• Title, Summary, Keyword: cost-benefit analysis

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Economic Evaluation of Vaccinations - a Methodologic Review (예방접종의 경제성 평가방법과 사례)

  • Chun, Byung Chul
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2008
  • The basis of the economic evaluation of vaccination is the balance between the use of the resources (input) and the improvements that result from the vaccination (output). Techniques used for economic evaluation of vaccination are cost analysis, cost-minimization analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis and cost-benefit analysis. Cost analysis seeks to characterize the costs of a given vaccination program. Cost-effective analysis is to helps policy-makers decide on the best use of allocated resources, whether cost-benefit analysis is to helps policy-makers decide on the overall allocation of resources. Cost-utility analysis is a specific form of cost-effective analysis in which outcomes are reduced to a common denominator such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) or disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Many economic analyses have been conducted on vaccines in the world, but there have been a little studies on economic evaluation on vaccines in Korea. This paper reviewed the methodology used to economic evaluation on vaccines and immunizations and addressed some examples of the methods.

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A Study on the Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Construction Method of Underground Railway Crossing (철도지하횡단공사 공법의 비용.편익 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Seok, Chong-Chen;Shin, Min-Ho;Eum, Ky-Yong;Kim, Mu-Il
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.407-413
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    • 2006
  • Railways are very important to get stability of railway structure as transportation system carrying a lot of passengers and freight. These days the construction of underground railway crossing such as expansion of new roads, construction of subway and gas pipe is increasing because of economic and social development. But these kinds of construction didn't take into account Cost-benefit analysis of railway which has the most important aspects of railway safety, so the results of construction didn't get a good evaluation. This study adapt Cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the economic validity of underground railway crossing. This study adjust about Cost-benefit analysis of railway part, and analyze the new method and technology of underground railway crossing constructed by Korean National Railroad and Railway Network Authority. Also this study divide between high frequency line and low frequency lineusing B/C, NPV, and IRR analysis. After analysis, B/C ratio method is the most suitable method among B/C, NPV, and IRR analysis method. Therefore this study can express economic benefit quantitatively and decrease the cost by adapting Cost-benefit analysis, and can clearly express the construction feasibility and investment effects of construction of underground railway crossing method.

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Comparison of Benefit Estimation Models in Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Case of Chronic Hypertension Management Programs

  • Lim, Ji-Young;Kim, Mi-Ja;Park, Chang-Gi;Kim, Jung-Yun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.750-757
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Cost-benefit analysis is one of the most commonly used economic evaluation methods, which helps to inform the economic value of a program to decision makers. However, the selection of a correct benefit estimation method remains critical for accurate cost-benefit analysis. This paper compared benefit estimations among three different benefit estimation models. Methods: Data from community-based chronic hypertension management programs in a city in South Korea were used. Three different benefit estimation methods were compared. The first was a standard deterministic estimation model; second, a repeated-measures deterministic estimation model; and third, a transitional probability estimation model. Results: The estimated net benefit of the three different methods were $1,273.01, $-3,749.42, and $-5,122.55 respectively. Conclusion: The transitional probability estimation model showed the most correct and realistic benefit estimation, as it traced possible paths of changing status between time points and it accounted for both positive and negative benefits.

A Study on the Cost Benefit Analysis Model of Vessel Traffic Services(II) (선박교통관리제도의 비용편익분석모델에 관한 연구(II))

  • 정재용;박진수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 2001
  • The introduction of coastal vessel traffic services enables vessels in coastal waters to navigate in safety or to get her position with ease and prevents the vessel from becoming cause of casualties. But it needs relatively huge amount of cost to construct and operate and maintain. Thus we must be checked with economical adequacy of the the proposed coastal vessel traffic services by comparing the cost of the construction, operation and maintenance with the expected benefit made by the expected decrease in marine casualties. In previous paper, a proper cost-benefit analysis model for the Korean practice will be suggested. In this Paper, the proposed the cost-benefit analysis model of coastal vessel traffic services was applied to the Koje coastal waters 20mi1es from the top of Maemul-Do and Yokchi-Do. As the result, we confirmed the propriety of the cost-benefit analysis with the application of the proposed model to Koje waters. Also, it is verified that the introduction of coastal vessel traffic services, as proposed, is adequate and economical. The cost-benefit analysis model proposed in this study could be used to investigate the economic Propriety of new aids to navigation and traffic safety facilities in the future.

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Cost-Benefit Analysis of Integrated Information System for Materials & Parts Industry (부품소재 산업 통합 정보화 비용 편익 분석)

  • 김윤종;문영호
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate validity of integrated information system for materials & parts industry. This purpose is carried out using cost-benefit analysis. In cost analysis, we use a present value of budget of KISTI. In Benefit analysis, we use a present value of investment on information of materials & parts industry. In the result of cost-benefit analysis, us can find that cost-benefit ratio is 4.67.

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Improvement Scheme on Green Construction Cost & Benefit through Analyzing Trends and Case Studies (해외사례조사를 통한 녹색건설 비용 및 편익 정보 체계의 개선 방향)

  • Kim, Won-Tae;Choi, Seok-In;Chang, Chul-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.44-54
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    • 2013
  • As a green construction is a world-wide hot issue, Korean government is also putting forth a multilateral effort into reducing energy usage with setting aggressive goal under green growth policy. It is essential to analyse cost raised from designing and building green construction and benefit derived from the built facility for the sustainable green construction. However, compared to advanced countries in terms of green construction, there is lack of data and a systematic way for data collection and analysis in Korea. Without analyzing the cost-benefit of green construction, investors will hesitate to put his/her money into green construction and we can not expect its growth in construction industry. In this paper, cost of green construction was defined and categorized. Through case studies and various reports on cost-benefit analysis in advanced green construction countries, problems in terms of data collection and analysis in domestic green construction sector and improvement ways were suggested. The results of this study will contribute in classification of cost and benefit of green construction, data collection in systematic way, and increasing the feasibility of green construction via appropriate analysis on cost-benefit of green construction.

Cost Benefit Analysis on the Economic Effect of the Water Fluoridation Program in Some Area of Cheong-Ju City (청주시 일부지역의 수돗물불소화사업 비용-편익 분석)

  • 정희웅;안형식;박형근;문혁수;조수헌;이희영;윤석준
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.23-45
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to evaluate economic effect of the water fluoridation program in Cheong-Ju City from 1982 to 2010. To study this economic effect, this study used cost-benefit analysis methodology from eight years old to fourteen years old in Cheong-Ju City. Major findings were as follows; First, total cost of fluoridation program in Cheong-Ju City was 1,384,164,734 korean won and total benefit was 15,057,426,621 Korean won from 1982 to 2010. Second, total cost which was converted by present value 2000 year was 1,687,412,718 won and total benefit which was converted by present value 2000 year was 14,582,548,519 Korean won. Cost-benefit ratio was 8.64. Net present value which happened from 1982 to 2000 was 7,990,710,155 Korean won and cost benefit ratio was 7.47. In conclusion, by the above result, economic impact of the water fluoridation program was very effective for children in some area of Cheong-Ju city.

Benefit/Cost Analysis of Form Work Methods for Composite Basement Wall in Building Constructions (건축물의 합성 지하옹벽 거푸집에 대한 편익·비용 분석 연구)

  • Kim, Jae Yeob;Kim, Gwang-Hee;Ahn, Sung-Hoon;Lee, Ji-Young
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2008
  • This study surveys the types of form works used for constructing composite basement walls found in domestic construction sites. Based on expert surveys, the research provides criteria for selecting a form work type and cost-benefit analysis for different types of form works. In selecting a form work type, safety was considered the most important factor. It is induced from the survey that a successful construction requires a form work type that could solidly bear the lateral pressure of concrete rather than other types that cut back the cost and shorten the construction period. In the cost-benefit analysis, the benefit was the highest in 'euro-form+soldier system', and the cost was most competent in 'rib-lath+soldier system'. In considering benefit and cost together, 'euro-form+soldier system' was judged to be the best option. This is likely to be attributed to the following reasons: site workers are familiar with euro-forms because it is the most widely used; and, soldier system is more reliable in bearing lateral pressure compared to steel pipes.

A Study on Benefit Cost Analysis of Chungju UIS (청주시 도시정보시스템의 비용편익분석 연구)

  • Kim, Kwang Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2003
  • Recently, urban information system(UIS) has been developed and utilized by local governments in Korea and has become a key means of urban informatization of local governments. When UIS is conducted only for FM oriented internal utilization regardless of its cost-efficiency, however, its cost-benefit structure could be distorted seriously. The study utilizes benefit cost analysis technique and applied the technique to a model case of Chungju UIS selected by National GIS team. Chungju City developed its GIS for the management of roads and urban planning in 1993. At its beginning, the system was an efficient model with relatively strong cost-benefit structure and could produce positive net benefit 10 years' after its construction. When the city began to develop its facility management with the financial assistance from central government in 1998, however, its cost-benefit structure became distorted. As a result, it is delayed for the UIS to produce positive net benefit until the year of 2015. Using benefit cost ratio, discount rate and Mobile GIS, the study also conducts a sensitivity analysis.

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Optimum Service Life Management Based on Probabilistic Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis (확률론적 생애주기비용-이익분석 기반 수명관리 최적화 기법)

  • Kim, Sunyong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2016
  • Engineering structures including civil infrastructures require a life-cycle cost and benefit during their service lives. The service life of a structure can be extended through appropriate inspection and maintenance actions. In general, this service life extension requires more life-cycle cost and cumulative benefit. For this reason, structure managers need to make a rational decision regarding the service life management considering both the cost and benefit simultaneously. In this paper, the probabilistic decision tool to determine the optimal service life based on cost-benefit analysis is presented. This decision tool requires an estimation of the time-dependent effective cost-benefit under uncertainty to formulate the optimization problem. The effective cost-benefit is expressed by the difference between the cumulative benefit and life-cycle cost of a deteriorating structure over time. The objective of the optimization problem is maximizing the effective cost-benefit, and the associated solutions are the optimal service life and maintenance interventions. The decision tool presented in this paper can be applied to any deteriorating engineering structure.