying simultoneously the clinical, cytogenic, hormonal aspects and visualization of gonads, we have gained some practical insight into the requirements for proper disgnosis and treatment.

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Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Plants and the Radiological Protection of the Environment

  • Stanislav A. Geras'kin;Kim, Jin-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.321-327
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    • 2003
  • Differences between the principles for the radiological protection of man and the environment are compared. The derived levels of exposure for man and biota recommended by the international agencies with dose rates for chronic radiation producing effects at different levels of biological organization were given in terms of the biological effects. Cytogenetic effects on plants after an exposure to ionizing radiation at low doses alone and in combination with other factors are discussed. A wide range of experimental data were analysed and the general conclusions were extracted to cover the topics such as non-linearity of dose response, synergistic and antagonistic effects of the combined exposure of different factors, radiation-induced genomic instability, and the phenomena of radioadaptation.

Clinicohematological parameters and outcomes in a cohort of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with Deletion 17p from Pakistan

  • Mahmood, Rafia;Khan, Saleem Ahmed;Altaf, Chaudhry;Malik, Hamid Saeed;Khadim, Muhammad Tahir
    • BLOOD RESEARCH
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.276-280
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    • 2018
  • Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) exhibits profound heterogeneity in its clinical course. Its clinicohematological and cytogenetic features play a significant role in determining the clinical course and in predicting the treatment response and prognosis. In this context, 17p deletion is known to predict a poor prognosis, as these cases are refractory to conventional therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicohematological characteristics, outcomes, and prognostic factors among CLL patients with and without del 17p in Pakistan. Methods This prospective observational study was conducted at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (Rawalpindi, Pakistan) between January 2013 and December 2017. Patients were diagnosed based on the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia IWCLL criteria, their clinicohematological parameters were recorded, and cytogenetic analyses were performed. The time from diagnosis to treatment and the 2-year overall survival rate were also evaluated. Results We evaluated 130 CLL cases, including 24 patients (18.5%) with del 17p, who included 18 men (75%) and 6 women (25%). The median age was 68 years. Binet stage C was detected at the presentation in 16 patients (67%). Treatment was administered to 14 patients (70%) at a median interval of 11 months (range, 0-28 mo) after diagnosis. The overall response rate was 64.3%, the median event-free survival was 9 months (range, 1-23 mo), and the 2-year overall survival rate was 65%. Conclusion Del 17p is relatively common in Pakistan, and patients harboring this deletion had poor treatment response and survival outcomes.

Clinical Significance of Co-expression of Aberrant Antigens in Acute Leukemia: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Makah Al Mukaramah, Saudi Arabia

  • Abdulateef, Nahla Ahmad Bahgat;Ismail, Manar Mohammad;Aljedani, Hanadi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 2014
  • Background: Aberrant phenotypes in acute leukemia have variable frequency and their prognostic and predictive relevance is controversial, despite several reports of clinical significance. Aims: To determine the prevalence of aberrant antigen expression in acute leukemia, assess clinical relevance and demonstrate immunophenotype-karyotype correlations. Materials and Methods: A total of 73 (40 AML and 33 ALL) newly diagnosed acute leukemia cases presenting to KAMC, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were included. Diagnosis was based on WHO criteria and FAB classification. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, conventional karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization for gene rearrangements were performed. Results: Aberrant antigens were detected in 27/40 (67.5%) of AML and in 14/33 (42.4%) in ALL cases. There were statistically significant higher TLC in Ly+ AML than in Ly-AML (p=0.05) and significant higher blast count in ALL with aberrant antigens at presentation and day 14 (p=0.005, 0.046). There was no significant relation to clinical response, relapse free survival (RFS) or overall survival (p>0.05), but AML cases expressing ${\geq}2$ Ly antigens showed a lower median RFS than those expressing a single Ly antigen. In AML, CD 56 was expressed in 11/40. CD7 was expressed in 7/40, having a significant relation with an unfavorable cytogenetic pattern (p=0.046). CD4 was expressed in 5/40. CD19 was detected in 4/40 AML associated with M2 and t (8; 21). In ALL cases, CD33 was expressed in 7/33 and CD13 in 5/33. Regarding T Ag in B-ALL CD2 was expressed in 2 cases and CD56 in 3 cases. Conclusions: Aberrant antigen expression may be associated with adverse clinical data at presentation. AML cases expressing ${\geq}2$ Ly antigens may have shorter median RFS. No specific cytogenetic pattern is associated with aberrant antigen expression but individual antigens may be related to particular cytogenetic patterns. Immunophenotype-karyotype correlations need larger studies for confirmation.

Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 in Korean pediatric patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a single institution

  • Yang, Mina;Yi, Eun Sang;Kim, Hee Jin;Yoo, Keon Hee;Koo, Hong Hoe;Kim, Sun-Hee
    • BLOOD RESEARCH
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.100-105
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    • 2017
  • Background Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21), defined as the presence of three or more RUNX1 signals on one marker chromosome, is a distinct cytogenetic subgroup of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) that is known to have a poor prognosis when treated with standard therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of Korean children with iAMP21. Methods The cytogenetic data from BCP-ALL children were reviewed. The ETV6/RUNX1 ES Dual Color Probe was used for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results In total, 295 children were included. Of these, 10 patients (3.4%) had iAMP21. The median age of iAMP21 patients was 9 years, and the median value of white blood cell count was $5.09{\times}10^9/L$. Slow early treatment response was observed more in iAMP21 patients. Patients with iAMP21 had a higher incidence of relapse and worse survival rates. In patients with iAMP21, the estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 53.3%. The estimated 10-year event-free survival and overall survival rate were 46.7% and 64.8%, respectively. Most cases of leukemic relapse developed in the late period (median, 43 mo). In multivariate analysis, high risk group was the only factor that had a significant impact on death. Conclusion The existence of iAMP21 was related to delayed treatment response and was likely to affect increased relapse and death in the late period. Further studies are needed to reveal its effect on BCP-ALL treatment outcomes and its role as an independent prognostic factor.

Chromosome Aberration and Sister Chromatid Exchange for the Assessment of Cadmium Toxicity (카드뮴독성을 평가하기 위한 방법으로서의 염색체 이상 및 자매염색체 교환)

  • 맹승희;정해원
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.110-119
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    • 1991
  • This study was performed to investigate the applicability of 9 chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange analysis for the assessment of cytotoxicity and cytogenetic effects of cadmium. Induction of chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange in CHO-K1 cells and human peripheral lymphocytes by 2 hour-treatment of CdCl$_{2}$ with various concentrations was observed in relation to their frequencies and types of aberration. The frequency of chromosome aberration in CHO cells treated with CdCl$+{2}$ at G$_{1}$ was increased with dose-dependent manner. When human peripheral lymphocytes were treated with cadmium at G0 and harvested at 72 hours there after, the response was dose-dependent and all the aberrations were also chromatid types. There was no significant increase in frequencies of sister chromatid exchange in both CHO cells and human lymphocytes treated with different concentrations of cadmium. It was suggested that SCE analysis was not a good assessment method for cadmium toxicity.

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Eosinophil disorders (호산구이상증)

  • Kim, Sun Young
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.643-648
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    • 2009
  • Blood eosinophilia can be classified as either familial or acquired. Familial eosinophilia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a stable eosinophil count. Acquired eosinophilia is classified further into a primary or secondary phenomenon depending on whether eosinophils are considered integral to the underlying disease. Primary eosinophilia is considered clonal in the presence of either a cytogenetic abnormality or bone marrow histological evidence of classified hematologic malignancies. Causes of secondary eosinophilia include infections, allergic or immunologic disorders, and drugs. Idiopathic eosinophilia belongs to a category of primary eosinophilia, and this is a diagnosis of exclusion. Cases with eosinophilia that lack evidence of clonality may be diagnosed as idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome after all causes of reactive eosinophilia have been eliminated. Genetic mutations involving the platelet-derived growth receptor genes (PDGFRA and PDGFRB) have been pathogenetically linked to clonal eosinophilia, and their presence predicts the treatment response to imatinib. In this review, I will present a clinical summary of both familial and acquired eosinophilia with emphasis on recent developments in molecular pathogenesis and treatment.