• Title, Summary, Keyword: convergence

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Quantitative Tests for Income Level Convergence in Asian Countries

  • Tejero, Wilma Milo;Hwang, Jinyoung
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2019
  • Asian countries have been striving for economic integration for decades. This effort may lead to the convergence of income level through externalities across countries. This paper investigates whether the convergence phenomenon holds for income levels in Asian countries for the periods between 1975-2015 applying the traditional methodology of ${\sigma}-$ and ${\beta}-convergence$. Although the absolute ${\beta}-convergence$ of income levels in Asian and ASEAN+3 countries do hold, ${\sigma}-convergence$ and conditional ${\beta}-convergence$ of income level generally do not exist. This suggests that the benefits of economic integration in Asian countries were not yet realized to be significant. A plausible explanation is that the economies of Asian countries are largely based on low trade openness and a high level of informal economy.

Light Effects on the Bias Stability of Transparent ZnO Thin Film Transistors

  • Shin, Jae-Heon;Lee, Ji-Su;Hwang, Chi-Sun;KoPark, Sang-Hee;Cheong, Woo-Seok;Ryu, Min-Ki;Byun, Chun-Won;Lee, Jeong-Ik;Chu, Hye-Yong
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.62-64
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    • 2009
  • We report on the bias stability characteristics of transparent ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) under visible light illumination. The transfer curve shows virtually no change under positive gate bias stress with light illumination, while it shows dramatic negative shifts under negative gate bias stress. The major mechanism of the bias stability under visible illumination of our ZnO TFTs is thought to be the charge trapping of photo-generated holes at the gate insulator and/or insulator/channel interface.

On Sweeping Operators for Reducing Premature Convergence of Genetic Algorithms (유전 알고리즘의 조기수렴 저감을 위한 연산자 소인방법 연구)

  • Lee, Hong-Kyu
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.1210-1218
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    • 2011
  • GA (Genetic Algorithms) are efficient for searching for global optima but may have some problems such as premature convergence, convergence to local extremum and divergence. These phenomena are related to the evolutionary operators. As population diversity converges to low value, the search ability of a GA decreases and premature convergence or converging to local extremum may occur but population diversity converges to high value, then genetic algorithm may diverge. To guarantee that genetic algorithms converge to the global optima, the genetic operators should be chosen properly. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the selection operator, crossover operator, and mutation operator on convergence properties, and propose the sweeping method of mutation probability and elitist propagation rate to maintain the diversity of the GA's population for getting out of the premature convergence. Results of simulation studies verify the feasibility of using these sweeping operators to avoid premature convergence and convergence to local extrema.

Competition among Firms in Digital Convergence era

  • Yoo, Byung-Joon;Lim, Hyun-Young
    • Management Science and Financial Engineering
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2010
  • Digital convergence which means the convergence of industry areas related to digital technologies is an important phenomenon in business, which will decide the fates of firms in the near future. The only firms which can create synergy effects from digital convergence are expected to be the winners in the fierce competition of digital convergence era. In our analysis, we examine the strategy of an integrated firm which has businesses in two different industry areas which are related to each other. By using a game theoretical model, we show how the integrated firm can win over two single separated firms which have business in only one industry area each by leveraging the two businesses the integrated firm has. In our welfare analysis, we also show that this convergence may be even beneficial to consumers, which seems counter-intuitive to social concerns about anti-competitive behaviors by integrated firms. Additionally, we study comparison between industry convergence and product convergence.

Strategies with the Introduction of fixed-mobile Convergence Services on the IT Market (정보통신시장 유무선 통합서비스 도입과 기업 대응전략)

  • Song Yeong-wha;Ryu Wan-ha;Kim Kap-sik
    • The Journal of Information Systems
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.59-75
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    • 2004
  • Fixed-mobile convergence services can be defined as the combination of previously separate fixed and mobile services, and networks and commercial practices. Examples of fixed-mobile convergence services include single voice-mail box, single number and unified messaging across fixed and mobile networks. Recently as more voice is transferred to mobile networks, convergence services between fixed and mobile become more important. In Korea convergence services are only starting to become established, and are likely to become an important part of any operator's offering. In this paper, we search the different levels of fixed-mobile convergence services and the trends and regulations for fixed-mobile convergence services in major countries. And at the same time, we also suggest the corresponding Marketing strategies by operators related to fixed-mobile convergence services.

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Scalable Network Architecture for Flow-Based Traffic Control

  • Song, Jong-Tae;Lee, Soon-Seok;Kang, Kug-Chang;Park, No-Ik;Park, Heuk;Yoon, Sung-Hyun;Chun, Kyung-Gyu;Chang, Mi-Young;Joung, Jin-Oo;Kim, Young-Sun
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.205-215
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    • 2008
  • Many control schemes have been proposed for flow-level traffic control. However, flow-level traffic control is implemented only in limited areas such as traffic monitoring and traffic control at edge nodes. No clear solution for end-to-end architecture has been proposed. Scalability and the lack of a business model are major problems for deploying end-to-end flow-level control architecture. This paper introduces an end-to-end transport architecture and a scalable control mechanism to support the various flow-level QoS requests from applications.

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Technological Convergence of IT and BT: Evidence from Patent Analysis

  • Geum, Young-Jung;Kim, Chul-Hyun;Lee, Sung-Joo;Kim, Moon-Soo
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.439-449
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    • 2012
  • In recent innovation trends, one notable feature is the merging and overlapping of technologies: in other words, technological convergence. A key technological convergence is the fusion of biotechnology (BT) and information technology (IT). Major IT advances have led to innovative devices that allow us to advance BT. However, the lack of data on IT-BT convergence is a major impediment: relatively little research has analyzed the inter-disciplinary relationship of different industries. We propose a systematic approach to analyzing the technological convergence of BT and IT. Patent analysis, including citation and co-classification analyses, was adopted as a main method to measure the convergence intensity and coverage, and two portfolio matrices were developed to manage the technological convergence. The contribution of this paper is that it provides practical evidences for IT-BT convergence, based on quantitative data and systematic processes. This has managerial implications for each sector of IT and BT.

A Study on Digital Convergence and Smart City (디지털 컨버전스와 스마트 시티에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seong-Hoon;Lee, Dong-Woo
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.11 no.9
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 2013
  • In information society, Convergence was combined with a word 'digital'. Digital convergence means a service or new product which appeared through fusion of unit technologies in information and communication regions. The effects of convergence technologies and social phenomenons are visualized in overall regions of society such as economy, society, culture, etc. In this paper, we described a prospects and technologies needed in digital convergence environment. And we described a smart city which was leading case in digital convergence.

A Study on Wearable Computing Prospect in Digital Convergence (디지털 컨버전스에서의 웨어러블 컴퓨팅 발전방향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seong-Hoon
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.11 no.10
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    • pp.431-435
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    • 2013
  • In information society, Convergence was combined with a word 'digital'. Digital convergence means a service or new product which appeared through fusion of unit technologies in information and communication regions. The effects of convergence technologies and social phenomenons are visualized in overall regions of society such as economy, society, culture, etc. In this paper, we described a prospects and technologies needed in digital convergence environment. And we described a wearable computer which was leading case in digital convergence.

A Study for Performance Estimation Standard and Standardization of u-IT Convergence Equipment (u-IT Convergence 기기의 성능평가기준과 표준화 연구)

  • Chun, Woo-Sung;Park, Dea-Woo;Lee, Sang-Ick;Kim, Eung-Sik;Kim, Hong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.457-460
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    • 2009
  • u-IT Convergence appliances study and are developed in communication by development of u-IT technology, broadcasting, portal, contents, equipment and all fields of business such as solution. This treatise presents valuation basis of, economic performance, administration sex etc. by temperature, pressure, own, storehouse, gas, justice for humidity sensors and valuation basis that define u-IT Convergence, and sense information u-IT Convergence devices and terminal. Also, studied standardization standard of u-IT Convergence network appliance that follow in valuation basis for u-IT Convergence devices. Is going to contribute establish value as estimation product that equip stability and authoritativeness through correct certification assessment for technological development and appliances on Ubiquitous information-oriented society through this research and accomplish standardization.

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