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Genetic Similarity in Crucian Carp(Carassius carassius) by PCR-RAPD Analysis (PCR-RAPD 분석에 의한 붕어(Carassius carassius)의 유전적 유사성)

  • Yoon, Jong-Man;Kim, Jong-Yeon
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2001
  • Genomic DNA from the blood of crucian carp(Carassius carassiu) from lake and aquaculture facility in Kunsan, Korea was extracted in order to identify genetic differences by polymerase chain reaction-randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs(PCR-RAPD). Out of 12 primers, 6 generated 266 highly reproducible RAPD markers, producing approximately 2.1 polymorphic bands per primer in crucian carp from lake. The degree of similarity varied from 0.18 to 0.76 as calculated by bandsharing analysis in crucian carp from lake. The RAPD outlines obtained with DNA of two different crucian carp populations from Kunsan were different(0.47 from lake and 0.70 from aquaculture facility, respectively). The electrophoretic analysis of polymerase chain reaction-randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs(PCR-RAPD) products showed high levels of similarity between different individuals in crucian carp from aquaculture facility. This result implies the genetic similarity due to raising in the same environmental condition or inbreeding within the crucian carp from aquaculture facility in Kunsan. In other words, crucian carp may have high levels of genome DNA diversity due to the introduction of the wild population from the other sites of Knsan even if it may be the geographical diverse distribution of this species. Generally, the RAPD polymorphism generated by these primers may be useful as a genetic marker for strain or population identification of important aquacultural fish species, crucian carp. However, in future, additional populations and sampling sites will be necessary to complement weak points.

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Behavior of the insecticide imidacloprid in crucian carp (Carassius auratus L.) and its toxic effects on organs (살충제 imidacloprid의 붕어(Carassius auratus L.)중 행적 및 장기에 대한 독성)

  • Ihm, Yang-Bin;Kim, Chan-Sub;Lee, Hee-Dong;Kim, Dae-Kyu;Kyung, Kee-Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.289-295
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    • 2006
  • In order to elucidate the behavior of the insecticide imidacloprid (1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-nitroimidazolidin-2-ylideneamine) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus L.) and its effects on the internal organs of crucian carp, the crucian carps were exposed to [$^{14}C$]imidacloprid at a predicted environmental concentration of 0.064 mg/L for 4 days. Imidacloprid in water was absorbed into crucian carps to reach the maximum concentration at 2 days after exposure. Unknown major metabolite and imidacloprid urea, minor metabolite, were detected in test water. The amounts of the [$^{14}C$]imidacloprid and its metabolites absorbed in gall were much higher than those in the other parts, strongly suggesting that biliary excretion involving enterohepatic recirculation could be an import route for the elimination of imidacloprid absorbed in crucian carps. Meanwhile, no toxic effects of imidacloprid on liver and kidney as well as the genital organs such as testis and ovary were observed by microscopic inspection.

High Temperature Cooking of Fish Protein Extracts for Plastein Reaction

  • Lee, Keun-Tai;Park, Seong-Min;Lee, Sang-Ho;Ryu, Hong-Soo;Yoon, Ho-Dong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.321-327
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    • 1997
  • High Temperature-cooking conditions of cultured fishes(loach, crucian carp, bastard halibut, and jacopever) were optimized by response surface methodology(RSM), and plastein products were prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis. Four models were proposed with regard to effects of time(t), temperature(T), and water/fish meat (w/f) ratio on the amount of 0.3M TCA soluble fractions. The model coefficients were ranged from p<0.0001 for jacopever to p<0.0433 for bastared halibut. Cooking conditions for 60% hydrolysis were optimized at 1) 14$0^{\circ}C$ except for crucian carp(136$^{\circ}C$); 2) 10.08 hours(loach), 7.25 hours(crucian carp), 9.85 hours(ba-stard harlibut), and 9.37 hours(iacopever); 3) 1:1(w/f) ratio except for the crucian carp(1.1:1). When protein hydrolyzates were employed for the plastein synthesis, optimum plastein-reaction conditions were determined to be pH 9.0 with chymotrypsin for the loach and crucian carp hydrolyzates, pH 9.0 with papain for the bastard halibut hydrolyzate, and pH 11.0 with trypsin for the jacopever hydrolyzate. Plastein reaction could be performed in water at concentration up to 20%(w/f).

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Genetic Similarity and Diversity in Crucian Carp(Carassius carassius) Populations by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs

  • Yoon, Jong-Man;Kim, Tae-Sun;Kim, Jong-Yeon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology Conference
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    • pp.332-333
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    • 2001
  • Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of the freshwater crucian carp(Carassius carassius) from Kunsan in Korea, representing genetic similarity by polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA as twelve of arbitrary primers. The electrophoretic analysis of polymerase chain reaction-random amplified polymorphic DNAs(PCR-RADP) products showed the high levels of similarity between different individuals in crucian carp.

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Cytogenetic Analysis of Induced Hybrid between Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) (잉어(Cyprinus carpio)와 붕어(Carassius auratus)간 잡종의 세포유전학적 분석)

  • 남윤권;오승용;조재윤;김동수
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.77-81
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    • 1998
  • Cytogenetic analyses were carried out with induced hybrid between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) female and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) male. The erythrocytic measurement revealed that cellular and nuclear size of induced hybrids were intermediate between those of paremtal species. The modal chromosome numbers of common carp, crucian carp and its hybid were same as 2n=100. The DNA content of induced hybrids determined based on flow cytometry was 3.7pg/cell which corresponding to intermediate value between the carp (3.6ph/cell) and crucian carp (3.8pg/cell)

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Accumulated Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Freshwater Fish (Crucian carp) (민물 붕어 (Crucian carp)에 축적된 Dioxin, Furan 및 DL-PCBs 농도)

  • Moon, Ji-Yong;Moon, Dong-Ho;Jeong, Gi-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.803-810
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    • 2009
  • Concentrations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in crucian carp collected from eight locations mainly along the Nakdong River during 2004. Total dioxin concentrations which include concentrations of dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs ranged from 0.053 to 0.614 pg WHO-TEQ $g^{-1}$ wet wt. with a mean of $0.342{\pm}0.213$ pg WHO-TEQ $g^{-1}$ wet wt. The proportions of dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs to total dioxin TEQ were 4%, 12% and 84%, respectively. The results suggest that concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls should be determined when total dioxin TEQ accumulated in freshwater fish is investigated.

Optimizing the Mixing Ratio of Ingredients in Crucian Carp Carassius carassius Extracts to Improve Sensory Qualities (원료 혼합비율 최적화에 따른 붕어 고음의 관능성)

  • Shin, Eun-Soo;Kim, Min-Soo;Jang, Dae-Heung;Ryu, Hong-Soo;Rim, Chang-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 2007
  • To optimize the mixing ratio of ingredients to obtain the best sensory qualities, a response surface methodology with a central composite design was performed on hot water extracts using crucian carp Carassius carassius treated with diluted vinegar (pH 5.24-5.30). The optimal solutions for four parameters (overall acceptability, odor, flavor, and taste) were obtained using the second-order response surface regression models. The optimal formulation appeared to be 124.15 g of ginger and 96.09 g of garlic with 1 kg of ground crucian carp meat based on the desirability function technique.

Studios on the Food from Fresh Water Fish(II)-The Taste Compounds in Meat of Crucian Carp, Skate$\cdot$Fish, Snake Head and Loaches- (담수어(淡水魚)의 식품학적(食品學的) 연구(硏究)(II)-붕어, 메기, 가물치 및 미꾸리의 맛성분(成分)-)

  • Sung, Nak-Ju;Shim, Ki-Hwan
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 1981
  • Crucian carp Carassius carassius L., Skate-fish Parasilurus asolus, snake head Ophicephalus argus and loaches Misgrunus anguillicaudatus have been esteemed as the tasty fresh water fish in Korea. However, a little has been studied on their taste compounds. Amino acids, nucleotides and their related compounds as the taste giving substance in the dorsal muscle of crucian carp, skate-fish, snake head and loaches were analyzed. Hypoxanthine (4.6-30.3 ${\mu}mole/g$, on dry base) was dominant among the nucleotide materials in the dorsal muscle of crucian carp, skate-fish, and snake head while IMP (12.8 ${\mu}mole/g$) was detected with the highest amount in loaches meat. IMP was also high in the muscle of skate-fish (13.5 ${\mu}mole/g$) and snake head (5.6 ${\mu}mole/g$). The other nucleotide materials, CMP, UMP, GMP, AMP, and inosine were present less than 2.0 ${\mu}mole/g$ in all the fish meat. The amino acid composition showed that glutamic acid and aspartic acid were the most abundant in the dorsal muscle of crucian carp, skate-fish, snake head and loaches. The analysis of free amino acids showed that histidine, lysine, glycine, and serine were the leading amino acids in the dorsal muscle of crucian carp, alanine, serine, and lysine were of skatefish, glycine, lysine, alanine, and serine were of snake head, while alanine, serine, and glycine were of loaches. Isoleucine and leucine were detected in trace amount in the muscle of skate-fish, snake head, and loaches. It is believed that alanine, Iysine, serine, glycine and histidine along with IMP and hypoxanthine may play an important role as the taste compounds in fresh water fish.

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Early Life Stage Toxicity for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) (붕어 수정란을 이용한 다이옥신의 초기발생단계 독성평가)

  • Park, Yong-Joo;Kim, Ha-Ryong;Lee, Min-Jee;Lee, Wan-Ok;Lee, Jung-Sick;Chung, Kyu-Hyuck;Oh, Seung-Min
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.241-251
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    • 2010
  • Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) has been used as the sentinel species for POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) monitoring in aquatic environment. However, there is little information for dioxin toxicity and especially, early life stage toxicity in crucian carp have been never carried out. In this study, we investigated several toxic effects for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) in fertilized egg obtained by natural fertilization from crucian carp. The embryos at 3 h post-fertilization (hpf) were treated with 0.039, 0.156, 0.625, and 2.5 (${\mu}g/L$) TCDD by waterborne exposure for 60 minutes and changed with fresh water 2 times per day. Fertilized eggs started hatching at 51 hpf and TCDD exposed embryo showed decrease of hatching rate in a dose-dependent manner at 75 hpf. Pericardial edema was continuously observed in larvae exposed to TCDD from hatching start time (51 hpf), followed by the onset of mortality. In addition, AhR-related gene, CYP1A was clearly increased by TCDD in a dose dependent manner. These results indicated that fertilized eggs obtained from crucian carp have the TCDD related gene regulation and a distinct TCDD developmental toxicity syndrome by TCDD exposure. Therefore, we suggested that early life stage test in crucian carp could be used as test methods on dioxins toxicity.

Changes in Prolactin and Growth Hormone Gene Expression in Three Freshwater Teleosts with Rapid Changes in Salinity (급격한 염분변화에 따른 담수어 3종의 프로락틴 및 성장호르몬 유전자 발현변화)

  • Park, Woo-Dong;Lee, Cheul-Ho;Kim, Dae-Jung;Sohn, Young-Chang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2008
  • The changes in osmolality and the gene expression profiles of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) with rapid changes in salinity were compared in the eel (Anguilla japonica), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), and masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou). Fish stocked in freshwater (FW) were abruptly transferred to experimental tanks containing FW, 50% seawater (50% SW), or 100% SW (SW). Blood samples and pituitary glands were collected 2 and 24 hrs after the exposure. No mortality was observed in SW eel (n=6), whereas all of the crucian carp (n=6) and two masu salmon (n=6) exposed to SW died after land 24 hrs, respectively. The PRL mRNA levels of the eel and masu salmon decreased in 50% SW and SW compared to those of the fish kept in FW after 24 hrs, whereas the PRL levels of crucian carp were higher in 50% SW than in FW. Unlike the PRL mRNA levels, the GH mRNA levels of the eel did not differ significantly among three different salinities, while the GH mRNA levels of crucian carp and masu salmon increased significantly in 50% SW and SW after 24 hrs. The serum osmolalities increased marginally in the eel and masu salmon in 50% SW at 24 hrs (19% and 9%, respectively), whereas those of crucian carp increased abruptly in 50% SW (50% increase). These results suggest that the synthesis of PRL and GH is important in relation to the osmoregulatory system with environmental changes in salinity.