• Title, Summary, Keyword: conventional drugs

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The alternative of oral sedation for pediatric dental care

  • Kim, Jongbin;Kim, Seungoh;Lee, Deok-Won;Ryu, Dae-Seung
    • Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2015
  • In pediatric dentistry, chloral hydrate is habitually selected for sedation of uncooperative children. Although chloral hydrate has been used for decades, various adverse effects are reported and necessity for new alternative drugs has increased. Dexmedetomidine was approved by FDA for sedation at intensive care units (ICU) in 1999. Compared to conventional sedative drugs, dexmedetomidine has not only analgesic and sedative effects but also it barely suppresses the respiratory system. Due to these characteristics, dexmedetomidine is known as safe sedative drug for children and elderly patients. Furthermore, approved by KFDA in 2010 in Korea, the frequency of sedation using dexmedetomidine is increasing. However, due to its intravenous administration method, it was difficult to apply in pediatric dentistry. Recently, intranasal administration method was introduced which might be a new possible alternative of oral sedation. In this study, we compare the mechanisms, pros and cons of chloral hydrate and dexmedetomidine, introducing new possibilities.

Treatment of two cases of chronic kidney disease with dietotherapy (ilaj-bil-ghiza), regimenal therapy (bukhoor aam) and Unani drugs without dialysis

  • Ansari, Shabnam;Maaz, Mohammad;Alam, Shah;Alam, Sazid;Ahmad, Ijhar
    • CELLMED
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.17.1-17.5
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    • 2020
  • Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is affective a large portion of the world population prompting the need for extensive healthcare resources such as lifelong dialysis or kidney transplantation. The beneficial effect of conventional therapy in controlling the CKD progression remains a challenge due to their relative efficacy, safety, and accessibility. On the other hand, Unani medicine provides a therapeutic regimen that consists of a combination of treatment from rehabilitation to herbal pharmacotherapy. Methods: Two cases of chronic kidney disease were treated with dietotherapy, regimenal therapy ('bukhoor aam') and oral herbal drugs for 2-3 weeks. Endpoints of evaluation were symptoms and signs of the CKD, kidney function test, urine albumin, urine RBC, hemoglobin and liver function test. Result: Notable improvement was observed in the endpoints. Conclusion: Unani treatment was observed preliminarily beneficial in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Rigorous pharmacological and clinical studies should be performed to warrant their efficacy and safety in CKD individuals.

Research on Outcome Indicators in Clinical Trials of Asthma, Cough, and Sputum by Reviewing Papers Searched from PubMed (해외논문고찰을 통한 천식 및 기침${\cdot}$가래 치료제의 유효성 평가지표 개발연구)

  • Oh, Mi-Hyune;Lee, Ji-Hyung;Jang, Bo-Hyoung;Jung, Sung-Ki;Sun, Seung-Ho;Ko, Ho-Yeon;Jun, Chan-Yong;Park, Jong-Hyeong;Ko, Seong-Gyu
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.519-530
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to develop outcome indicators in clinical trials of herbal drugs effective for asthma. cough and sputum. To accomplish the objective, this study collected outcome indicators developed and used according to conventional medical concepts. Methods : Our research group reviewed SCI papers concerned with developing outcome indicators to evaluate amelioration of asthma, cough and sputum. We also reviewed clinical trials of herbal drugs effective for them. Results : To evaluate asthma, objective as well as subjective methods were chosen according to the purpose of each trial. Objective methods were PEF, FEVl, serum IgE, peripheral eosinophil counts, and so on. Subjective methods were symptom scores, symptom diaries, quality of life measures, etc. To evaluate cough and sputum, objective and subjective methods were also chosen. Objective methods were tussigenic challenges, sputum induction and computerized methodology, and subjective methods were similar to the methodology evaluating asthmatic symptoms. Conclusions : It is desirable for a clinical trial evaluating herbal drugs for asthma, cough and sputum to use objective and subjective outcome indicators together. However, biological outcome indicators, a kind of objective methods, can not be chosen as the purpose of trial. Valid and reliable subjective outcome indicators are needed to develop good clinical trials of herbal drugs effective for asthma, cough and sputum.

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Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Antimalarial Drugs in Hainan Island, China

  • Wang, Shan-Qing;Wang, Guang-Ze;Li, Yu-Chun;Meng, Feng;Lin, Shi-Gan;Zhu, Zhen-Hu;Sun, Ding-Wei;He, Chang-Hua;Hu, Xi-Min;Du, Jian-Wei
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2015
  • Pyronaridine and artesunate have been shown to be effective in falciparum malaria treatment. However, pyronaridine is rarely used in Hainan Island clinically, and artesunate is not widely used as a therapeutic agent. Instead, conventional antimalarial drugs, chloroquine and piperaquine, are used, explaining the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. In this article, we investigated the sensitivity of P. falciparum to antimalarial drugs used in Hainan Island for rational drug therapy. We performed in vivo (28 days) and in vitro tests to determine the sensitivity of P. falciparum to antimalarial drugs. Total 46 patients with falciparum malaria were treated with dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine phosphate (DUO-COTECXIN) and followed up for 28 day. The cure rate was 97.8%. The mean fever clearance time ($22.5{\pm}10.6hr$) and the mean parasite clearance time ($27.3{\pm}12.2hr$) showed no statistical significance with different genders, ages, temperatures, or parasite density (P>0.05). The resistance rates of chloroquine, piperaquine, pyronarididine, and artesunate detected in vitro were 71.9%, 40.6%, 12.5%, and 0%, respectively (P<0.0001). The resistance intensities decreased as follows: chloroquine>piperaquine>pyronarididine>artesunate. The inhibitory dose 50 ($IC_{50}$) was $3.77{\times}10^{-6}mol/L$, $2.09{\times}10^{-6}mol/L$, $0.09{\times}10^{-6}mol/L$, and $0.05{\times}10^{-6}mol/L$, and the mean concentrations for complete inhibition (CIMC) of schizont formation were $5.60{\times}10^{-6}mol/L$, $9.26{\times}10^{-6}mol/L$, $0.55{\times}10^{-6}mol/L$, and $0.07{\times}10^{-6}mol/L$, respectively. Dihydroartemisinin showed a strong therapeutic effect against falciparum malaria with a low toxicity.

The Treatment of Central Pain after Spinal Cord Injury -Case reports- (척수손상 후 발생한 중추성 통증의 치험 -증례 보고-)

  • Lee, Mi-Joung;Kim, Hae-Ja;Lee, Won-Hyung;Shin, Yong-Sup;Choi, Sae-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2000
  • Central neuropathic pain may occur in 10~20% of the patients after spinal cord injury. The central pain syndrome include spontaneous continuing and intermittent pain as well as evoked pain. The pain is evoked by non-noxious stimulation of the region (allodynia) and repeated stimulation (wind-up phenomenon). Four patients were referred suffering from severe pain, allodynia and hyperaesthesia after spinal cord injury. They had received conventional treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid, anticonvulsant, antidepressant and rehabilitation which failed to provide pain relief. We administered combination of low doses of morphine and ketamine (10 mg) through the epidural catheter with other conventional therapy. Satisfactory pain relief was achieved in each patient. The reduction of pain was not associated with severe side effects. The most bothersome side effect of ketamine was dizziness in one patient, only caused by bolus injection (ketamine 10 mg with normal saline 10 ml). This suggests synergy from this combination that provides an alternative treatment for central pain.

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Gene Medicine : A New Field of Molecular Medicine

  • Kim, Chong-Kook;Haider, Kh-H;Lim, Soo-Jeong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2001
  • Gene therapy has emerged as a new concept of therapeutic strategies to treat diseases which do not respond to the conventional therapies. The principle of gene therapy is to Introduce genetic materials into patient cells to produce therapeutic proteins in these cells. Gene therapy is now at the stage where a number of clinical trials have been carried out to patients with gene-deficiency disease or cancer. Genetic materials for gene therapy are generally composed of gene expression system and gene delivery system. For the clinical application of gene therapy in a way which conventional drugs are used, researches have been focused on the design of gene delivery system which can offer high transfection efficiency with minimal toxicity. Currently, viral delivery systems generally provide higher transfection efficiency compared with non-viral delivery systems while non-viral delivery systems are less toxic, less immunogenic and manufacturable in large scale compared with viral systems. Recently, novel strategies towards the design of new non-viral delivery system, combination of viral and non-viral delivery systems and targeted delivery system have been extensively studied. The continued effort in this area will lead us to develop gene medicine as "gene as a drug" in the near future.

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In vitro maturation of human oocytes: Its role in infertility treatment and new possibilities

  • Chang, Eun Mi;Song, Hang Seok;Lee, Dong Ryul;Lee, Woo Sik;Yoon, Tae Ki
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2014
  • IVM refers to the maturation of immature oocytes in culture after their recovery from small antral follicles at the stage prior to selection and dominance. IVM requires little or no FSH in vivo and has been proposed as an alternative to conventional IVF, since it reduces the primary adverse effects caused by controlled ovarian stimulation, including the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Moreover, IVM is a promising option for cases for which no standard protocol is suitable, such as FSH resistance, contraindications for ovarian stimulatory drugs, and the need for urgent fertility preservation. Recently, IVM has been used in women with regular cycles and normal ovaries. However, the pregnancy rate following IVM is suboptimal compared with that of conventional IVF, indicating that further studies to optimize the protocol and the culture conditions are warranted.

Trial for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Live and Dead Cell Differentiation (세포 염색 방법을 이용한 결핵균 감수성 검사법)

  • Ryu, Sung-Weon;Kim, Hyun-Ho;Bang, Mun-Nam;Park, Young-Kil;Park, Sue-Nie;Shim, Young-Soo;Kang, Seongman;Bai, Gill-Han
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2004
  • Background : The resurgence of tuberculosis and outbreaks of multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis have increased the emphasis for the development of new susceptibility testing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the effective treatment and control of the disease. Conventional drug susceptibility testings, such as those using egg-based or agar-based media have some limits, such as the time required and difficulties in determining critical inhibitory concentrations, but these are still being used in many diagnostic laboratories because of no better lternatives, considering cost and accuracy. To overcome these limits, a rapid and simple method for new susceptibility testing, using live and dead assays, was applied for a bacterial cell viability assay to distinguish dead from live bacterial cells based on two-color fluorescence. Materials and Methods Strains : Forty strains were used in this study, 20 susceptible to all antituberculosis drugs and the other 20 resistant to the four first line antituberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol. Antibiotics : The four antibiotics were dissolved in 7H9 broth to make the following solutions: $0.1{\mu}g\;isoniazid(INH)/m{\ell}$, $0.4{\mu}g\;rifampicin(RMP)/m{\ell}$, $4.0{\mu}g\;streptomycin(SM)/m{\ell}$ and $4.0{\mu}g\;ethambutol(EMB)/m{\ell}$. Results : Live and dead Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells fluoresced green and red with the acridin (Syto 9) and propidium treatments, respectively. These results are very well accorded with conventional drug susceptibility testing by proportional method on Lowensen-Jensen media (L-J) containing 4 drugs (INH, RMP, EMB and SM), showing a 93.7 % accordance rate in susceptible strains and 95% in resistant strains. Conclusion : The results of the drug susceptibility testing using the live and dead bacterial cell assay showed high accordance rates compared with the conventional proportion method on L-J. This finding suggests that the live and dead bacterial cell assay can be used as an alternative to conventional drug susceptibility testing for M. tuberculosis strains.

Characterization of Sterically Stabilized Liposomes and Their Stability in Rat Plasma in Vitro (입체구조적으로 안정화된 리포좀의 특성 및 혈장내 안정성)

  • 이지혜
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.251-256
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    • 2000
  • Sterically stabilized liposomes (SSL) composed of distearoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, dicetylphosphate and distearoylphosphatiodylethanolamine-N-poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000 (DSPE-PEG 2000) were made by reverse phase evaporation method to prolong biological half-life and decrease toxic side effect of drug. Streptozocin (572), a water-soluble antitumor agent with short half-life, was selected as a model drug. The size of SSL was controlled by polycarbonate extrusion to 100 nm which is adequate size for long circulation in plasma. The release rate of drugs from SSL in PBS was evaluated. And the stability of STZ-containing liposomes against drug leakage into rat plasma was evaluated in order to investigate the interaction of liposome and plasma protein. Incorporation of DSPE-PEG 2000 into conventional liposomes significantly decreased the drug leakage into rat plasma.

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Formulation of Sustained-Release Tablets of Flurbiprofen (서방출성 플루르비프로펜 정제의 제제설계)

  • 이상철;박은석;지상철
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 1995
  • Flurbiprofen, one of potent nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, has several systemic side effects due to dose dumping effect following oral administration of its conventional solid dosage forms. To reduce these side effects and to sustain therapeutic concentration of the drug, matrix tablets of flurbiprofen were prepared and evaluated for sustained release from the tablets. The matrix tablets of flurbiprofen were prepared with Eudragit, Pluronic, (anhydrous) lactose and colloidal silicon dioxide employing two different preparation methods, wet granulation and direct compression. The dissolution rates of the tablets were evaluated using KP 2 method. Formulation factors that affected dissolution rates of flurbiprofen were the type and content of Eudragit, the type and content of Pluronic, and the tablet preparation method. Several formulations of the matrix tablets showed dissolution patterns close to the simulated profile using pharmacokinetic parameters of flurbiprofen.

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