• Title, Summary, Keyword: cruciferous vegetables

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Bioactivities of Sulfur Compounds in Cruciferous Vegetables

  • Kim Mee-Ree
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition Conference
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    • pp.150-157
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    • 2004
  • Cruciferous vegetables are rich in organosulfur compounds such as isothiocyanates and sulfides. While the isothiocyanates, corresponding to pungent principle, are generated from myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucosinolates, the sulfides can be generated non-enzymatically. Recent studies provide evidences that some sulfur compounds in these vegetables show a chemopreventive action against carcinogenesis; while isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane induce phase 2 enzymes (glutathione S-transferase/quinone reductase), disulfides tends to elevate the level of phase 1 and 2 enzymes. Especially, sulforaphane rich in Cruciferae vegetables has been reported to express anticarcinogenic effect in some organs such as liver, kidney or intestine. When the level of sulfur compounds in Cruciferous and Alliaceous vegetables was determined by GC/MS (SIM), the richest in sulforaphane is broccoli followed by turnip, cabbage, radish, kale, cauliflower and Chinese cabbage. Meanwhile, the sulfides are predominant in Alliaceous vegetables such as onion. In related study, the administration of vegetable extract elevated the GST level by 1.5 fold for broccoli, 1.4 fold for radish, and 1.3 for onion. Thus, the vegetables frequently used in Korean dish contain relatively high amount of anticarcinogenic sulfur compounds. Moreover, the combination of broccoli and radish extracts elevated the GST induction up to 1.84 folds of control. In addition, the Kakdugi, fermented radish Kimchi was observed to show a comparable GST induction despite the decomposition of methylthio-3-butenylisothiocyanate (MTBI). Therefore, the combination of vegetables including broccoli, and fermented radish Kimchi would be useful as a functional food for chemoprevention.

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Antimutagenic Effect of Various Cruciferous Vegetables in Salmonella Assaying System (Salmonella 실험계의 십자화과 채소류의 항돌연변이효과)

  • 박건영;이선미;이숙희
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.321-327
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    • 1997
  • The antimutagenic effects of juices and methanol extracts from cruciferous vegetables (cabbage, red cabbage, Korean cabbage, kale, cauliflower, broccoli, radish root, leafy radish, rape leaves and shepherd's purse) on the mutagenicity induced by aflatoxin B1(AFB1) and N-methyl-N'-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) were studied using Salmonella assay system. In the case of juices from the cruciferous vegetables, the juices of cabbage, kale, cauliflower and radish root in the concentrations of 50, 200 and 500 ${mu}ell$/plate considerably decreased the mutagenicity induced by AFB1, and the juices of cabbage and broccoli in the concentrations of 200 and 500${mu}ell$/plate significantly reduced the mutagenicity induced by MNNG. The antimutagenic activities of the juices against AFB1 were stronger than those against MNNG. In the case of methanol extracts from the cruciferous vegetables, the methanol extracts of kale, broccoli and shepherd'purse appeared to inhibit the mutagenicity induced by AFB1 and MNNG in Salmonella typhimurium test strains. The effects of the juices against mutagens quite different from ones of the methanol extracts. The juice of cabbage showed antimutagenicity, but its methanol extract was less effective. However, both juices and methanol extracts from kale and broccoli exhibited strong antimutagenic activities against the mutagens.

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Cruciferous Vegetables: Dietary Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention

  • Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal;Noor, Noramaliza Mohd
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1565-1570
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    • 2013
  • Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur-containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.

Relationship between Chemical Structure and Antimicrobial Activities of Isothiocyanates from Cruciferous Vegetables against Oral Pathogens

  • Ko, Mi-Ok;Kim, Mi-Bo;Lim, Sang-Bin
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.2036-2042
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    • 2016
  • We evaluated the potentials of 10 isothiocyanates (ITCs) from cruciferous vegetables and radish root hydrolysate for inhibiting the growth of oral pathogens, with an emphasis on assessing any structure-function relationship. Structural differences in ITCs impacted their antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens differently. The indolyl ITC (indol-3-carbinol) was the most potent inhibitor of the growth of oral pathogens, followed by aromatic ITCs (benzyl ITC (BITC) and phenylethyl ITC (PEITC)) and aliphatic ITCs (erucin, iberin, and sulforaphene). Sulforaphene, which is similar in structure, but has one double bond, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane. Erucin, which has a thiol group, showed higher antimicrobial activity than sulforaphane, which has a sulfinyl group. BITC and iberin with a short chain exhibited higher antimicrobial potential than PEITC and sulforaphane with a longer chain, respectively. ITCs have strong antimicrobial activities and may be useful in the prevention and management of dental caries.

CHEMOPREVENTION AGAINST DIETARY MUTAGENS IN HUMANS BY INGESTION OF CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES

  • Steinkellner, Hans;Gsur, Andrea;Kundi, Michael;Knasmuller, Siegfried
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.83-84
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    • 2001
  • Results from laboratory experiments indicate that induction of phase II enzymes by dietary constituents leads to inactivation of genotoxins. In animal studies glutathione S-transferase (GST) induction was paralleled by a reduction of chemically induced tumours. However data on induction of phase II enzymes in humans is scarce. Therefore we carried out intervention studies in which we investigated the effect of cruciferous vegetables on GST induction, and studied the effects of these vegetables on meat derived urinary mutagenicity.(omitted)

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Studies on the Metabolism of Sinigrin in Rat (흰쥐에서 sinigrin 대사에 관한 연구)

  • Huh, Keun;Shin, Uk-Seob;Lee, Sang-Il;Song, Min-Ik
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 1994
  • The detoxifying properties of cruciferous vegetables components have been the subject of several recent investigations. Evidences from many biochemical and pharmacological studies indicated that higher consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with lower incidence of harmful actions such as hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in animal and human populations. Recently, it has been reported that drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzyme activities were increased by cruciferous vegetable extract in which sinigrin is known to be a main active component, accounting for about 2 to 3 percents of total extract. The detoxifying effect of sinigrin has been well reported in several literatures. The metabolism of sinigrin in animal, however, has not been reported yet. That led us to study the metabolism of sinigrin in rat. Sinigrin is nown to be metabolized into three compounds, i.e., allyl isothiocyanate, glucose and potassium phosphate in cruciferous vegetables. Allyl isothiocyanate was formed in rat hepatic mitochondrial fraction in dose and incubation time dependent manner, that was confirmed by HPLC. Glucose formation was came up with results similar to that of allyl isothiocyanate. Three hours after i.p. administration of sinigrin to rat, allyl isothiocyanate appeared in rat liver, and five hours later it was detected in liver and blood. The above results suggested that sinigrin might be metabolized into allyl isothiocyanate, glucose and potassium phosphate in rat.

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lnhibitory Effect o fVarious Cruciferous Vegetable on the Growth of Human Cancer Calls (인체암세포증식에 있어 십자화과 채소의 억제효과)

  • 이선미;이숙희
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.234-240
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    • 1997
  • The anticarcingenic effect of methanol extracts from such cruciferous vegetables as cabbage, red cabbage, Korean cabbage, kale, cauliflower, broccoli, radish root, leafy radish, rape leaves and shepherd’s purse on the growth of human K-562 leukemia cells, MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, HT-29 colon cancer cells and AGS gastric cancer cells were studied. All of cruciferous vegetables inhibited more than 70% of the growth of K-52 leukemia cells and more than50% fo rhe growth fo AGS gastric cancer cells. Particularly, kale, broccoli and shepherd’s purse showed inhibition rates of 93.5%, 93,5% and 96.3% on the growth of AGS gastric cancer cells, respectively. In case of HT-29 colon cancer cells, the methanol extracts of cabbage, kale and shepherd’purse exhibited 82.4%, 72.15, 79.4% and 95.6% of inhibitory effects, respectively. The cabbage, kale, cauliflower and shepherd’s purse extracts also highly suppressed the proliferation of MG-63 cells. Generally the 10 cruciferous vegetable we studied strongly decreased the growth of various human cancer cells in vitro, however, kale and shepherd’s showed the most effective vegetable among them.

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Determination of sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables by SIM (선택이온 측정법에 의한 십자화과 채소중의 Sulforahane 함량)

  • Kim, Mee-Ree;Lee, Kun-Jong;Kim, Jin-Hee;Sok, Dai-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.882-887
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    • 1997
  • Quantitative determination of sulforaphane, S-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate in 20 cruciferous vegetables of Korean origin was performed. Homogenate of vegetable was extracted with dichloromethane, and the extract, after drying, was subjected to GC/MS analysis, which was based on single ion monitoring (SIM) at m/z 72, 160, 55, 114 and 177. The content of sulforaphane was found to be the highest in the extract of broccoli $(80.2{\sim}617.7\;ppm)$ followed by turnip $(15.4{\sim}23.1\;ppm)$, red cabbage $(9.9{\sim}32.1\;ppm),\;radish\;(5.5{\sim}8.8\;ppm)$ and kale (8 ppm). Among various cultivars of broccoli, broccoli '1243' and broccoli 'Pilgrim' showed higher content of sulforaphane than others. Especially, in the stem of broccoli '1243' and the floret of broccoli 'Pilgrim' the amount of sulforaphane was the highest (>700 ppm). Thus, the content of sulforaphane differed according to the cultivars and the portion of the vegetables.

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Sulforaphane is Superior to Glucoraphanin in Modulating Carcinogen-Metabolising Enzymes in Hep G2 Cells

  • Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal;Noor, Noramaliza Mohd
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4235-4238
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    • 2013
  • Glucoraphanin is the main glucosinolate found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae). The objective of the study was to evaluate whether glucoraphanin and its breakdown product sulforaphane, are potent modulators of various phase I and phase II enzymes involved in carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems in vitro. The glucosinolate glucoraphanin was isolated from cruciferous vegetables and exposed to human hepatoma cell line HepG2 at various concentrations (0-25 ${\mu}M$) for 24 hours. Glucoraphanin at higher concentration (25 ${\mu}M$) decreased dealkylation of methoxyresorufin, a marker for cytochrome P4501 activity; supplementation of the incubation medium with myrosinase (0.018 U), the enzyme that converts glucosinolate to its corresponding isothiocyanate, showed minimal induction in this enzyme activity at concentration 10 ${\mu}M$. Quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were unaffected by this glucosinolate; however, supplementation of the incubation medium with myrosinase elevated quinone reductase activity. It may be inferred that the breakdown product of glucoraphanin, in this case sulforaphane, is superior than its precursor in modulating carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems in vitro and this is likely to impact on the chemopreventive activity linked to cruciferous vegetable consumption.

The Inhibitory Effect of Broccoli in Cruciferous Vegetables Derived-Sulforaphane on Vascular Tension (브로콜리 유래 Sulforaphane의 혈관 수축성 조절 효과)

  • Je, Hyun Dong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 2014
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of sulforaphane on vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism involved. We hypothesized that sulforaphane, the primary ingredient of broccoli of cruciferous vegetables, plays a role in vascular relaxation through inhibition of Rho-kinase in rat aortae. Intact of denuded arterial rings from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and isometric tensions were recorded using a computerized data acquisition system. Interestingly, sulforaphane significantly inhibited fluoride, phorbol ester or thromboxane $A_2$ mimetic-induced contraction in denuded muscles suggesting that additional pathways different from endothelial nitric oxide synthesis such as inhibition of Rho-kinase or MEK might be involved in the vasorelaxation. Furthermore, sulforaphane inhibited thromboxane $A_2$-induced increases in pERK1/2 levels suggesting the mechanism including inhibition of thromboxane $A_2$-induced increases in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This study provides evidence that sulforaphane induces vascular relaxation through inhibition of Rho-kinase or MEK in rat aortae.