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Menstruation and Sleep (월경과 수면)

  • Park, Doo-Heum
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 2002
  • There are several factors which are more likely to have sleep disorders in fertile women with menstruation than adult men. Menstrual cycle plays an important role in them. We describe herein the overview about the association of menstrual cycle and sleep disorders by viewing the interactions of menstrual cycle and circadian rhythm. We review how menstrual cycle affects sleep-wake cycle by reviewing menstrual cycle and estrous cycle to understand these interactions. Menstrual cycle and estrous cycle are mainly affected by hormonal cycle and light-dark cycle, respectively and they are generally determined in monthly rhythm and annual rhythm, respectively. The determination of estrous cycle is also affected by cyclic changes of hormones besides light-dark cycle. Although sleep-wake cycle almost alternates according to estrous cycle in non-primate mammals, it is hardly affected by menstrual cycle in primate mammals as compared with estrous cycle. But menstrual cycle affects sleep-wake cycle via desynchronization of sleep-wake cycle and temperature rhythm. The decrease of amplitude and phasic change during luteal phase in the daily fluctuation of body core temperature can partially contribute to the induction of sleep disorders in fertile women. In addition to this, premenstrual syndrome which nearly happens during luteal phase commonly have sleep problems. Therefore, we suggest that menstrual cycle and PMS can partially contribute the increase of sleep disorders in fertile women.

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A Study on the Thermodynamic Cycle of OTEC system (해양 온도차발전 시스템의 열역학 사이클에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Nam-Jin;Shin, Sang-Ho;Chun, Won-Gee
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, the thermodynamic performance of OTEC cycle was examined. Computer simulation programs were developed for simple Rankine cycle, regenerative Rankine cycle, Kalina cycle, open cycle and hybrid cycle. For the simple Rankine cycle, the results show that newly developed fluids such as R410A and R32 that do not cause stratospheric ozone layer depletion perform as well as R22 and ammonia. Also, simple Rankine cycle OTEC power plant can practically generate electricity when the difference in warm and cold sea water inlet temperatures are greater than $14^{\circ}C$. The regenerative Rankine cycle showed a 1.5 to 2% increase in energy efficiency compared to the simple Rankine cycle while the Kalina cycle employing ammonia/water mixture showed a 2-to-3% increase in energy efficiency, and the overall cycle efficiencies of hybrid cycle and open cycle were 3.35% and 4.86%, respectively.

An Empirical Analysis on the Relationship among Innovation Cycle, Investment Cycle and Business Cycle in Frequency Domain (혁신주기, 투자주기 그리고 경기변동에 관한 실증분석)

  • 조상섭;이장우
    • Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.129-140
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    • 2002
  • This study is try to do the empirical tests on the relationship among innovation cycle, investment cycle, and business cycle suggested in recent economic growth models. We apply co-spectra analysis to estimate dynamic correlations in the extraction HP filtered variables and first difference filtered variables in our data set. Our empirical results are; (i) an existing asynchronization between innovation cycle and investment cycle, (ii) in the long frequency, an existing positive correlation between innovation cycle and business cycle, (iii) in the short frequency, however, a finding the high negative correlation between the two cycle. Our empirical findings support the recent growth through cycle models and suggest some economic policy implementations for economic stabilization during a severe business cycle.

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Experimental Study on the Cooling Performance Improvement of a Two-stage Compression $CO_2$ Cycle (2단압축 이산화탄소 사이클의 냉방성능 향상 특성에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Cho Hong-Hyun;Lee Ho-Seong;Kim Yong-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.835-841
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    • 2006
  • A $CO_2$ system using the two-stage compression cycle was tested by varying $1^{st}-2^{nd}$ compressor frequencies in the cooling mode. To improve the cooling performance of the two-stage compression $CO_2$ cycle, the following cycle options were applied: a basic cycle, a cycle with an intercooler, a cycle with an IHX (internal heat exchanger), and a cycle with an intercooler and IHX. The cycle with the intercooler-IHX showed the highest cooling capacity improvement among the cycle options at all compressor frequencies. The cycle with the intercooler, the cycle with the IHX, and the cycle with the intercooler-IHX improved the cooling COP by 7, 12, and 15%, respectively, over the basic $CO_2$ cycle when the compressor frequencies for the first and second compressors were 50 Hz and 30 Hz, respectively. In addition, the applications of the selected cycle options enhanced system reliability.

Impact of Duty Cycle in Wireless Sensor Networks (무선 센서 네트워크에서 Duty Cycle의 영향)

  • Sthapit, Pranesh;Pyun, Jae-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • 2008.10a
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    • pp.854-857
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    • 2008
  • Wireless sensor consists of an internal power source which has limited life time. Several MAC protocols have exploited scheduled sleep/listen cycles to conserve energy in sensor networks. Duty cycle is a user-adjustable parameter in low duty cycle MAC protocols, which determines the length of the sleep period in a frame. The sire of duty cycle has direct effect on the Performance of MAC Protocols. In this Paper, we simulated TEEM (A Traffic Aware, Energy Efficient MAC) and S-MAC in NS-2 with different duty cycle values and analyze how duty-cycle effects on the performance and energy consumption of both the protocols.

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Design and Exergy Analysis for a Combined Cycle of Liquid/Solid $CO_2$ Production and Gas Turbine using LNG Cold/Hot Energy

  • Lee, Geun-Sik
    • International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.34-45
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    • 2007
  • In order to reduce the compression power and to use the overall energy contained in LNG effectively, a combined cycle is devised and simulated. The combined cycle is composed of two cycles; one is an open cycle of liquid/solid carbon dioxide production cycle utilizing LNG cold energy in $CO_2$ condenser and the other is a closed cycle gas turbine which supplies power to the $CO_2$ cycle, utilizes LNG cold energy for lowering the compressor inlet temperature, and uses the heating value of LNG at the burner. The power consumed for the $CO_2$ cycle is investigated in terms of a solid $CO_2$ production ratio. The present study shows that much reduction in both $CO_2$ compression power (only 35% of the power used in conventional dry ice production cycle) and $CO_2$ condenser pressure could be achieved by utilizing LNG cold energy and that high cycle efficiency (55.3% at maximum power condition) in the gas turbine could be accomplished with the adoption of compressor inlet cooling and regenerator. Exergy analysis shows that irreversibility in the combined cycle increases linearly as a solid $CO_2$ production ratio increases and most of the irreversibility occurs in the condenser and the heat exchanger for compressor inlet cooling. Hence, incoming LNG cold energy to the above components should be used more effectively.

An Experimental Study on the Performance Characteristics of a Single-Circuit Multi Cycle and a Bypass Two-Circuit Multi Cycle (단일유로 멀티사이클 및 바이패스유로 멀티사이클 적용 냉동시스템의 성능특성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Song, Young-Seung;Jung, Hae-Won;Yoon, Won-Jae;Kim, Yong-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.513-519
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    • 2011
  • The object of this study is to investigate the performance characteristics of refrigerators using a single-circuit multi cycle and a bypass two-circuit multi cycle. Each refrigeration cycle was tested by varying secondary fluid mass flow rate and temperature. Based on the experimental data, the optimum refrigerant charge was 48 g and the COP at the optimum secondary fluid mass flow rate was 1.53 for the single-circuit multi cycle. For freezer(F)-only mode, both the single-circuit multi cycle and the bypass two-circuit multi cycle were operated at overcharge conditions, resulting in an increase of the secondary fluid mass flow rate. The maximum COPs of the single-circuit multi cycle and the bypass two-circuit multi cycle were 1.22 and 1.35, respectively. The COP increased by 10.7% with the application of the bypass two-circuit multi cycle.

Analysis of Heating and Desalination Cycle Using Low Temperature Seawater (저온 해수를 이용한 난방 및 담수화사이클 성능 해석)

  • Lee, H.S.;Lee, S.W.;Jung, D.H.;Moon, D.S.;Kim, H.J.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.301-306
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    • 2011
  • The paper presents an analysis of the heating cycle and discusses a desalination cycle that uses lowtemperature seawater. The basic heating cycle model is the heat pump cycle, and seawater desalination is usually performed by the indirect freezing desalination method. The low temperature of the seawater (below $5^{\circ}C$) acts as the heat source of the evaporator. R-134a, R-1234yf, R-600a are used as working fluids. In the 2-stage compression cycle, the compressor's work decreased by about 15.6% from that in the 1-stage compression cycle. Further, the COP in the 2-stage cycle was 17.6% higher than that in the 1-stage cycle. In the indirect desalination cycle, the energy per unit fresh water productivity in the 2-stage cycle was 19.8% lower than that in the 1-stage cycle.

The Effects of Changing Duty Cycle With Electrical Stimulation on Blood Lactate and Plasma Enzyme (전기자극 시 활동주기 형태의 변화가 혈중젖산과 혈장효소에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Tae-Sung;Joung, Ho-Bal
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.90-97
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    • 2005
  • By measuring changes in blood lactate and plasma enzyme (CPK, GOT, GPT) with electrical stimulation applied at two duty cycles, this study is intended to look into which type of duty cycle may have more effects on blood lactate and plasma enzyme constituents through animal experiment so as to determine any duty cycle appropriate for electrical treatment. In this study, electrical stimulation was applied to total 20 Korean house rabbits (weight: 3~3.5 kg) by means of an electrical therapeutic apparatus called TS6000 (made in Netherlands) at duty cycle of 50% and 20% respectively for 30 minutes. Here, 5 cc of blood was collected from their carotid artery before stimulation and in 30 minutes after stimulation respectively to carry out biochemical experiment and analysis. As determined through the above experiment, blood lactate rate was increased to 333.07% at 50% duty cycle after experiment and 185.71% at 20% duty cycle after experiment respectively. In both cases, blood lactate rate was significantly increased to higher level after electrical stimulation than before. Moreover, the rate of change in the average of blood lactate rate at both duty cycles also showed significant differences. CPK rate was boosted to 301.82% at 50% duty cycle after experiment and 321.35% at 20% duty cycle after experiment respectively. In both cases, CPK rate was remarkably boosted to higher level after stimulation than before (p<.05). However, there was not any significant difference in the rate of change in average CPK at both duty cycles (p<.05). GOT rate was significantly boosted up to 38.97% at 50% duty cycle after experiment (p<.05), while it was slightly increased to 1.68% at 20% duty cycle after experiment without any significant difference. Rather, GPT rate dropped slightly at both duty cycles after experiment, but there was not any significant difference. Although blood lactate and GOT were relatively less generated at 20% duty cycle after electrical stimulation than at 50% duty cycle, the change of duty cycle didn't have any significant influence on CPK rate. In this regard, this study failed to come any consistent conclusion about the association between change of duty cycle and muscle fatigue. Therefore, it is advisable that follow-up studies seek various ways to a little more effectively apply electrical stimulation to laboratory animals by avoiding their muscle fatigue. GOT rate was significantly boosted up to 38.97% at 50% duty cycle after experiment (p<.05), while it was slightly increased to 1.68% at 20% duty cycle after experiment without any significant difference. Rather, GPT rate dropped slightly at both duty cycles after experiment, but there was not any significant difference. Although blood lactate and GOT were relatively less generated at 20% duty cycle after electrical stimulation than at 50% duty cycle, the change of duty cycle didn't have any significant influence on CPK rate. In this regard, this study failed to come any consistent conclusion about the association between change of duty cycle and muscle fatigue. Therefore, it is advisable that follow-up studies seek various ways to a little more effectively apply electrical stimulation to laboratory animals by avoiding their muscle fatigue.

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