• Title, Summary, Keyword: crosstalk

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Polymorphism in the intron 20 of porcine O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase

  • Kim, Jong Gug;Nonneman, Dan;Kim, Doo-Wan;Shin, Sangsu;Rohrer, Gary A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1086-1092
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    • 2017
  • Objective: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) catalyzes the addition of O-GlcNAc and GlcNAcylation has extensive crosstalk with phosphorylation to regulate signaling and transcription. Pig OGT is located near the region of chromosome X that affects follicle stimulating hormone level and testes size. The objective of this study was to find the variations of OGT between European and Chinese pigs. Methods: Pigs were tested initially for polymorphism in OGT among European and Chinese pigs by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). The polymorphism was also determined in an independent population of pigs including European and Chinese Meishan (ME) breeds at the National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS, RDA, Korea). Results: The intron 20 of OGT from European and Chinese pigs was 514 and 233 bp, respectively, in the pigs tested initially. They included 1 White composite (WC) boar and 7 sows ($2Minzu{\times}WC$, $2Duroc\;[DU]{\times}WC$, $2ME{\times}WC$, $1Fengzing{\times}WC$) at USMARC. The 281-bp difference was due to an inserted 276-bp element and GACTT in European pigs. When additional WC and ME boars, the grandparents that were used to generate the $1/2ME{\times}1/2WC$ parents, and the 84 boars of 16 litters from mating of $1/2ME{\times}1/2WC$ parents were analyzed, the breeds of origin of X chromosome quantitative trait locus (QTL) were confirmed. The polymorphism was determined in an independent population of pigs including DU, Landrace, Yorkshire, and ME breeds at NIAS. OGT was placed at position 67 cM on the chromosome X of the USMARC swine linkage map. Conclusion: There was complete concordance with the insertion in European pigs at USMARC and NIAS. This polymorphism could be a useful marker to identify the breed of origin of X chromosome QTL in pigs produced by crossbreeding Chinese and European pigs.

$TNF{\alpha}$ Increases the Expression of ${\beta}2$ Adrenergic Receptors in Osteoblasts

  • Baek, Kyung-Hwa;Lee, Hye-Lim;Hwang, Hyo-Rin;Park, Hyun-Jung;Kwon, A-Rang;Qadir, Abdul S.;Baek, Jeong-Hwa
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2011
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha ($TNF{\alpha}$) is a multifunctional cytokine that is elevated in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent evidence has suggested that ${\beta}2$ adrenergic receptor (${\beta}2AR$) activation in osteoblasts suppresses osteogenic activity. In the present study, we explored whether $TNF{\alpha}$ modulates ${\beta}AR$ expression in osteoblastic cells and whether this regulation is associated with the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by $TNF{\alpha}$. In the experiments, we used C2C12 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells and primary cultured mouse bone marrow stromal cells. Among the three subtypes of ${\beta}AR$, ${\beta}2$ and ${\beta}3AR$ were found in our analysis to be upregulated by $TNF{\alpha}$. Moreover, isoproterenol-induced cAMP production was observed to be significantly enhanced in $TNF{\alpha}$-primed C2C12 cells, indicating that $TNF{\alpha}$ enhances ${\beta}2AR$ signaling in osteoblasts. $TNF{\alpha}$ was further found in C2C12 cells to suppress bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of osteogenic marker genes including Runx2, ALP and osteocalcin. Propranolol, a ${\beta}2AR$ antagonist, attenuated this $TNF{\alpha}$ suppression of osteogenic differentiation. $TNF{\alpha}$ increased the expression of receptor activator of NF-${\kappa}B$ ligand (RANKL), an essential osteoclastogenic factor, in C2C12 cells which was again blocked by propranolol. In summary, our data show that $TNF{\alpha}$ increases ${\beta}2AR$ expression in osteoblasts and that a blockade of ${\beta}2AR$ attenuates the suppression of osteogenic differentiation and stimulation of RANKL expression by $TNF{\alpha}$. These findings imply that a crosstalk between $TNF{\alpha}$ and ${\beta}2AR$ signaling pathways might occur in osteoblasts to modulate their function.

Generation of Testability on High Density /Speed ATM MCM and Its Library Build-up using BCB Thin Film Substrate (고속/고집적 ATM Switching MCM 구현을 위한 설계 Library 구축 밀 시험성 확보)

  • 김승곤;지성근;우준환;임성완
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 1999
  • Modules of the system that requires large capacity and high-speed information processing are implemented in the form of MCM that allows high-speed data processing, high density circuit integration and widely applied to such fields as ATM, GPS and PCS. Hence we developed the ATM switching module that is consisted of three chips and 2.48 Gbps data throughput, in the form of 10 multi-layer by Cu/Photo-BCB and 491pin PBGA which size is $48 \times 48 \textrm {mm}^2$. hnologies required for the development of the MCM includes extracting parameters for designing the substrate/package through the interconnect characterization to implement the high-speed characteristics, thermal management at the high-density MCM, and the generation of the testability that is one of the most difficult issues for developing the MCM. For the development of the ATM Switching MCM, we extracted signaling delay, via characteristics and crosstalk parameters through the interconnect characterization on the MCM-D. For the thermal management of 15.6 Watt under the high-density structure, we carried out the thermal analysis. formed 1.108 thermal vias through the substrate, and performed heat-proofing processing for the entire package so that it can keep the temperature less than $85^{\circ}C$. Lastly, in order to ensure the testability, we verified the substrate through fine pitch probing and applied the Boundary Scan Test (BST) for verifying the complex packaging/assembling processes, through which we developed an efficient and cost-effective product.

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A Study on Phase-Multiplexed Volume Hologram using Spatial Light Modulator (공간광변조기를 이용한 위상다중화 체적 홀로그램에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Jong-Dug;Kim, Kyu-Tae
    • 전자공학회논문지 IE
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2007
  • For an effective phase multiplexing in a volume holographic system, four types of phase code, pseudo random code(PSC), Hadamard matrix(HAM), pure random code(PRC), equivalent random code(ERC), used as reference beams are generated. In case of $32{\times}32$ address beam, a phase error with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% error rate, is purposely added to the real phase values in order to consider the practical SLM's nonlinear characteristics of phase modulation in computer simulation. Crosstalks and SNRs(signal-to-ratio) are comparatively analyzed for these phase codes by the auto-correlation and cross-correlation. PSC has the lowest cross-correlation mean value of 0.067 among four types of phase code, which means the SNR of the pseudo random phase code is higher than other phase codes. Also, the standard deviation of the pseudo random phase code indicating the degree of recalled data degradation is the lowest value of 0.0113. In order to analyze the affect by variation of pixel size, simulation is carried out by same method for the case of $32{\times}32$, $64{\times}64$, $128{\times}128$, $256{\times}256$ address beams.

Spatial Audio Signal Processing Technology Using Multi-Channel 3D Microphone (멀티채널 3차원 마이크를 이용한 입체음향 처리 기술)

  • Kang Kyeongok;Lee Taejin
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.68-77
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of a spatial audio system is to give a listener an impression as if he were present in a recorded environment when its sound is reproduced. For this purpose a dummy head microphone is generally used. Because of its human-like shape, dummy head microphone can reproduce spatial images through headphone reproduction. However, its shape and size are restriction to public use and it is difficult to convert the output signal of dummy head microphone into a multi-channel signal for multi-channel environment. So, in this paper, we propose a multi-channel 3D microphone technology. The multi-channel 3D microphone acquire a spatial audio using five microphones around a horizontal plane of a rigid sphere and through post processing, it can reproduce various reproduction signals for headphone, stereo, stereo dipole, 4ch and 5ch reproduction environments. Because of complex computation, we implemented H/W based post processing system. To verily the Performance of the multi-channel 3D microphone, localization experiments were Performed. The result shows that a front/back confusion, which is the one of common limitations of conventional dummy head technology, can be reduced dramatically.

Electrical Characteristics Measurement of Eddy Current Testing Instrument for Steam Generator in NPP (원전 증기발생기 와전류검사 장치의 전기적 특성 측정)

  • Lee, Hee-Jong;Cho, Chan-Hee;Yoo, Hyun-Joo;Moon, Gyoon-Young;Lee, Tae-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.465-471
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    • 2013
  • A steam generator in nuclear power plant is a heatexchager which is used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core, and the steam produced in steam generator is delivered to the turbine to generate electricity. Because of damage to steam generator tubing may impair its ability to adequately perform required safety functions in terms of both structural integrity and leakage integrity, eddy current testing is periodically performed to evaluate the integrity of tubes in steam generator. This assessment is normally performed during a reactor refueling outage. Currently, the eddy current testing for steam generator of nuclear power plant in Korea is performed in accordance with KEPIC & ASME Code requirements, the eddy current testing system is consists of remote data acquisition unit and data analysis program to evaluate the acquired data. The KEPIC & ASME Code require that the electrical properties of remote data acquisition unit, such as total harmonic distortion, input & output impedance, amplifier linearity & stability, phase linearity, bandwidth & demodulation filter response, analog-to-digital conversion, and channel crosstalk shall be measured in accordance with the KEPIC & ASME Code requirements. In this paper, the measurement requirements of electrical properties for eddy current testing instrument described in KEPIC & ASME Code are presented, and the measurement results of newly developed eddy current testing instrument by KHNP(Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., LTD) are presented.

Functional Understating of Fibroblastic Reticular Cell within Lymph Node Stroma (림프절 스토로마 내의 fibroblastic reticular cell의 기능 이해)

  • So, Deuk Won;Ryu, Sul Hwa;Lee, Jong-Hwan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1409-1414
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    • 2013
  • Lymph node (LN) is the sites where mature lymphocytes become stimulated to respond to invading pathogens in the body. Lymphocytes screen the surfaces of pathogen-carrying antigen-presenting cells for cognate antigens, while moving along stromal structural back bone. Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) is stromal cell forming the 3 dimensional structure networks of the T cell rich zones in LN, and provide a guidance path for immigrating T lymphocytes. In these cooperative environments, the cell to cell bidirectional interactions between FRC and T cells in LN are therefore essential to the normal functioning of these tissues. Not only do FRCs physically construct LN architecture but they are essential for regulating T cell biology within these domains. FRC interact closely with T lymphocytes, is providing scaffolds, secreting soluble factors including cytokine in which FRCs influence T cell immune response. More recently, FRC have been found to induce peripheral T cell tolerance and regulate the extent to which newly activated T cells proliferate within LN. Thus, FRC-T cell crosstalk has important consequences for regulating immune cell function within LN. In addition, FRC have profound effects on innate immune response by secreting anti-microbial peptides and complement, etc in the inflammatory milieu. In summary, we propose a model in which FRC engage in a bidirectional touch to increase the T cell biological efficiency between FRC and T cells. This collaborative feedback loop may help to maintain tissue function during inflammation response.

Insights into the Role of Follicular Helper T Cells in Autoimmunity

  • Park, Hong-Jai;Kim, Do-Hyun;Lim, Sang-Ho;Kim, Won-Ju;Youn, Jeehee;Choi, Youn-Soo;Choi, Je-Min
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2014
  • Follicular helper T ($T_{FH}$) cells are recently highlighted as their crucial role for humoral immunity to infection as well as their abnormal control to induce autoimmune disease. During an infection, na$\ddot{i}$ve T cells are differentiating into $T_{FH}$ cells which mediate memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells in germinal center (GC). $T_{FH}$ cells are characterized by their expression of master regulator, Bcl-6, and chemokine receptor, CXCR5, which are essential for the migration of T cells into the B cell follicle. Within the follicle, crosstalk occurs between B cells and $T_{FH}$ cells, leading to class switch recombination and affinity maturation. Various signaling molecules, including cytokines, surface molecules, and transcription factors are involved in $T_{FH}$ cell differentiation. IL-6 and IL-21 cytokine-mediated STAT signaling pathways, including STAT1 and STAT3, are crucial for inducing Bcl-6 expression and $T_{FH}$ cell differentiation. $T_{FH}$ cells express important surface molecules such as ICOS, PD-1, IL-21, BTLA, SAP and CD40L for mediating the interaction between T and B cells. Recently, two types of microRNA (miRNA) were found to be involved in the regulation of $T_{FH}$ cells. The miR-17-92 cluster induces Bcl-6 and $T_{FH}$ cell differentiation, whereas miR-10a negatively regulates Bcl-6 expression in T cells. In addition, follicular regulatory T ($T_{FR}$) cells are studied as thymus-derived $CXCR5^+PD-1^+Foxp3^+\;T_{reg}$ cells that play a significant role in limiting the GC response. Regulation of $T_{FH}$ cell differentiation and the GC reaction via miRNA and $T_{FR}$ cells could be important regulatory mechanisms for maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we review recent studies on the various factors that affect $T_{FH}$ cell differentiation, and the role of $T_{FH}$ cells in autoimmune diseases.

Crosstalk between EGFR and p53 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Cioca, Andreea;Cimpean, Anca;Ceausu, Raluca;Fit, Ana-Maria;Zaharie, Teodor;Al-Hajjar, Nadim;Puia, Vlad;Raica, Marius
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8069-8073
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    • 2014
  • Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide, with a high mortality. Most patients present with late stage disease, when the treatment options are limited to systemic chemotherapy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the significance of p53 and EGFR expression in HCC, and to determine whether these two markers correlate with conventional parameters of prognosis. Materials and Methods: Our study included a total of 45 patients, diagnosed histopathologically with HCC. Clinicopathological data including sex, age, tumor necrosis, tumor size, histologic grading, tumor stage, the presence of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis, were recorded from the Institute database. Three independent microscopic fields were selected for each sample and all the tumor cells within each microscopic field were counted, and then the positive percent of p53 cells were calculated. Three staining patterns were recognized: diffuse, heterogenous and focal. The intensity of EGFR staining was scored on a scale of 0-3+: 0 no staining; 1+ when a weak membrane staining was observed; 2+ when membrane staining is more intense than in 1+, but less than 3+, and 3+ when intense dark brown staining delineated the membrane. To determine the relationship between EGFR expression and p53, we performed double staining in the same HCC specimens. Results: By immunohistochemical staining, p53 protein was detected in tumor cell nuclei in 20 HCCs (44%). We found a significant correlation between the intensity of p53 expression and the histological grade (p=0.008). EGFR expression was detected in 17 (38%) cases, linked to histological grade (p=0.039). Moreover, the intensity of p53 expression was significantly correlated with EGFR intensity (p=0.014). Conclusions: Our results suggest that overexpression of p53 and EGFR plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis and contributes to more advanced disease. These markers are not only valuable predictors of prognosis in HCC, but they are also rational targets for new anti-tumor strategies.

Performance Comparison of Phase Detectors for the Synchronization Analysis of Electroencephalographic Signal (뇌파신호의 동기해석을 위한 위상검출기의 성능비교)

  • Kim, HyeJin;Lee, JeeEun;Yoo, Sun K.
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.50 no.12
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2013
  • The analysis of phase synchronization characteristics from EEG signals is important for the understanding of information processing functionality in the brain network. In this paper, wavelet transformation(WT), Hilbert tansformation (HT), complex demodulation (CD) methods having time localization characteristics were applied to real evoked potential data and noise added simulation data with center frequencies corresponding to EEG bands for the estimation performance analysis of phase offset, phase changing point, and interband crosstalk. The WT is the best both in ${\delta}$, ${\theta}$, and ${\alpha}$ band signal decomposition, and in analyzing phase synchronization performance. The CD can be efficiently used in changing point detection under tolerant noise condition because of its abrupt performance degradation over noise endurance level. From experimental observations, the WT is the most suitable in phase synchronization application of EEG signal, and the CD can be affordable in restricted application such as changing point detection for higher bands than ${\delta}$. Particularly, WT and CD can be used to detect the changing instant of brain function by indirectly estimating the phase changing point.