Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among subjective symptoms, depression, and stress coping behavior of university students. Method: The survey was carried out on a convenience sample of 298 university students. The questionnaire consisted of each scale for symptoms, depression, and stress coping behaviors. Data analysis procedure included the factor analysis for stress coping behaviors, and the correlation analysis describing a relationship among symptoms, depression, and stress coping behaviors. Result: There were significant correlations between depression and the three types of symptoms: general, psychological, and somatic symptom. Subjects using the negative-emotional-response coping and the self-control coping showed a more severe depression, and those using the problem-solvingㆍreappraisal coping and the positive-emotional-response coping showed a milder depression. Subjects using the negative-emotional-response coping complained of all 3 types of symptoms severely, and those using the positive-emotional-response coping complained of general symptoms mildly. Of five stress coping methods, the negative-emotional-response and the positive-emotional-response coping methods were related to both symptoms and depression significantly. Conclusion: This study suggests that the emotional-oriented coping method has more important role for university student’s depression and their subjective symptoms than the problem-oriented coping or social supports seeking coping. Further study needs to be conducted to help students effective coping mechanism for good mental health. Also it is necessary for university students to recognize that their symptoms are associated with depression.
This study was done to analyze the trends of research on coping in Korea, to suggest future direction, for research on coping, and ultimately to contribute to an increase in explanation of adaptation. This article reviewed 79 nursing research papers on coping done since 1978 by examining them according to the period of publication or presentation, research design, type of subjects, measurement instruments, research for a degree or not, range of reliability, and association of coping and related variables. The results are as follows : The number of studies on coping increased rapidly from the mid-1980's and decreased slowly from the mid-1990's. The maority of the studies were surveys, comparative studies, or correlational studies. The subects of the 46 studies were healthy people, while those in the remaining studies were patients with a variety of illnesses. Thirth-eight studies on coping were done for master's thesis, three for dissertion, and 38 were not degrees. The Bell and Jalowiec coping scales have not been used since the early 1990's. In contrast, Lazarus and Folkman's W.C.C.L. has been used increasingly since that time. The reliabilities of the coping scale were reported in 37 cases and the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .71 to .86. All subjects reported using more problem-oriented coping than emotion-oriented coping in short-term or emotion-oriented coping and healthy groups did more long-term coping. It was difficult to describe consistently the relationship between stress and coping according to the type of coping scale or research subjects, but generally moderate relationships were found. This was due to instrumental problems and no consideration of situational context. The subject group who used more short-term coping and less long-term coping reported poorer mental status, and higher scores in burnout and state anxiey than others. That is, the relationship between stress and adaptation increased the power of explanation with intervening the mediating effect of coping. The association of locus of control, mastery, social support, and self-concept with coping showed positive relationships : those of uncertainty and severity in illness with coping showed negativerelationships ; those of state anxiety and depression with short-term coping were positive, and those of self-esteem with long-term coping or problem-oriented coping were negative. There were significant differences in the scores of types of coping according to religion, level of education, and socio-economic status. That is, Presbyterians and Catholics, those with higher education levels and higher socio-economic status used more long-term or problem-oriented coping. On the basis of the above findings the following recommendations are made : 1. There is a need to test the mediating effect of coping variable in order to clarify the concept. 2. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the patterns of change in coping strategies when stressful events are encountered. 3. It's necessary to develop a reliable and variable measurement tool for coping. 4. There is a need to identify subscales of coping to increase explanation of variance 5. It's necessary to consider personal, situational, and antecedent variables : the characteristics of subject populations, the natures of illness and treatment situations. 6. The power of explanation of studies designed to identify the stress-adaptation process should be increased using the combination model of process-oriented coping and cognitive-structural model.
This paper focused to classify the consumption stress coping types among married women consumers and to investigate the differences of socio-economic variables, social class, perceived health status, and consumption stress among coping types. Data were collected from 500 married women through online surveys in South Korea. Two factors of consumption stress(consumption stress before purchase, consumption stress after purchase), and three factors of consumption stress coping(Social support coping, problem solving focused coping, Passive avoidance coping) were identified. K-mean cluster analysis classified into 4 coping types with consumption stress coping. 15% of the sample were included to the passive coping type, and 25% were classified into the ambivalent coping type. 26.8% of the sample were identified to the active coping type, and 35.2% were maladaptive coping type. There were significant differences among the consumption stress coping types on education, family income, social class, health status, consumption stress after purchase. Consumer education programs should develop and implement especially for passive coping type and maladaptive coping type to cope effectively with consumption stress.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress, coping and suicidal ideation among school-aged children and provide evidence for developing a stress management program for them. Methods: Data were collected and analyzed from 308 fifth graders from 6 elementary schools located in Daegu/Gyeongbuk. Results: First, for stress by general characteristics, there were significant differences in economic status, school record, self-rated health and life satisfaction. Also, subcategory stress by gender, there was a significant difference in appearance stress. Second, passive/avoidant coping had a significant difference in gender. Social support seeking coping and passive/avoidant coping were significant differences in economic status. Active coping had a significant difference in school record. Passive/avoidant coping had a significant difference in self-rated health. Aggressive coping, active coping, social support seeking coping and passive/avoidant coping had significant differences in self-rated life satisfaction. Third, stress and coping had significant differences by suicidal ideation. Fourth, stress showed positive correlations with aggressive coping and passive/avoidant coping while revealing negative correlation with active coping. Conclusion: These results from the study suggest difference by gender and need more active and positive coping strategy for suicide prevention.
The Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of communication competence and empathy on stress coping in college students. The research problems were verified by correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 292 college students. The findings are as follows. First, college students who have high communication competence show more problem-focused coping, social-support seeking coping, and self-soothing coping in stressful conditions, but less emotion-oriented coping and avoidance-oriented coping. Particularly, it is found that behavioral flexibility in communication competence has the greatest effect on problem-focused coping and emotion-oriented coping. Similarly, affiliation/support influences social support seeking coping, interaction management influences self-soothing coping and avoidance-oriented coping. Second, college students who have high empathy are also found more problem-focused coping, social-support seeking coping, and self-soothing coping in stressful conditions. Especially it is found that role-taking in empathy has the greatest effect on problem-focused coping self-soothing coping. Similarly, emotion recognition influences avoidance-oriented coping, emotional resonance influences emotion-oriented coping, authenticity influences social-support seeking coping.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the stress and the coping methodes in the cancer patients and their caregivers. Method: The stress method was measured by V AS(Visual Analogue Scale). The coping methodes was measured using the modified Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The phases of patient illness consisted of Ist(initial) stage, and 2nd(recurred) stage and 3rd(terminal) stage based on Lewandowski & Jones(1988) method. The data were collected by a survey of convenience sampling of 257 cancer patients and 196 of their caregivers from two hospitals in Seoul. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, unpaired t-test. Result: The stress level of cancer patients was lower than their caregivers. The cancer patients used emotion-focused coping mode than problem-focused coping mode. The caregivers problem-focused coping mode over emotion-focused coping mode. In the problem-focused coping mode, the caregivers significantly used two coping strategies that were ‘positve cope’, ‘information seeking’ more than patients. In emotion-focused coping mode, the caregivers significantly used one coping strategies that was ‘wish’ more than patients. The patients tended to used two coping strategies that were ‘blame’ and ‘emotion expression’ more than the caregivers. Conclusion: Further study needs to be done to positively identify these coping methods and develop interventions to assist patients and their caregivers.
The purpose of this research is to find relationships between safeguards' personality traits and stress coping behaviors. The findings then could provide data to adapt safeguards to their duties. For that, personality traits such as sociability, stability and stress coping behaviors and the effects were investigated. In addition, cognitive aspects which were known to influence stress coping behaviors were appraised. The findings of this research are as follows, First, regarding personality traits and stress coping behaviors, the unstable and unsocial group used the emotion-focused coping style more than the stable and social group. The two groups didn't show any significant differences in the problem-focused coping style. The A-type group used both the problem-focused style and the emotion-focused style more than the B-type group. The common characteristic of the unstable, the unsociable and the A-type groups was the heavy use of avoidance behaviors of the emotion-focused coping style. Second, In the correlation between the personal traits and the stress coping effects regarding adaptability, the stability influenced stress coping effects. Third, regarding the personality traits, the coping styles and the coping effects, A-type group showed high correlation with the sociability but not with the stability. The problem-focused coping style showed high correlation with the emotion-focused style. Fourth, the cognitive appraisal on the stress causes influenced the stress coping styles but not the stress coping effects. Fifth, the cognitive appraisal on the same stress causes didn't show any significant differences among the personality traits.
Objective: This clinical research is conducted to find out coping strategies and anxiety of patients with chronic pain, and the correlation between pain coping strategy and anxiety. Method: 50 subjects who came to the local oriental clinic answered the questionnaires about VPMI(Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory) and SAS(The Self-rating Anxiety Scale). Then we researched the characteristics of pain coping strategies and the correlation. Results: 1. The mean scores of passive coping, active coping, and SAS are 29.62, 17.90, and 38.32 respectively. 2. In the analysis of nonparametric test, the female subjects tend to take more passive coping than the male. The older subjects tend to take less active coping than the younger. Subjects who reported more intense pain tend to take more passive coping. 3. There is significant difference between passive coping and anxiety. Conclusion: Pain coping strategies are related with age, sex, intensity of pain, and anxiety. The therapeutic intervention of decreasing passive coping and increasing active coping may be useful to manage the chronic pain. Further study is needed to find out more adequate inquiries of active coping.
The purpose of this study was to assess pain, discomfort, depression and coping patterns and the relations between these in chronic arthritis patients. The sampling method was a purposive sampling technique. 1) Who have been diagnosed as having chronic arthritis and. 2) Who were at the out patients clinic of rheumatoid arthritis departments of one University hospital in seoul between september, 11, 1993 to september, 18, 1993. The instruments used for this study were Graphic Rating Scales of pain, discomfort level of the activities of daily living(ADL) developed by Lee, Eun Ok and The Beck Depression inventory. The research used to measure coping patterns was a tool developed by the present study researcher. Analysis of data was done frequency, Pearson correlation coefficients, ANOVA, regression and ANCOVA. The results were summerlized as follows ; 1. Female exceed male patients in number and onset of joint pain were more prevalent in the age groups of the 40s and the 50s. The average duration of suffering from the pain were seven years six mounths. 2. The mean pain score : The mean sensory score was 119mm and the affective score was 109mm. 3. The discomfort level of ADL, the mean score was 2.95 out of a possible score of 5.0 and depression syndrome subjects were 62.2%. 4. The coping responses for each pattern were as follows : 1) "Active coping" mean score was 2.28. 2) "Wishful coping" mean score was 2.89. 3) "Receptive coping" mean score was 3.31. 4) "Negative coping" mean score was 1.82. 5. Significant differences were found in age, religion, marriage status and the coping patterns of patients. 1) In the coping pattern of "receptive coping", the score of the age groups of the 50s were higher than that of 20s, and in the coping pattern of "negative coping", the score of the age groups of the 20s were higher than other age groups. 2) In the coping pattern of "wishful coping", the score of the christian were higher than other religion groups. 3) In the coping pattern of "negative coping", the score of the marrieds were lower than other groups. 6. Patients who scored low on factor 2, wishful coping, were much more likely to report having pain sensory than patioets scoring high on this factor. 7. Patients who scored high on factor 4, negative coping, were significantly more likely to report having pain sensory than patients scoring high on this factor. Consider overall, chronic arthritis patients report using a wide varity of strategies, certain strategies such as receptive, wishful and active coping are used frequently, whereas other strategies such as negative coping are rarely used. One of the most important finding of present study is that the reported use of coping strategies is related to adjustment to a chronic pain problem. The present study suggests that negative coping is related to poor emotional adjustment as assessed by depression, but not pain ratings. Considered overall, this pattern of findings suggests that counseling patients to decreased their use of negative coping may be useful. The present study has a number of limitations. First, the sample is restricted to chronic arthritis patients. Weather chronic pain patients suffering from other types of pain syndromes use similar coping strategies needs to be determined in subsequent research. Second, the tool of coping pattern must be studied further to obtain reliability.
The purposes of this study were firstly to investigate how the conflict-coping methods of husbands and wives relate to their cognition of their own conflict-coping methods and those of their spouse and secondly to investigate how the interaction patterns of the conflict-coping methods between husbands and wives affect their marital satisfaction in the early stage of marital life. The main findings of this study were as follows: Firstly, this study indicated that both husbands and wives recognized that they themselves use the more reasonable conflict-coping method than their spouse. Both thought that husbands use the more avoidant, conflict-coping method than wives. Secondly, the study showed that both husbands and wives are tend to use the same conflict-coping method as their spouse's conflict-coping method as perceived by them. All the conflict-coping methods of husbands were related to their perception of their wives' conflict-coping methods. In the can of wives, however, there was no significant correlation between their aggressive conflict-coping method and the husbands' avoidant conflict-coping method, or between their avoidant conflict-coping method and the husbands' reasonable conflict-coping method. These results indicated a gender-difference in the conflict-coping methods between husbands and wives. Thirdly, the study showed that when husbands and wives regarded the interaction pattern of the conflict-coping method between themselves and their spouse as the reasonable$\ast$reasonable pattern, both of them had the highest marital satisfaction. When husbands regarded the interaction pattern of the conflict-coping method as the aggressive$\ast$aggressive pattern, they had the lowest marital satisfaction. On the other hand, when wives regarded the interaction pattern of the conflict-coping method as the aggressive$\ast$avoidant pattern, they had the lowest marital satisfaction.
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