• Title/Summary/Keyword: corpus cavernosum

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Effects of Lycii fructus Extracts on the Erectile Dysfunction by Chronic Ethanol Consumption in Rats (에탄올 음용으로 유도된 발기부전 동물모델에 대한 구기자 추출물의 개선효과)

  • Jung, Se Hee;Kim, Jung Hoon;Oh, Hong Geun;Shin, Eun Hye;Lee, Bong Gun;Park, Sang Hoon;Moon, Dae In;Park, Young Mi;Han, Ju Hee;Han, Jong Hyun;Park, Kwang Hyun;Park, Jong Sang;Han, Seung Jun;Ryu, Do Gon;Gwon, Gang Beom;Lee, Young Rae;Kim, Ok Jin;Lee, Hak Yong
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.625-630
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    • 2013
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects millions of men worldwide. ED is now considered an early manifestation of atherosclerosis, and consequently, a precursor of systemic vascular disease. Lycii fructus extracts (LFE) were administered for 4 weeks to assess the improving effects on ED. Animals were divided into one normal group and four LFE-treated groups (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 g/kg). We induced ED in the study animals by oral administration of 20% ethanol instead of water everyday for 4 weeks. This study was designed to investigate the effects of LFE on the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression; NO levels of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP); blood profile; and erectile response of the corpus cavernosum of the rat penis. The libido of the LFE-administered male rats was higher than that of the ethanol control group. The erectile response of the corpus cavernosum was restored after LFE administration, to a level similar to the normal group. In addition, the iNOS in the corpus cavernosum of the male rats administered LFE decreased. In contrast, compared to the control group, LFE-administered male rats showed increased eNOS, NO and cGMP levels in the corpus cavernosum. These results indicate that LFE effectively restored ethanol-induced ED in male rats.

The Effects of Herbal Formula (KH-204) on the Penile Erection and Corpus Cavernosum of Spontaneous Hypertensive Male Rats (본태성 고혈압 수컷 흰쥐에서 복합생약제제 (KH-204)가 음경발기 및 음경해면체 조직에 미치는 효과)

  • Sohn, Dong-Wan;Yoon, Byung-Il;Kim, Sung-Dae;Lee, Eun-Jeong;Kim, Hee-Seok;Hwang, Sung-Wan;Hwang, Sung-Yeoun;Kim, Du-Bae;Kim, Hyun-Woo;Cho, Yong-Hyun;Kim, Sae-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.38 no.3 s.150
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 2007
  • The herbal formulation (KH-204) mainly consisted of the fruits of Lycium chinense, Cornus officinalis, Rubus coreanus, Cuscuta chinensis and Schizandra chinensis. We investigated the effects of this herbal formulation on the penile erection and corpus cavernosum of spontaneous hypertensive male Rats (SHR). We used male SHR aged 16 weeks as a model of hypertension. The treatment groups received once a day oral doses KH-204 100 and 300 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks. Distilled water was administered in the control group. To investigate the penile erection, intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded in all groups. We analyzed the distribution of NOS by immunohistochemical staining and the expression of nNOS, eNOS concentration in the isolated corpus cavernosum by western blotting. In the control group, ICP/MAP ratio was $14.9{\pm}1.4%$ after pelvic nerve stimulation. ICP/MAP ratio was markedly increased in the treatment group with KH-204 100, 300 mg/kg, compared with control group. Immunohistochemical staining for NOS showed that eNOS and nNOS was stained as brown color. Compared with the control group, NOS activities of KH-204 100, 300 mg/kg were increased significantly. Also the penile expression levels of nNOS, eNOS in KH-204 100, 300 mg/kg treatment group were more increased significantly than control group by western blotting. This study showed that KH-204 enhances the penile erection and the level of eNOS and nNOS expression of penile corpus cavernosum of male SHR.

The Effect of Scoparone from Artemisia Capillaris on the Smooth Muscle of Rabbit Penile Corpus Cavernosum (토끼의 음경해면체평활근에 대한 인진쑥 성분인 scoparone의 효과)

  • Kim, Hye-Kyung;Park, Jong-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: 본 연구는 토끼의 음경해면체 조직에 대한 인진쑥의 에탄올 추출물과 그 성분 중의 하나인 scoparone의 효능을 평가하고자 하였다. Methods: 체중이 2.5-3.0 Kg의 New Zealand백색 가토를 사용하여 음경 전체를 골반골로부터 분리하여 요도를 제거한 후 백막을 보유한 음경해면체를 2 mL organ chamber 관류모형에 연결하고, $10^{-5}M$의 phenylephrine을 관류하여 음경해면체를 수축시킨 후 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/mL의 에탄올 추출물 또는 $10^{-7}$, $10^{-6}$, $10^{-5}$, $10^{-4}M$의 scoparone을 녹인 용액으로 관류시켜 음경의 장력 변화를 측정하였다. 기존의 발기부전 치료제로 사용되는 실데나필에 대한 인진쑥과의 상호작용을 검토하기 위하여$10^{-6}M$의 scoparone과 $10^{-8}M$의 실데나필을 병용 사용 시 음경해면체 조직에 대한 효과도 함께 검토하였다. Results: 인진쑥의 에탄올 추출물은 phenylephrine으로 전처리하여 수축시킨 음경해면체 평활근을 농도 의존적으로 효과적으로 이완시켰으며 scoparone도 음경해면체 조직에 대한 이완작용 또한 농도 의존적으로 강한 효과를 나타내었다. 실데나필로 전처리한 음경해면체 조직에 대한 scoparone의 효과는 scoparone만을 단독으로 관류시킨 조직에서의 효과보다 강하게 나타났으며 실데나필과 scoparone의 병용사용은 실데나필의 효능을 2배 이상 증가시켰다. Conclusions: Scoparone은 실데나필의 음경해면체평활근 작용을 증가시킴으로써 실데나필에 완전히 반응하지 않는 환자들의 발기부전 치료효과 향상에 유용할 것으로 전망된다.

Erectogenic Effect of the Selective Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor DA-8159

  • Oh, Tae-Young;Kang, Kyung-Koo;Ahn, Byoung-Ok;Yoo, Moo-hi;Kim, Won-Bae
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.471-476
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    • 2000
  • DA-8159, a new phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, was assessed for its erectogenic potential by a penile erection test in rats, the relaxation of isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum (CC), and estimation of the intracavernous pressure (ICP) in the anesthetized dog. Oral administration of DA-8159 (0.3 to 1 ${\mu}g/kg$ ) increased the number of erections in rats with increasing dosage, with the highest penile erection index at 10 ${\mu}g/kg$ DA-8159 induced the relaxation of phenylephrine (PHE)-induced contractions in the rabbit CC and decreased the $IC_{50}$ of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent fashion. In pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs, the intravenous administration of DA-8159 (1~300 ${\mu}g/kg$ ) potentiated the increase in ICP induced by the intracavernosal SNP in a dose-related manner. These findings suggest that DA-8159 has significant therapeutic potential in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

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Effect of Gamigyuibi-tang on the Penile Erection Induced by Apomorphine Hel and Erectic Dysfunction Induced by p,p-DDE (가미귀비탕이 환경호르몬(p, p-DDE)에 의한 발기부전 및 염산 Apomorpine의 penile erection에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang Joo Min;Kang Dong Yun;Byun Sung Hui;Kim Eun Ha;Kim Sang Chan
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.980-990
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    • 2003
  • The effect of Gamigyuibi-tang on the penile erection induced by apomorphine HCI and on the erectile dysfunction induced by p,p-DDE, an environmental hormone derivate of DOT, were monitored using male cats. The changes of penile length, diameter, erectic periods and histological profiles of corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum were observed with blood testosterone levels. In conclusion, dose-dependent and significant increase of penile length, diameter, erectic periods and blood testosterone levels were detected in the Gamigyuibitang-dosing groups compared to other groups. In addition, it is also demonstrated that the increasement of congestion of blood vessels and dilation of connective tissues, and decreasement of adipocytes in the corpus cavernosum and/or corpus spongiosum of the Gamigyuibitang-dosing groups. According to these results, it is considered that Gamigyuibitang has some augmentation effect against to apomorphine HCI inducing penile erection and it also suggested that Gamigyuibitang has favorable effect to treatment of erectic dysfunctions induced by p,p-DDE.

Mechanism of Erectogenic Effect of the Selective Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor, DA-8159

  • Doh, Hyoun-Mie;Shin, Chang-Yell;Son, Mi-Won;Ko, Jun-Il;Yoo, Moo-Hi;Kim, Soon-Hoe;Kim, Won-Bae
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.873-878
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    • 2002
  • OA-8159, a new Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 inhibitor, has exhibited potent erectogenic potential in a penile erection test in rats and anesthetized dogs. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of its erectogenic activity by measuring the activity of OA-8159 against a various PDE isozymes and assessing cGMP and cAMP formation in a rabbit corpus cavernosum in vitro. DA-8159 inhibited the PDE 5 activity in rabbit and human platelets, which the $IC_{50}$ was 5.84$\pm$1.70 nM and 8.25$\pm$2.90 nM, respectively. The $IC_{50}$ of DA-8159 on PDE 1, PDE2, PDE 3 and PDE 6 were 870$\pm$57.4 nM, $101\pm$5 $\mu$M, 52.0$\pm$3.53 $\mu$M and 53.3$\pm$2.47 nM, respectively. This suggests that DA-8159 is a potent, highly selective, competitive inhibitor of PDE 5-catalyzed cGMP hydrolysis. The rates of cGMP hydrolysis catalyzed by human platelets-derived PDE 5 as a function of the cGMP concentration (5~100 nM) and two-fixed DA-8159 concentration (11.3 and 18.8 nM) were investigated in order to characterize the mode of PDE 5 inhibition by DA-8159. DA-8159 increased the apparent 4K_{m}$ value for cGMP hydrolysis but had no effect on the apparent $V_{max}$, indicating a competitive mode of inhibition. DA-8159 increased the cGMP concentrations in the rabbit corpus cavernosum dose dependently. In the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), DA-8159 significantly sti\mulated the accu\mulation of cGMP when compared to the control level. This indicated that the enhancement of a penile erection by DA-8159 involved the relaxation of the cavernosal smooth \muscle by NO-sti\mulated cGMP accu\mulation. In conclusion, DA-8159 is a selective inhibitor of PDE 5-catalyzed cGMP hydrolysis and the enhancement of a penile erection by DA-8159 is mediated by the relaxation of the cavernosal smooth \muscle by the NO-sti\mulated cGMP accu\mulation.

Ginsenoside Re Enriched Fraction (GS-F3K1) from Ginseng Berries Ameliorates Ethanol-Induced Erectile Dysfunction via Nitric Oxide-cGMP Pathway

  • Pyo, Mi Kyung;Park, Kwang-Hyun;Oh, Myeong Hwan;Lee, Hwan;Park, Young Sik;Kim, Na Young;Park, So Hee;Song, Ji Hye;Park, Jong Dae;Jung, Se-Hee;Lee, Bong-Gun;Won, Beom Young;Shin, Ki Young;Lee, Hyung Gun
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2016
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects millions of men and considered to be an early symptom of atherosclerosis and a precursor of various systemic vascular disorders. The aim of the present study was to prepare ginsenoside Re enriched fraction (GS-F3K1, ginsenoside Re 10%, w/w) from ginseng berries flesh and to investigate the enhanced activities of GS-F3K1 on alcohol-induced ED. GS-F3K1 was prepared by the continuous liquid and solid separating centrifugation and circulatory ultrafiltration from ginseng berries flesh. GS-F3K1 was administered for 5 weeks in ethanol-induced ED rat by oral administration of 20% ethanol. To investigate the effects of GS-F3K1 on ED model, the levels of nitrite expression, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and erectile response of the penile corpus cavernosum of rat were measured. The erectile response of the corpus cavernosum was restored after GS-F3K1 administration, to a level similar to the normal group. The level of nitrite and cGMP expression in the corpus cavernosum of GS-F3K1-administered male rats was increased significantly compared to positive control group. GS-F3K1 from ginseng berries should effectively restore ethanol-induced ED in male rats and could be developed as a new functional food for the elderly men.

Effects of KH204 on the Relaxation Response of Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum and Reproductive Function in Male Rats (토끼 음경해면체평활근 이완 및 10주간 경구투여한 흰쥐의 생식기능에 미치는 KH204의 효과)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ji;Lee, Eun-Jeong;Kim, Hee-Seok;Kim, Si-Na;Hwang, Sung-Yeoun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.847-852
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    • 2006
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of KH204 on the relaxation response and reproductive function in male. Strips of rabbit corpus cavernosum were prepared for mounting and isometric tension measurement in an organ bath. On cavernosal strips contracted with $1{\times}10^{-6}$ phenylephrine and KH204 was applied in increasing concentrations from 0, 61, 183 and 549 mg/L, causing dose-dependent relaxation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with 61, 183 and 549 mg/kg/day of KH204 for 10 weeks. We examined organ weights, testicular sperm head counts, epididymal sperm counts, motility and morphology. KH204 relaxed rabbit corpus cavernosal strip contracted by $1{\times}10^{-6}$ phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. In the male rat, testicular weight was increased significantly in the KH204 treated groups compared with control group. Also in the testicular sperm head counts, epididymal sperm counts were increased significantly in the KH204-treated rats. In conclusion, the data suggest that KH204 could enhance erectile and reproductive function.

The Action of Ginkgo Bibloba Extract in the Isolated Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum

  • Chung, Woo-Sik;Choi, Young-Deuk;Park, Young-Yo;Hah, Jong-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 1995
  • The extract of Ginkgo bibloba (EGb) is a complex mixture of natural products from the Ginkgo leaves and clinically used for the treatment of cerebral and peripheral circulatory disturbances due to its combined activity of several vasoactive principles. In this study we investigated the action of EGb and its mechanism in isolated rabbit corporal smooth muscle to evaluate the possibility of using this material as a pharmacoerecting agent. Strips of rabbit corpus cavernosum were mounted in organ chambers to measure isometric tension. EGb began to exert an relaxing effect at 1 mg/ml in the submaximally precontracted muscle strips with phenylephrine $(PHE,\;5{\times}10^{-6}\;M)$; causing concentration-dependent relaxation with maximal effect at $3{\sim}5\;mg/ml$. That relaxation was partially inhibited by removal of the smooth muscle endothelium or by pretreatment with a NO scavenger, pyrogallol $(10^{-4}\;M)$ or the guanylate cyclase inhibitor, methylene blue $(10^{-4}\;M)$. Pretreatment with EGb (3 mg/ml) inhibited PHE- $(5{\times}10^{-6}\;M)$ or KCI- (20 and 40 mM) induced contraction of muscle strip. In calcium-free high potassium solution EGb depressed the basal tone of the depolarized muscle strip and inhibited calcium-induced contraction when $CaCl_2$ $(10^{-4}\;M)$ was added. These results suggest that EGb relaxes rabbit corpus cavernosal smooth muscle through multiple action mechanisms that include increasing the release of nitric oxide from the corporal sinusoidal endothelium, sequestration of intracytosolic calcium, and maybe a hyperpolarizing action.

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Effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract and gomisin A on the contractility of penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle: a potential mechanism through the nitric oxide - cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway

  • Choi, Bo Ram;Kim, Hye Kyung;Park, Jong Kwan
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.291-297
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of the Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SC) and its major compound gomisin A (GA), on the contractility of rabbit penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (PCCSM). MATERIALS/METHODS: PCCSM was exposed to SC or GA after appropriate pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker, guanylate cyclase blocker, adenylyl cyclase blocker or protein kinase A blocker. Subsequently, we evaluated the cyclic nucleotide in the perfusate by radioimmunoassay, protein expression level of neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) by western blot, and the interaction of SC or GA with udenafil and rolipram. RESULTS: Both SC and GA induce PCCSM relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with NOS blocker, guanylate cyclase blocker, adenylyl cyclase blocker or protein kinase A blocker result in significantly decreased relaxation. SC and GA also induce the levels of cyclic nucleotide in the perfusate in a concentration-dependent manner. Perfusion with GA also showed significantly higher levels of eNOS protein. Furthermore, the udenafil and rolipram induced relaxations of PCCSM were enhanced after exposure to SC and GA. Our results indicate that SC and GA induce the relaxation of PCCSM via the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP and cAMP signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The SC and GA are potential alternative treatments for men who want to consume natural products to ameliorate erectile function, or who do not respond to the commercially available medicines.