• Title, Summary, Keyword: cultivating methods

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Chemical properties of Watercress(Oenanthe javanica D.C.) Depend upon Cultivating Methods (재배방법이 다른 미나리의 성분 특성)

  • Lee, Hong-Yeol;Yoo, Maeng-Ja;Chung, Hee-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 2001
  • Chemical properties of the different parts of watercress(Oenanthe javanica D.C.) grown and harvested from the culture fields under different cultivating methods were studied. In proximate analyses of watercress in parts, moisture contained more in stem than in root or in leaf, but crude protein and crude lipid contents were lower in stem than in root or in leaf. Crude ash in root contained up to about double amount in leaf or stem. Major mineral elements detected in watercress were Fe, Mg, Ca, and K, and their contents in root was higher than those in stem or leaf. Especially, Fe in root was significantly higher than that in stem or in leaf. Total free sugar composed mainly with fructose and glucose, was the highest in watercress from Hwasoon and followed the watercress from Jeonju and Donggok in order. Free sugar content was highest in leaf and the lowest in root. Major water-soluble vitamins were vitamin C, thiamin and biotin and the content of vitamin C was higher than others. These vitamins contained more in leaf than in stem or root. Niacin contained 6.09 mg/100 g in leaf of watercress from Hwasoon, which was much higher than others, but it was not detected in stem of watercress from Jeonju. Organic acids detected were oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid and other 12 organic acids were not detected. In fatty acid composition, there were significant differences among watercresses from different parts and different culture fields. Linoleic acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid were major fatty acids contained in watercress and it took about 80% of the total content. Amino acid content in leaf was higher than that in root and in stem. Glutamic acid and proline were major amino acids in stem of watercress from Jeonju and in stem of watercresses from Hwasoon and Donggok, respectively. In leaves of all three watercresses glutamic acid content was the highest.

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A Study for Farmers to Reduce Work Load on the Different Working Conditions (part I) - Cultivating Lettuce in the Winter Greenhouse - (농민의 작업환경별 노동부담 경감방안에 관한 연구(I) -겨울철 비닐하우스에서 상추재배 작업을 중심으로-)

  • 김명주;최정화
    • Korean Journal of Rural Living Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 1997
  • In this study we tried to give a decision on propriety of working conditions, to present ideas on reducing work loads. and to grope for efficiency of agricultural works. For this we examined the actual conditions of working environment, farmer's clothes, working posture, working methods, working time, resting state, fatigue recovery methods during cultivating lettuce in the winter greenhouse. And Ive improved harmful factors that affect farmer's health by considering results of previous study and farmer's subjective sensation. And we measured, compared, and analyzed the farmer's work loads before and after improvement. The results of this study are as follows ; 1. According to examine the actual conditions of cultivating lettuce in the winter greenhouse, farmers have experienced physical and mental chronic fatigue on the basis of the hot and humid crops-centered working environment, the rough ground condition, inconsistent arrangement of working stand and sorter, heavy-weared habits. and unsuitable working posture. 2. When we improved harmful factors that affect farmer's health, conformed the positive effects on important work efficiency index such as heart rate, electromyovolume, body temperature, and microclimate inside clothing and work loads were decreased by improving the hot and humid working environment, eliminating the hillock and obstacles of working path. deliver way, arranging the working stand and sorter consistantly, decreasing the clothing weight, improving the working postures and methods as using assistant appliances, alloting the working time and sequence effectively and presenting the light gymnastic exercises and rest for fatigue restoration.

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Development of Environmental Control System for High-Quality Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing.) Production

  • Kwon, Jin-Kyung;Kim, Seung-Hee;Jeon, Jong-Gil;Kang, Youn-Ku;Jang, Kab-Yeol
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.342-351
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Recently, an increasing number of farms have been cultivating shiitake mushrooms using a sawdust substrate and a cooler/heater. In this study, an attempt was made to develop an environmental control system using a heat pump for cultivating high-quality shiitake mushrooms. Methods: An environmental control system, consisting of an air-to-water type heat pump, a thermal storage tank, and a radiator in a variable opening chamber, was designed and fabricated. The system was also installed in the cultivation facility of a farm cultivating shiitake mushrooms so as to compare the proposed control system with a conventional environmental control system using a cooler-condensing unit and an electric hot water boiler. Results: The uniformity of the environment was analyzed through environment measurements taken at several positions inside the cultivation facility. It was determined that the developed environmental control system is able to control the variations in temperature and relative humidity to within 1% and 3%, respectively. In addition, a maximum temperature difference of $30^{\circ}C$ (maximum of $35^{\circ}C$, minimum of $5^{\circ}C$) and a maximum relative humidity difference of 30% (maximum of 90%, minimum of 60%) can be attained within 30 min inside the cultivation facility through the cooling of the heat pump and heating of the radiator in a variable opening chamber. Thus, the developed control system can be used to cultivate high-quality shiitake mushrooms more effectively than a conventional cooler and heater. Conclusions: In comparison with a conventional environmental control system, the developed system decreased the yield of ordinary mushrooms by 65%, and increased that of high-quality mushrooms by 217%. This corresponds to a 16% increase in gross farm income. Consequently, the developed system is expected to improve the income of shiitake mushroom cultivating farms.

Comparative Analysis on Concentration and Uptake Amount of Major Mineral Nutrients in Plant Tissues and Years Old of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (인삼의 연생과 식물체 부위별 무기영양성분 함량과 흡수량 비교)

  • Park, Seong-Yong;Lee, Gyeong-A;Heo, Su-Jeong;Jeong, Haet-Nim;Song, Beom-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.195-201
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    • 2012
  • The management and the use of major mineral nutriments such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium, etc have been practiced and improved in various cultivating methods of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. The purposes of this study were to examine the content of major mineral nutrients on different ginseng aging from 1 to 6 years old, to analyze their uptake and utilization in tissues of ginseng, and to find out their proper managing techniques throughout the cultivation of ginseng. In case of the leaves, the N content was not clearly different from 1 to 6 years old, while the content of P and K was generally decreased throughout the cultivating years. In case of the roots, the content of N and K was gradually decreased from 1 to 6 years old, while the P content was increased until 3 years old, decreased at 4 years old, increased again at 5 years old, and decreased again at 6 years old. The uptake amount of N was increased in root of ginseng from 1 to 6 years old, 0.02 to 2.79kg/10a based on dry weight, respectively. Other minerals of P, K, Ca, and Mg were increased for the cultivating year. Comparing the uptake amounts of N, P, K with different cultivating year, they were the highest uptake amount at 4 years old and then were decreased. The management techniques of major mineral in cultivation of ginseng would be studied and evaluated more in order to have better ginseng production.

Crude Saponin Contents of Platycodon grandiflorum(Jacq.) A.DC. (길경 재배년수, 수확시기 및 건조방법에 따른 조사포닌 함량)

  • Lee, Seong-Tae;Ryu, Jae-San;Kim, Man-Bae;Kim, Dong-Kil;Lee, Hong-Jae;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.172-176
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    • 1999
  • The saponins are considered the main effective components in Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC.. In order to obtain the basic information for producing the high quality medicinal plant and processing, the crude saponin contents were analyzed with platycodi radix, the root of Platycodon grandiflorum by different cultivating years, parts, harvesting times and drying methods. The crude saponin contents were decreased by increasing cultivating years. The crude saponin contents were 2.74% in tail of root and 1.65 % in head of root, respectively. Besides, the contents of the crude saponin in cortex were 1.8 times more than that in core of root. The crude saponin contents in different harvesting times were 2.82% and 2.74% at March 10 and December 10, showing higher than that being harvested at June 10 and September 10. The crude saponin contents among drying methods were not significantly different at 5% level DMRT, but the hot air drying after steam showed the least crude saponin.

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Study of quercetin and kaemferol contents variation in leaves of Cudrania tricuspidata associated with cultivating locations, collecting seasons and drying methods

  • Park, Hie Tay;Han, Sangjun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.296-296
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    • 2017
  • In order to study the content variation of Quercetin and Kaempferol associated with Varieties (with thorn, without thorn), Cultivating Locations, Collecting Seasons, Leaves of Cudrania tricuspidata (carrier) Bureau containing higher content of pharmaceutical components than the other parts were tested after collecting 6 varieties including w or w/o thorn from 4 locations such as Cheongsong, Milyang, Goesan and Gochang at 3 seasons, spring, summer and fall in 2015 and 2016. As a result, Kaempferol content associated with Varieties between with thorn and without thorn, collecting Locations and Years have no difference statistically in their mean values but the differences associated with Seasons were statistically significant. The content was higher at spring and then gradually declined at summer and fall. The content variation in Year 2015 which was higher at spring and lower at summer and then recovered at fall abnormally, shows similar pattern of sunshine variation of the year. The content variation of Quercetin and Kaempferol seems to be come from climate fluctuation specially in Sunshine hours rather than Varieties, Locations. The variation associated with drying methods for utilizing leaves are statically significant. Natural Dry was shown the least variation because heat input while drying makes degradation of the content.

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Variation of Leaf Characters in Cultivating and Wild Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Germplasm (콩 재배종과 야생종 유전자원의 엽 형질 변이)

  • Jong, Seung-Keun;Kim, Hong-Sig
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 2009
  • Although leaf characters are important in soybean [Glycin max (L.) Merr.] breeding and development of cultural methods, very little information has been reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and analyze the relationships among leaf characters and suggest possible classification criteria for cultivating and wild (Glycin soja Sieb. & Zucc.) soybeans. Total of 94 cultivating and 91 wild soybean accessions from the Soybean Germplasm Laboratory of Chungbuk National University were used for this study. Central leaflet of the second leaf from the top of the plant was selected to measure leaf characters. Average leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf shape index (LSI) of cultivating and wild soybeans were 12.3$\pm$1.25 cm and 6.6$\pm$1.35 cm, 6.8$\pm$1.241 cm and 2.9$\pm$0.92 cm, 55.6$\pm$15.75 $cm^2$ and 14.3$\pm$7.83 $cm^2$, and 1.9$\pm$0.38 and 2.4$\pm$0.53, respectively. Based on LSI, three categories of leaf shape, i.e., oval, ovate and lanceolate, were defined as LIS$\leq$2.0, LSI 2.1~3.0 and 3.1$\leq$LSI, respectively. Percentage of oval, ovate and lanceolate leaf types among cultivating and wild soybean accessions were 78.7%, 17.0% and 4.3 %, and 40%, 15.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Based on leaf length, three categories for cultivating, i.e. short leaf ($\leq$11.0 cm), intermediate (11.1~13.0 cm), and long (13.1 cm$\leq$), and four categories, i.e. short ($\leq$5.0 cm), intermediate (5.1~7.0 cm), long (7.0~9.0 cm), and very long (9.1 cm$\leq$) for wild soybeans were defined. Short, intermediate and long leaf types were about 1/3, 1/2 and 1/6, respectively, in cultivating soybeans, and 15.4%, 40.7% and 39.5%, plus 4.4% of very long leaf type in wild soybean. Cultivating and wild soybeans had leaf thickness, leaf area ratio (LAR), angle and petiol length of 0.25$\pm$0.054 mm and 0.14$\pm$0.032 mm, 40.1$\pm$8.22 and 53.7$\pm$12.02, $37.6{\pm}5.89^{\circ}$ and $54.6{\pm}10.77^{\circ}$, and 23.9$\pm$5.89 cm and 5.9$\pm$2.33 cm, respectively. There were highly significant positive correlations between leaf length and leaf width, and negative correlation between LSI and leaf width both in cultivating and wild soybeans. Although leaf area showed significant correlations with leaf length, leaf width and LIS in cultivating soybeans, wild soybeans showed no significant relationships among these characters. In general, soybeans with oval, ovate and lanceolate leaves were significantly different in leaf width and thickness. Cultivating soybean with oval leaf had greater leaf area, while wild soybeans with oval or ovate leaf had longer petiol than with lanceolate leaf.

A Study for Farmers to Reduce Work Load on the Different Working Conditions (part II) - Cultivating Welsh Onion in the Summer Ground - (농민의 작업환경별 노동부담경감방안에 관한 연구(II) - 여름철 노지에서 대파재배 작업을 중심으로 -)

  • 김명주;최정화
    • Korean Journal of Rural Living Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 1997
  • In this study we tried to give a decision on propriety of working conditions, to present ideas on reducing work loads, and to grope for efficiency of agricultural works. For this we examined the actual working conditions of cultivating welsh onion in the summer ground. And we improved harmful factors that affect farmer's health by considering results of previous study and farmer's subjective sensation. And we measured. compared, and analyzed the farmer's work loads before and after improvement. The results of this study are as follows ; 1. According to examine the actual working conditions of cultivating welsh onion in the summer ground, farmers have experienced physical and mental chronic fatigue on the basis of farmer's appel to eye - fatigue and sun - burned skin on hot working environment including excessive ultraviolet rays, the rough ground condition, inconsistent arrangement of working stand and sorter, heavy - weared habits, and unsuitable working posture. 2. When we improved harmful factors that affect farmer's health, conformed the effects on important work efficiency index such as heart rate, electromyovolume, body temperature, and microclimate inside clothing and work loads were decreased by eliminating the hillock and obstacles of ground, decreasing the clothing weight, using proper clothing appliances such as hat and sunglasses, controlling height of working stand and sorter suitably, improving the working postures and methods as using assistant appliances, alloting the working time and sequence effectively and presenting the light gymnastic exercises and rest for fatigue restoration.

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Effects of Community Health Promotion Project for Garlic Cultivating Farmers Based on Self-efficacy Theory and Community Capacity Building Framework (마늘재배 농업인을 위한 지역사회 건강증진사업 개발 및 효과 검증 - 자기효능 이론과 지역사회역량 이론의 적용 -)

  • Kim, Hyang-Sook;Gu, Mee-Ock
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.80-91
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to test the effects of a community health promotion project for farmers cultivating garlic. Bandura's self-efficacy theory (1986) and Chaskin's community capacity framework (2001) were used as the theoretical framework. Methods: A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Study participants were 72 garlic farmers (intervention: 36, control: 36). The community health promotion project consisted of health promotion program and community capacity building strategies and was provided for 12 weeks (8 during farming off-season and 4 during farming season). Data were collected between February 23 and May 31, 2009 and were analyzed using chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS/WIN 12.0. Results: For the experimental group, significant improvement was found for self-efficacy, farming related health behavior, physical fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, upper body flexibility, lower body flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, balance, agility), farmer's syndrome, and health related quality of life as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicate that the community health promotion project for garlic farmers is effective and can be recommended as a nursing intervention for health promotion of garlic cultivating farmers.

An Environmental Effect on Productivity of Flounder Culture Farms (넙치양식장 환경에 따른 생산성에 관한 연구)

  • Eh, Youn-Yang
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.79-93
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    • 2011
  • Water temperature of Oliver flounder farm affects Oliver flounder growth and mortality rate. In laboratory experimental tanks, optimal water temperature was $22.5^{\circ}C$($21{\sim}24^{\circ}C$) and cultivatable water temperature was $12{\sim}28^{\circ}C$. The purpose of this study is to identify applicable and useful water temperature of Oliver flounder farm in case of actual farming. The data applied in the analysis was collected from Jeju island. In the study, various analytical methods including productivity analysis, regression analysis, statistical analysis were conducted for 13 Oliver flounder culture farms. The result of analysis can be summarized as follows : First, growth rate on the Oliver flounder culture farms was related to mean of water temperature, variation of water temperature and low water temperature. Second, survival rate on the Oliver flounder culture farms was related to mean of water temperature. In case of including Oliver flounder stocking density, defined as the surface area of Oliver flounder per $m^2$ of water surface area, survival rate strongly related to mean of water temperature, variation of water temperature, cultivating capability and stocking density. Third, production weight per $m^2$ of water surface area was strongly related to mean of water temperature, low water temperature and cultivating capability. Growth rate and survival rate was analyzed into mediate variable character.