• Title/Summary/Keyword: corpus cavernosum

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Effects of Torilis Fructus Extract on the Relaxation of Corpus Cavernosum (음경해면체 이완작용에 미치는 사상자(蛇床子)의 효과)

  • Kim, Ho Hyun;Ahn, Sang Hyun;Park, Sun Young
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 2018
  • In order to define the effect of Torilis Fructus(TF) extract which has been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, experiments were carried out by organ bath study, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. First, in the organ bath study, when TF extract was administered to the maxillary contracted corpus cavernosum by PE ($10^{-6}M$), there was a significant relaxation effect on corpus cavernosum at concentration of 1, $3mg/m{\ell}$. Compared with the absence of $\text\tiny{L}$-NNA pretreatmen, pretreatment of $\text\tiny{L}$-NNA was inhibited the relaxation effect of penile corpus cavernosum. In the immunohistochemical study, the eNOS positive reaction was significantly increased, and the PDE5 positive reaction was significantly decreased due to the administration of TF extract. Therefore, it show that the TF enhances the production of eNOS and NO, inhibits PDE5 which blocks the action of increased cGMP, relaxes the corpus cavernosum. So TF relaxes the corpus cavernosum and it can be used as a safer erectile dysfunction treatment.

Relaxation Effects of Eucomiae Cortex in Isolated Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle (杜冲의 토끼 음경해면체 평활근 이완효과)

  • Park, Sun Young
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.485-491
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    • 2015
  • This study was aimed to investigate the relaxation effects of Eucomiae Cortex (EC) extract in isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and its mechanism. To evaluate the relaxation of EC extract in rabbit corpus cavernosum, EC extract was treated in corporal strips which were precontracted with phenylephrine(PE). To study its mechanism, Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) was pretreated after infuse of EC extract and compared with non-treated. In calcium chloride (Ca2+) -free krebs solution, EC extract and Ca2+ 1 mM were infused by turns after Ca2+ 1 mM was treated into corporal strips contracted by PE. Cell ability, nitric oxide (NO) and epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) were measured by MTT assay, Griess reagent system and histochemical, immunohistochemical methods. EC extract showed a significant relaxation effects on the corporal strips, this effects were inhibited by pretreatment of L-NNA. EC extract inhibited the increase of contraction by Ca2+ influx in Ca2+-free krebs solution, and eNOS positive reaction in corpus cavernosum, NO production in HUVEC increased by treatment of EC extract. These result suggest that the relaxation effects of EC extract in isolated corpus cavernosum smooth muscle are involved in increase of eNOS and NO production, blocking of extracellular Ca2+ influx.

Nicotine in High Concentration Causes Contraction of Isolated Strips of Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum

  • Nguyen, Hoai Bac;Lee, Shin Young;Park, Soo Hyun;Han, Jun Hyun;Lee, Moo Yeol;Myung, Soon Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.257-262
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    • 2015
  • It is well known that cigarette smoke can cause erectile dysfunction by affecting the penile vascular system. However, the exact effects of nicotine on the corpus cavernosum remains poorly understood. Nicotine has been reported to cause relaxation of the corpus cavernosum; it has also been reported to cause both contraction and relaxation. Therefore, high concentrations of nicotine were studied in strips from the rabbit corpus cavernosum to better understand its effects. The proximal penile corpus cavernosal strips from male rabbits weighing approximately 4 kg were used in organ bath studies. Nicotine in high concentrations ($10^{-5}{\sim}10^{-4}M$) produced dose-dependent contractions of the corpus cavernosal strips. The incubation with $10^{-5}M$ hexamethonium (nicotinic receptor antagonist) significantly inhibited the magnitude of the nicotine associated contractions. The nicotine-induced contractions were not only significantly inhibited by pretreatment with $10^{-5}M$ indomethacin (nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and with $10^{-6}M$ NS-398 (selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), but also with $10^{-6}M$ Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor). Ozagrel (thromboxane $A_2$ synthase inhibitor) and SQ-29548 (highly selective TP receptor antagonist) pretreatments significantly reduced the nicotine-induced contractile amplitude of the strips. High concentrations of nicotine caused contraction of isolated rabbit corpus cavernosal strips. This contraction appeared to be mediated by activation of nicotinic receptors. Rho-kinase and cyclooxygenase pathways, especially cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane $A_2$, might play a pivotal role in the mechanism associated with nicotine-induced contraction of the rabbit corpus cavernosum.

Relaxation Effects of Corni Fructus Water Extract on Corpus Cavernosum (음경해면체에 미치는 산수유(山茱萸) 물 추출물의 이완효과)

  • Park, Sun Young;Ahn, Sang Hyun;Kim, Ho Hyun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 2017
  • To investigate the effect of Corni Fructus(CF) water extracts on the relaxation of the corpus cavernosum, organ bath studies, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used and obtained the following results. In the organ bath study, the maximal contraction of the corpus cavernosum tissue by PE showed a significant relaxation effect at $3.0mg/m{\ell}$ of CF water extract. When ${\text\tiny{L}}$-NNA was pretreated corpuscular relaxation effect of CF water extract was significantly inhibited compared without ${\text\tiny{L}}$-NNA pretreatment. In $Ca^{2+}$-free solution, the increase of contraction due to $Ca^{2+}$ influx significantly inhibited in the pretreatment compared with no pretreatment of CF water extract. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies showed that the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fiber was increased in the CF group compared to the PE group in the corpus cavernosum, and the eNOS positive reaction increased and the PDE5 positive reaction decreased. These results suggest that CF extract has increased NO production through activation of eNOS and inhibited the action of PDE5 to block the extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ influx, thereby relaxing the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum.

Effects of Oja-Shingiwhan in Contracted Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle (五子腎氣丸이 음경해면체 평활근의 수축에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jeong Su;Ahn, Sang Hyun;Park, Sun Young
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.308-313
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Oja-Shingiwhan(OS) in contracted corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and its mechanism. To evaluate the relaxation of OS in contracted corpus cavernosum, OS was treated in strips which were precontracted with phenylephrine(PE). To examine its mechanism, OS was treated into corporal strips contracted by PE after pretreatment of Nω-nitro-L-arginine(L-NNA) and compared with non-pretreatment of L-NNA. In calcium chloride(Ca2+)-free krebs solution, Ca2+ 1 mM was treated into corporal strips contracted by PE after pretreatment of OS and compared with non-pretreatment of OS. action were measured by histochemical, immunohistochemical methods. OS significantly affected on the relaxation of corporal strips, and the relaxation effects were inhibited by pretreatment of L-NNA. Contractions induced by Ca2+ influx were inhibited by pretreatment of OS in Ca2+-free krebs solution. OS increased eNOS positive reaction in corpus cavernosum, but decreased PDE-5 positive reaction. These result suggest that the effect of OS in contracted corpus cavernosum smooth muscle are shown by suppressing extracellular Ca2+ influx and increase of eNOS, NO production and decrease of PDE-5.

Effect of Acorus Gramineus on the Relaxation of Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle (석창포에 의한 발기부전 개선 효과)

  • Li, Xiang;Kim, Ho-Tae;Lee, Jae-Yun;Lee, Yun-Jung;Shin, Hong-Kyun;Kang, Dae-Gill;Lee, Ho-Sub
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.863-869
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    • 2011
  • The aim of the present study is to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Acorus gramineus Soland (EAG) augments penile erection in vitro and in vivo experiment. Preconstructed with phenylephrine (PE) in isolated endothelium-intact rabbit corpus cavernosum, EAG relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-argininemethylester (L-NAME), a nitricoxide synthase inhibitor, and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-${\alpha}$]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanylylcyclase (sGC) inhibitor, respectively. EAG-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA), a nonselective $K^+$ channel blocker. EAG increased cGMP levels of the rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in cAMP levels. In addition, EAG caused increase of peak intracavernous pressure (ICP), ICP/MAP ratio and area under the carve (AUC) in SD rats. Taken together, these results suggest that EAG augments penile erection via NO-cGMP system and $K^+$ channels in corpus cavernosum.

Relaxing Effects of Acanthopanacis Cortex through NO Production and PDE-5 Inhibition in Corpus Cavernosum (오가피의 NO 생성과 PDE-5 억제를 통한 음경해면체 이완효과)

  • Kim, Ho Hyun;Park, Sun Young
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 2017
  • This study was aimed to examine relaxing effects of Acanthopanacis cortex(AC) through nitric oxide(NO) production and phosphodiesterase type 5(PDE-5) inhibition in corpus cavernosum. In order to define the relaxation effects of AC extract, rabbit corpus cavernous tissues were prepared in $2{\times}2{\times}8mm$ sized strip. AC extract ($0.01-3.0mg/m{\ell}$) were treated in contracted strips induced by phenylephrine(PE) and $N{\omega}$-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) was treated before AC extract-treated. And calcium chloride($Ca^{2+}$) 1 mM was infused into precontracted strips after pretreatment of AC extract in $Ca^{2+}-free$ krebs-ringer solution. When AC extract was applied to human umbilical vein endothelial cell(HUVEC), cell viability was measured by MTT assay, and NO concentration was measured by Griess reagent system. Ratio of smooth muscles to collagen fibers and eNOS, PDE-5 positive reaction were measured by histochemical and immunohistochemical process on mice corpus cavernosum. AC extract significantly affected relaxion of the cavernous strips, and the pretreatment of L-NNA inhibited AC extract-induced relaxation. Contraction induced by the addition of $Ca^{2+}$ was inhibited by treatment with the AC extract in $Ca^{2+}-free$ solution. In AC group, NO concentration, ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers, and eNOS positive reaction were increased, PDE-5 positive reaction was decreased compared to PE group. As a result of the above experiment, it was thought that AC extract inhibits the inflow of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ by activating cGMP through the increase of eNOS / NO and the decrease of PDE-5 which inhibits cGMP activity, in the corpus cavernosum.

The Role of Nitric Oxide in Non-adrenergic Non-cholinergic Relaxation in the Rabbit Penile Corpus Cavernosum (토끼 음경해면체의 비-아드레날린 비-콜린성 이완반응에서 산화질소의 역할)

  • Park, Mi-Sun;Kim, Jin-Bo;Hong, Eun-Ju;Hong, Sung-Cheul
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.370-380
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    • 1997
  • The role of nitric oxide (NO) on the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxations induced by the short and prolonged electrical field stimulation (EFS) has been studied in the rabbit corpus cavernosum. In the presence of atropine and guanethidine the prolonged EFS (2-16 Hz) of corpus cavernosal strips precontracted with phenylephrine produced frequency-dependent relaxations, which were abolished by tetrodotoxin as shown in the relaxations induced gy the short EFS, indicating that their orgin is NANC nerve stimulation. $N^G$-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), inhibitor of nitirc oxide synthase, caused a concentration-dependent inhibition to the NANC relaxation, and at 100 M L-NNA the relaxation were virtually abolished. The inhibitory effect of L-NNA was reversed by L-arginine. Hemoglobin abolished the relaxations to NO and also caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NANC relaxation. The hemoglobin-resistant relaxation induced by EFS was eliminated by L-NNA. Methylene blue significantly reduced the NANC relaxation in a conentration-dependent manner. The NANC relaxation was not affected by a VIP-inactivating pepridase, alpha0chymotrypsin, whereas VIP-induced relaxation was completely abolished. NO- and VIP-induced relaxation were not affected by L-NNA. These results indicate that the NANC relaxation induced by prolonged EFS of the rabbit corpus cavernosum is mediated by NO-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate pathway as shown in the relaxation induced by the short EFS, and that VIP release is not essential for the NANC relaxation of the rabbit corpus cavernosum and VIP is not involved the generation fo NO.

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The Relaxation Effects of Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus on Isolated Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle (益智仁의 음경해면체 평활근 이완효과)

  • Park, Sun-Young
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : These present study was designed to investigate the relaxation effects of Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus(AOF) on isolated corpus cavernosum smooth muscle.Methods : Rabbit corpus cavernous tissues were prepared in strip. Then relaxation responses of AOF at 0.01-3 ㎎/㎖ in contracted strips induced by phenylephrine(PE) were measured. To evaluate mechanisms, indomethacin(IM) tetraethylammonium chloride(TEA), Nω-nitro-L-arginine(L-NNA), methylene blue(MB) were treated before AOF extract(0.1-3 ㎎/㎖) infused into precontracted strips induced by PE. And 1 mM Ca2+was infused into precontracted strips after pretreatment of AOF extract(3 ㎎/㎖) in Ca2+-free krebs-ringer solution. NO concentration was measured by Griess reagent system. Ratio of smooth muscles to collagen fibers and eNOS positive reaction were measured by histocheminal and immunohistochemical process.Results : The cavernous strips were significantly relaxed by AOF extract 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 ㎎/㎖ and the pretreatment with IM 10 μM,L-NNA 100 μM, MB 10 μM inhibited relaxation of AOF compared to non-pretreatment, but the pretreatment with TEA 100 μM didn't affect relaxation of AOF. In a Ca2+-free solution, pretreatment with AOF reduced increase on contraction of strips by Ca2+supply than non-pretreatment. On HUVEC, NO concentration was increased. On corpus cavernosum of penis in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, ratio of smooth muscles to collagen fibers and eNOS positive reaction in AOF group were increased compared to PE groupConclusions : Taken this results, we can suggest that AOF extract exerts a relaxation effects on rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in part by suppressing influx of extracellular Ca2+throughout prostacyclin, the NO-cGMP system.

Effects of Crataegii fructus on the Contractile Response of Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum (산사(山査)가 토끼 음경해면체의 수축에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Han Seok;Park, Sun Young
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.602-610
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    • 2013
  • This study was aimed to evaluate the cavernosal relaxation effect of Crataegii fructus(CF) in the contracted rabbit penile corpus cavernosum by agonists.In order to study the effect of CF on the vasoconstriction of rabbit penile corpus cavernosum, isolated rabbit penile corpus cavernosum tissues were used for the experiment using organ baths containing Krebs solution.To investigate the cavernosal relaxation of CF, CF extract at $0.01{\sim}3.0mg/m{\ell}$ was added after penile corpus cavernosum were contracted by norepinephrine(NE) $1{\mu}M$. To analyze the mechanism of CF's vasorelaxation, CF extract infused into contracted penile tissues by NE after each treatment of indomethacin(IM), $N{\omega}$-nitro-L-arginine(L-NNA), methylene blue(MB), tetraethylammonium chloride(TEA).To study the effect of CF on influx of extracellular calcium chloride($Ca^{2+}$) in penile tissues, in $Ca^{2+}$-free krebs solution, $Ca^{2+}$ 1 mM infused into contracted penile tissues by NE after pretreatment of CF. Cytotoxic activity of CF on human umbilical vein endothelial cell(HUVEC) was measured by MTT assay, and nitric oxide(NO) prodution was measured by Griess reagent. CF relaxed cavernosal strip with endothelium contracted by NE, but in the strips without endothelium, CF-induced relaxation was significantly inhibited. The pretreatment of L-NNA, MB, TEA decreased significantly on the cavernosal relaxation than not-treatment of them. But the pretreatment of IM had no significant effect on the cavernosal relaxation. In $Ca^{2+}$-free krebs solution, when $Ca^{2+}$ infused into contracted penile tissues by NE, pretreatment of CF inhibit contraction induced by adding $Ca^{2+}$.NO production wasn't increased by treatment of CF on HUVEC. This findings showed that CF is effective for the relaxation of rabbit penile corpus cavernosum, and we suggest that CF relax rabbit corpus cavernosal smooth muscle through multiple action mechanisms that include increasing the release of nitric oxide from corporal sinusoidal endothelium, inhibition of $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization into cytosol from the extracellular fluid, and maybe a hyperpolarizing action.