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Fate of Heavy Metals in Activated Sludge: Sorption of Heavy Metal ions by Nocardia amarae

  • Kim, Dong-wook
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.2-4
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    • 1998
  • Proliferation of Nocardia amarae cells in activated sludge has often been associated with the generation of nuisance foams. Despite intense research activities in recent years to examine the causes and control of Nocardia foaming in activated sludge, the foaming continued to persist throughout the activated sludge treatment plants in United States. In addition to causing various operational problems to treatment processes, the presence of Nocardia may have secondary effects on the fate of heavy metals that are not well known. For example, for treatment plants facing more stringent metal removal requirements, potential metal removal by Nocardia cells in foaming activated sludge would be a welcome secondary effect. In contrast, with new viosolid disposal regulations in place (Code o( Federal Regulation No. 503), higher concentration of metals in biosolids from foaming activated sludge could create management problems. The goal of this research was to investigate the metal sorption property of Nocardia amarae cells grown in batch reactors and in chemostat reactors. Specific surface area and metal sorption characteristics of N. amarae cells harvested at various growth stages were compared. Three metals examined in this study were copper, cadmium and nickel. Nocardia amarae strain (SRWTP isolate) used in this study was obtained from the University of California at Berkeley. The pure culture was grown in 4L batch reactor containing mineral salt medium with sodium acetate as the sole carbon source. In order to quantify the sorption of heavy metal ions to N amarae cell surfaces, cells from the batch reactor were harvested, washed, and suspended in 30mL centrifuge tubes. Metal sorption studies were conducted at pH 7.0 and ionlc strength of 10-2M. The sorption Isotherm showed that the cells harvested from the stationary and endogenous growth phase exhibited significantly higher metal sorption capacity than the cells from the exponential phase. The sequence of preferential uptake of metals by N. amarae cells was Cu>Cd>Ni. The specific surFace area of Nocardia cells was determined by a dye adsorption method. N.amarae cells growing at ewponential phase had significantly less specific surface area than that of stationary phase, indicating that the lower metal sorption capacity of Nocardia cells growing at exponential phase may be due to the lower specific surface area. The growth conditions of Nocardia cells in continuous culture affect their cell surface properties, thereby governing the adsorption capacity of heavy metal. The comparison of dye sorption isotherms for Nocardia cells growing at various growth rates revealed that the cell surface area increased with increasing sludge age, indicating that the cell surface area is highly dependent on the steady-state growth rate. The highest specific surface area of 199m21g was obtained from N.amarae cell harvested at 0.33 day-1 of growth rate. This result suggests that growth condition not only alters the structure of Nocardia cell wall but also affects the surface area, thus yielding more binding sites of metal removal. After reaching the steady-state condition at dilution rate, metal adsorption isotherms were used to determine the equilibrium distributions of metals between aqueous and Nocardia cell surfaces. The metal sorption capacity of Nocardia biomass harvested from 0.33 day-1 of growth rate was significantly higher than that of cells harvested from 0.5- and 1-day-1 operation, indicatng that N.amarae cells with a lower growth rate have higher sorpion capacity. This result was in close agreement with the trend observed from the batch study. To evaluate the effect of Nocardia cells on the metal binding capacity of activated sludge, specific surface area and metal sorption capacity of the mixture of Nocardia pure cultures and activated sludge biomass were determined by a series of batch experiments. The higher levels of Nocardia cells in the Nocardia-activated sludge samples resulted in the higher specific surface area, explaining the higher metal sorption sites by the mixed luquor samples containing greater amounts on Nocardia cells. The effect of Nocardia cells on the metal sorption capacity of activated sludge was evaluated by spiking an activated sludge sample with various amounts of pre culture Nocardia cells. The results of the Langmuir isotherm model fitted to the metal sorption by various mixtures of Nocardia and activated sludge indicated that the mixture containing higher Nocardia levels had higher metal adsorption capacity than the mixture containing lower Nocardia levels. At Nocardia levels above 100mg/g VSS, the metal sorption capacity of activate sludge increased proportionally with the amount of Noeardia cells present in the mixed liquor, indicating that the presence of Nocardia may increase the viosorption capacity of activated sludge.

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Control of Cucumber Downy Mildew Using Resistant Cultivars and Organic Materials (저항성 품종과 유기농업자재를 활용한 오이 노균병 방제)

  • Kim, Yong-Ki;Park, So-Hyang;Um, Da-Om;Hong, Sung-Jun;Cho, Jung-Lai;Ahn, Nan-Hee;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jeong;Ko, Byeong-Gu
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2018
  • We selected eight resistant cultivars including 'Heukryongsamcheok', 'Heukgeumsolsamcheok' and 'Gangryeoksamcheok' showing high suppressive effect against cucumber downy mildew (CDM) through plastic film house and field trials in spring and autumn season in 2015. Of them, these three varieties, 'Heukryongsamcheok', 'Heukgeumsolsamcheok' and 'Gangryeoksamcheok' were used to evaluated suppressive effect against CDM by comparing disease severity (area under disease development progress curve, AUDPC) with those of three susceptible varieties under plastic film house condition. AUDPC of three resistant cultivars was in the range of 10.9 to 23.6, meanwhile those of three susceptible cultivars was in the range of 286.7 to 290.3. Consequently, we confirmed that cultivation of the selected resistant cultivars can reduce CDM in vivo. When disease severity (diseased leaf area) was investigated on a resistant cultivar ('Heukryongsamcheok') sprayed without any organic materials and susceptible cultivars sprayed single-, two times- and three times with Bordeaux mixture, sulfur-loess mixture and $Kocide^R$ (copper hydroxide), respectively, it was the lowest in the resistant cultivar plot compared to susceptible cultivar plots sprayed with any organic materials. In addition, we evaluated control effect of the selected resistant cultivar by comparing that of organic materials including lime sulfur mixture, Bordeaux mixture and garlic extract. As a result, Bordeaux mixture showed the highest control effect against CDM. AUDPC of Bordeaux mixture, resistant cultivar, lime sulfur, garlic extract and untreated control was 3.9, 10.6, 95.6, 24.9, and 258.7, respectively. Based on the above-mentioned results, we think that the resistant cultivars and Bordeaux mixture can be effectively used to control CDM as one of control measures under the farmhouse condition.

Removal of water pollutants and its application to swine wastewater treatment through the establishment of best optimal growth conditions of Ankistrodesmus bibraianus (Ankistrodesmus bibraianus의 최적 배양조건 설정을 통한 수질오염물질 제거 및 축산 폐수 처리 적용)

  • Hwang, In-Seong;Park, Young-Min;Lee, Ye-Eun;Kim, Deok-Won;Park, Ji-Su;Oh, Eun-Ji;Yoo, Jin;Chung, Keun-Yook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.82-92
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    • 2020
  • Since swine wastewater contains high concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals, it deteriorates water quality when discharged. Compared to conventional methods, bioremediation can be a promising method for its treatment. Specifically, microalgae have the potential to remove these pollutants. In this study, the removal of nutrients (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) and heavy metals (copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)) from swine wastewater by Ankistrodesmus bibraianus was evaluated and the organism's optimal growth conditions were investigated. The optimal growth conditions were established at 28℃, pH 7, and light and dark cycles of 14:10 h. The removal efficiencies of N and P by a single treatment (500, 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 mg L-1) ranged from 22.9 to 80.6% and from 11.9 to 50.0%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of N and P in the binary treatments ranged from 16.4 to 58.3% and from 7.80 to 49.8%, respectively. The removal efficiencies of Cu and Zn by a single treatment(10, 30, and 50 mg L-1) ranged from 15.5 to 81.5% and from 6.28 to 34.3%, respectively. Similarly, the removal efficiencies of Cu and Zn in the binary treatments ranged from 16.7 to 74.5% and from 5.58 to 27.5%, respectively. In addition, the study showed the optimal growth conditions for microalgae and the removal efficiency of nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals (Cu and Zn), which could be applied to swine wastewater. Based on the results in this study, it appears that Ankistrodesmus bibraianus could be used for the removal of nutrients and heavy metals present in swine wastewater.

A Study on the Applicability of Soilremediation Technology for Contaminated Sediment in Agro-livestock Reservoir (농축산저수지 오염퇴적토의 토양정화기술에 대한 적용성 연구)

  • Jung, Jaeyun;Chang, Yoonyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.157-181
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    • 2020
  • Sediments from rivers, lakes and marine ports serve as end points for pollutants discharged into the water, and at the same time serve as sources of pollutants that are continuously released into the water. Until now, the contaminated sediments have been landfilled or dumped at sea. Landfilling, however, was expensive and dumping at sea was completely banned due to the London Convention. Therefore, this study applied contaminated sedimentation soil of 'Royal Palace Livestock Complex' as soil purification method. Soil remediation methods were applied to pretreatment, composting, soil washing, electrokinetics, and thermal desorption by selecting overseas application cases and domestically applicable application technologies. As a result of surveying the site for pollutant characteristics, Disolved Oxigen (DO), Suspended Solid (SS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP) exceeded the discharged water quality standard, and especially SS, COD, TN, and TP exceeded the standard several tens to several hundred times. Soil showed high concentrations of copper and zinc, which promote the growth of pig feed, and cadmium exceeded 1 standard of Soil Environment Conservation Act. In the pretreatment technology, hydrocyclone was used for particle size separation, and the fine soil was separated by more than 80%. Composting was performed on organic and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils. TPH was treated within the standard of concern, and E. coli was analyzed to be high in organic matter, and the fertilizer specification was satisfied by applying the optimum composting conditions at 70℃, but the organic matter content was lower than the fertilizer specification. As a result of continuous washing test, Cd has 5 levels of residual material in fine soil. Cu and Zn were mostly composed of ion exchange properties (stage 1), carbonates (stage 2), and iron / manganese oxides (stage 3), which facilitate easy separation of contamination. As a result of applying acid dissolution and multi-stage washing step by step, hydrochloric acid, 1.0M, 1: 3, 200rpm, 60min was analyzed as the optimal washing factor. Most of the contaminated sediments were found to satisfy the Soil Environmental Conservation Act's standards. Therefore, as a result of the applicability test of this study, soil with high heavy metal contamination was used as aggregate by applying soil cleaning after pre-treatment. It was possible to verify that it was efficient to use organic and oil-contaminated soil as compost Maturity after exterminating contaminants and E. coli by applying composting.

Treatment of Contaminated Sediment for Water Quality Improvement of Small-scale Reservoir (소하천형 호수의 수질개선을 위한 퇴적저니 처리방안 연구)

  • 배우근;이창수;정진욱;최동호
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2002
  • Pollutants from industry, mining, agriculture, and other sources have contaminated sediments in many surface water bodies. Sediment contamination poses a severe threat to human health and environment because many toxic contaminants that are barely detectable in the water column can accumulate in sediments at much higher levels. The purpose of this study was to make optimal treatment and disposal plan o( sediment for water quality improvement in small-scale resevoir based on an evaluation of degree of contamination. The degree of contamination were investigated for 23 samples of 9 site at different depth of sediment in small-scale J river. Results for analysis of contaminated sediments were observed that copper concentration of 4 samples were higher than the regulation of hazardous waste (3 mg/L) and that of all samples were exceeded soil pollution warning levels for agricultural areas. Lead and mercury concentration of all samples were detected below both regulations. Necessary of sediment dredge was evaluated for organic matter and nutrient through standard levels of Paldang lake and the lower Han river in Korea and Tokyo bay and Yokohama bay in Japan. The degree of contamination for organic matter and nutrient was not serious. Compared standard levels of Japan, America, and Canada for heavy metal, contaminated sediment was concluded as lowest effect level or limit of tolerance level because standard levels of America and Canada was established worst effect of benthic organisms. The optimal treatment method of sediment contained heavy metal was cement-based solidification/stabilization to prevent heavy metal leaching.

Some hair mineral contents of non-violent criminal and normal control (건강인(健康人)과 비폭력(非暴力) 범죄자(犯罪者)의 두발(頭髮)중 일부 금속원소(金屬元素) 함량(含量))

  • Hong, Sung-Cheul;Kim, Doo-Hie
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.110-125
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    • 1993
  • This study was designed to determine whether non-violent criminal and normal control on the basis of concentration of levels of trace mineral and toxic metal by analysis of human scalp hair. The subjects were selected 87 nonviolent criminal from a prison population and 120 normal control from periodic health checks for study. Hair samples were taken from the napes and Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI) was performed also. Five trace mineral (Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Na) and two toxic metal (lead, cadmium) contents were determined by an atomic absorption spectrometer. The contents of zinc and magnesium in hair of non-violent criminal were significantly lower than the control group (p<0.01). In the case of lead and cadimum, mean value of criminal group was significantly higher than control group. Significantly higher T-score of MMPI was seen in non-violent criminal group fur psychopathic deviate (Pd), paranoia scale (Pa), and Mania scale (Ma) than control group, but T-score of depression scale (D) was significantly higher in the control group. In the non-violent criminal group, the content of copper inversely proportion to T-score of Hs, D, Hy, Pd, Mf, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si except Ma, also Zinc inversely proportion to T-score of Hy, Mf, Pa, Pt. These results suggest that difference of some hair mineral contents exist between criminal and normal control group. Thus further studies are necessary to determine whether violent and nonviolent criminal group attributed biochemical imbalance with carefully constructed and controlled studies.

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Relationship between Violent Criminal Behavior and Imbalance of Scalp Hair Minerals in Man (두발중 미량 중금속과 필수금속의 과다 또는 과소의 불균형과 폭력범죄 행동과의 관련성 연구)

  • Kim, Doo-Hie;Jang, Bon-Ki;Lee, Duk-Hee;Hong, Sung-Chul;Kim, Byung-Hie
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.25-43
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    • 1994
  • To estimate the factors to the inclination of the criminal violence, the content of trace minerals and toxic metals in the scalp hair were measured during the period from May 1992 to October 1992. One hundred eleven violent and 89 nonviolent criminal inmates of Taegu Correctional Institute were selected. The inmates of violent criminals were imprisoned by murder, robber, rape, injury and violent acts. Those of nonviolent criminals were swindle, larceny, and adultery and had no history of institutional violence. The contents of two toxic metals (cadmium, lead) and five trace minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Na) were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (IL. 551). The contents of cadmium and lead in hair of violent criminals were significantly higher as $0.56{\pm}0.14ppm,\;11.53{\pm}3.32ppm$, respectively, than $0.42{\pm}0.20ppm,\;9.63{\pm}4.31ppm$ of nonviolent group (p<0.01). But the level of copper was significantly lower than nonviolent group (p<0.05). The factors that had a significant correlation with the inclination of violence in multiple logistic regression analysis were cadmium (odds ratio=98.09), unmarried (odds ratio=0.39), many times of criminal history(odds ratio=1.57) and residence of rural area (odds ratio=0.44). The results suggest that the sub-toxic contents of cadmium and lead in the hair may be of potential effect on behavior, and the mineral analysis may be an important adjunctive diagnostic procedure. Further studies into this problem are necessary.

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The Study of Radiation Exposed dose According to 131I Radiation Isotope Therapy (131I 방사성 동위원소 치료에 따른 피폭 선량 연구)

  • Chang, Boseok;Yu, Seung-Man
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.653-659
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to measure the (air dose rate of radiation dose) the discharged patient who was administrated high dose $^{131}I$ treatment, and to predict exposure radiation dose in public person. The dosimetric evaluation was performed according to the distance and angle using three copper rings in 30 patients who were treated with over 200mCi high dose Iodine therapy. The two observer were measured using a GM surverymeter with 8 point azimuth angle and three difference distance 50, 100, 150cm for precise radion dose measurement. We set up three predictive simulations to calculate the exposure dose based on this data. The most highest radiation dose rate was showed measuring angle $0^{\circ}$ at the height of 1m. The each distance average dose rate was used the azimuth angle average value of radiation dose rate. The maximum values of the external radiation dose rate depending on the distance were $214{\pm}16.5$, $59{\pm}9.1$ and $38{\pm}5.8{\mu}Sv/h$ at 50, 100, 150cm, respectively. If high dose Iodine treatment patient moves 5 hours using public transportation, an unspecified person in a side seat at 50cm is exposed 1.14 mSv radiation dose. A person who cares for 4days at a distance of 1 meter from a patient wearing a urine bag receives a maximum radiation dose of 6.5mSv. The maximum dose of radiation that a guardian can receive is 1.08mSv at a distance of 1.5m for 7days. The annual radiation dose limit is exceeded in a short time when applied the our developed radiation dose predictive modeling on the general public person who was around the patients with Iodine therapy. This study can be helpful in suggesting a reasonable guideline of the general public person protection system after discharge of high dose Iodine administered patients.

A Novel Synthesized Tyrosinase Inhibitor, (E)-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene) chroman-4-one (MHY1294) Inhibits α-MSH-induced Melanogenesis in B16F10 Melanoma Cells (신규 합성물질 (E)-3-(4-하이드록시벤질리딘)크로마논 유도체의 티로시나아제 효소활성 저해 및 멜라닌 생성 억제 효과)

  • Jeon, Hyeyoung;Lee, Seulah;Yang, Seonguk;Bang, EunJin;Ryu, Il Young;Park, Yujin;Jung, Hee Jin;Chung, Hae Young;Moon, Hyung Ryong;Lee, Jaewon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.719-728
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    • 2021
  • Melanin pigments are abundantly distributed in mammalian skin, hair, eyes, and nervous system. Under normal physiological conditions, melanin protects the skin against various environmental stresses and acts as a physiological redox buffer to maintain homeostasis. However, abnormal melanin accumulation results in various hyperpigmentation conditions, such as chloasma, freckles, senile lentigo, and inflammatory pigmentation. Tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme, plays an important role in the regulation of the melanin pigment biosynthetic pathway. Although several whitening agents based on tyrosinase inhibition have been developed, their side effects, such as allergies, DNA damage, mutagenesis, and cytotoxicity of melanocytes, limit their applications. In this study, we synthesized 4-chromanone derivatives (MHY compounds) and investigated their ability to inhibit tyrosinase activity. Of these compounds, (E)-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)chroman-4-one (MHY1294) more potently inhibited the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase (IC50 = 5.1±0.86 μM) than kojic acid (14.3±1.43 μM), a representative tyrosinase inhibitor. In addition, MHY1294 showed competitive inhibitory action at the catalytic site of tyrosinase and had greater binding affinity at this site than kojic acid. Furthermore, MHY1294 effectively inhibited α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase activity in B16F10 melanoma cells. The results of the present study indicate that MHY1294 may be considered as a candidate pharmacological agent and cosmetic whitening ingredient.

Effects of the Soil Properties and N, P, K Application on the Contents of Inorganic Constituents in the Rhizoma and Leaf of Rehmannia glutinosa (토양이화학성(土壤理化學性) 및 삼요소(三要素) 시용량(施用量)이 지황(地黃) (Rehmannia glutinosa) 근경(根莖) 및 엽중(葉中)의 무기성분함량(無機成分含量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Byung-Yoon;Chang, Sang-Moon;Park, Soo-Jun;Choi, Jyung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 1989
  • The effects of soil properties and N, P and K application rates on the contents of inorganic constituents in the rhizomas of Ji-whang were investigated to know the condition for producing the better quality rhizoma of Ji-whang. Most of soil texture for Ji-whang cultivating belongs to sandy clay loam and sandy loam soils. The nitrogen contents in the rhizomas of Ji-whang was negatively correlated with the contents of organic matter and total nitrogen in surface soils, whereas positively correlated with the sand contents in subsoils. The calcium contents in the rhizomas of Ji-whang were negatively correlated with the sand contents, however, positively correlated with the contents of clay and organic matter in soils. The iron contents was positively correlated with the contents of clay, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium in surface soils. Much more contents of the inorganic constituents in the leaf of Ji-whang was generally detected than that in the rhizoma of Ji-whang. The contents of iron and copper in the leaf was determined to be more than that in the rhizomas by ten times. In the results of field experiments, it is apparent that the nitrogen contents in the rhizoma and leaf increased with increasing N application rate more than 20kg/10a and 10kg/10a, respectively.

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