• Title, Summary, Keyword: conventional drugs

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Role of Catheter's Position for Final Results in Intrathecal Drug Delivery. Analysis Based on CSF Dynamics and Specific Drugs Profiles

  • De Andres, Jose;Perotti, Luciano;Villanueva, Vicente;Asensio Samper, Juan Marcos;Fabregat-Cid, Gustavo
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.336-346
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    • 2013
  • Intrathecal drug delivery is an effective and safe option for the treatment of chronic pathology refractory to conventional pain therapies. Typical intrathecal administered drugs are opioids, baclofen, local anesthetics and adjuvant medications. Although knowledge about mechanisms of action of intrathecal drugs are every day more clear many doubt remain respect the correct location of intrathecal catheter in order to achieve the best therapeutic result. We analyze the factors that can affect drug distribution within the cerebrospinal fluid. Three categories of variables were identified: drug features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and patients features. First category includes physicochemical properties and pharmacological features of intrathecal administered drugs with special attention to drug lipophilicity. In the second category, the variables in CSF flow, are considered that can modify the drug distribution within the CSF with special attention to the new theories of liquoral circulation. Last category try to explain inter-individual difference in baclofen response with difference that are specific for each patients such as the anatomical area to treat, patient posture or reaction to inflammatory stimulus. We conclude that a comprehensive evaluation of the patients, including imaging techniques to study the anatomy and physiology of intrathecal environment and CSF dynamics, could become essential in the future to the purpose of optimize the clinical outcome of intrathecal therapy.

Current clinical applications of platelet-rich plasma in various gynecological disorders: An appraisal of theory and practice

  • Dawood, Ayman Shehata;Salem, Hesham Abdelaziz
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this paper is to review the current clinical uses of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the field of gynecology. All relevant articles published from January 2000 to December 2017 were reviewed and analyzed. The articles on PRP in the field of gynecology were mainly case series, pilot studies, or case reports. PRP is currently considered a new therapeutic modality for some disorders that are refractory to conventional drugs.

Herbs for the Treatment of Insomnia

  • Kim, Chung-Soo;Han, Jin-Yi;Kim, Seung-Hwan;Hong, Jin-Tae;Oh, Ki-Wan
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.274-281
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    • 2011
  • Pharmacological approaches have been included in conventional medical treatment for insomnia or sleep disorders. However, long-term use of frequently prescribed medications can often lead to habituation, critical withdrawal symptoms and/or side effects. Some individuals with insomnia or trouble sleeping have used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies to treat their conditions. Recently, CAMs or herbs have been attractive alternative medications to many patients with sleep disorders who may be averse to using conventional drugs. We reviewed the most widely available sleep-promoting herbs commonly used in the western and oriental countries.

A Case of Metastatic Brain Tumor Patient with Nausea and Vomiting Treated with Gamibokryungbanha-tang (전이성 뇌종양 환자에게 발생한 오심(惡心), 구토(嘔吐)에 대해 가미복령반하탕으로 호전된 치험 1례)

  • Jeong, Jong-Soo;Park, Jae-Woo;Yoon, Seong-Woo
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.956-962
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    • 2007
  • In cancer patients showing nausea and vomiting, a number of factors can be considered as the cause including brain tumor, electrolyte imbalance, gastrointestinal diseases or types of chemotherapy agents and dose of the drugs. Though nausea and vomiting can be minimized through the use of various anti-emetic drugs, many people still suffer from severe nausea and vomiting with poor quality of life compared with patients who do not show significant nausea and vomiting. In this report, we introduce a case of a cancer patient who suffered from severe nausea and vomiting. The patient was female and 59 years old with NSCLC (non small cell lung cancer) with metastatic brain tumor. Though western conventional medical treatment was used to reduce the symptoms, persistent nausea and vomiting were noted during the admission period. Herbal decoction Gamibokryungbanha-tang was used for nausea and vomiting which were uncontrolled under conventional western medicine; the patient showed remarkable improvement in terms of frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting. Further study will be needed in order to determine the long-term effectiveness of oriental medical treatment on cancer patient with nausea and vomiting.

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Application and therapeutic effects of sickle red blood cells for targeted cancer therapy (표적항암치료를 위한 겸형적혈구의 응용 및 치료 효과)

  • Choe, Se-woon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.2395-2400
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    • 2016
  • Conventional drug carriers such as liposomes, nanoparticles, polymer micelles, polymeric conjugate and lipid microemulsion for cancer chemotherapy shield normal tissues from toxic drugs to treat cancer cells in tumors. However, inaccurate tumor targeting uncontrolled drug release from the carriers and unwanted accumulation in healthy sites can limit treatment efficacy with current conventional drug carriers with insufficient concentrations of drugs in the tumors and unexpected side effects as a result. Sickle red blood cells show natural tumor preferential accumulation without any manipulation due to the adhesive interaction between molecular receptors on the membrane surface and counter-receptor on endothelial cells. In addition, structural changes of microvascular in tumor sites enhances polymerization of sickle red blood cells. In this research, we examined the use of sickle red blood cells as a new drug carrier with novel tumor targeting and controlled release properties to quantify its therapeutic effects.

Effect of isoflavone-enriched whole soy milk powder supplementation on bone metabolism in ovariectomized mice

  • Kim, So Mi;Lee, Hyun Sook;Jung, Jae In;Lim, Su-Min;Lim, Ji Hoon;Ha, Wang-Hyun;Jeon, Chang Lae;Lee, Jae-Yong;Kim, Eun Ji
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is intense interest in soy isoflavone as a hormone replacement therapy for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A new kind of isoflavone-enriched whole soy milk powder (I-WSM) containing more isoflavones than conventional whole soy milk powder was recently developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of I-WSM on bone metabolism in ovariectomized mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Sixty female ICR mice individually underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or a sham operation, and were randomized into six groups of 10 animals each as follows: Sham, OVX, OVX with 2% I-WSM diet, OVX with 10% I-WSM diet, OVX with 20% I-WSM diet, and OVX with 20% WSM diet. After an 8-week treatment period, bone mineral density (BMD), calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b, osteocalcin (OC), procollagen 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and osteoprotegenin (OPG) were analyzed. RESULTS: BMD was significantly lower in the OVX group compared to the Sham group but was significantly higher in OVX + 10% I-WSM and OVX + 20% I-WSM groups compared to the OVX group (P < 0.05). Serum calcium concentration significantly increased in the OVX + 10% and 20% I-WSM groups. Serum ALP levels were significantly lower in the OVX + 10% and 20% I-WSM groups compared to the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). OC was significantly reduced in the OVX group compared to the Sham group (P < 0.05), but a dose-dependent increase was observed in the OVX groups supplemented with I-WSM. P1NP and OPG levels were significantly reduced, while TRAP 5b level was significantly elevated in the OVX group compared with the Sham group, which was not affected by I-WSM (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that I-WSM supplementation in OVX mice has the effect of preventing BMD reduction and promoting bone formation. Therefore, I-WSM can be used as an effective alternative to postmenopausal osteoporosis prevention.

Genetic and Environmental Deterrents to Breeding for Disease Resistance in Dairy Cattle

  • Lin, C.Y.;Aggrey, S.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1247-1253
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    • 2003
  • Selection for increased milk production in dairy cows has often resulted in a higher incidence of disease and thus incurred a greater health costs. Considerable interests have been shown in breeding dairy cattle for disease resistance in recent years. This paper discusses the limitations of breeding dairy cattle for genetic resistance in six parts: 1) complexity of disease resistance, 2) difficulty in estimating genetic parameters for planning breeding programs against disease, 3) undesirable relationship between production traits and disease, 4) disease as affected by recessive genes, 5) new mutation of the pathogens, and 6) variable environmental factors. The hidden problems of estimating genetic and phenotypic parameters involving disease incidence were examined in terms of categorical nature, non-independence, heterogeneity of error variance, non-randomness, and automatic relationship between disease and production traits. In light of these limitations, the prospect for increasing genetic resistance by conventional breeding methods would not be so bright as we like. Since the phenomenon of disease is the result of a joint interaction among host genotype, pathogen genotype and environment, it becomes essential to adopt an integrated approach of increasing genetic resistance of the host animals, manipulating the pathogen genotypes, developing effective vaccines and drugs, and improving the environmental conditions. The advances in DNA-based technology show considerable promise in directly manipulating host and pathogen genomes for genetic resistance and producing vaccines and drugs for prevention and medication to promote the wellbeing of the animals.

High-dose caspofungin salvage in a very-low-birth-weight infant with refractory candidemia (극소 저체중 출생아의 난치성 칸디다혈증에서 고용량 Caspofungin 구제요법)

  • Seo, Eun Sun;Park, Geun Hwa;Kim, Sung Mi;Jung, Hye An;Kim, Byoung Kuk
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.239-243
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    • 2010
  • Candidiasis is one of the most common causes of late-onset infection among very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBW) in most neonatal intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Standard therapy consists of the administration of amphotericin B, amphotericin B complex, and fluconazole. In many cases, candidiasis is not easily eradicated, despite the administration of these drugs. We report our experience of the addition of high-dose caspofungin to the conventional antifungal drugs in a VLBW infant with refractory candidemia.

The alternative of oral sedation for pediatric dental care

  • Kim, Jongbin;Kim, Seungoh;Lee, Deok-Won;Ryu, Dae-Seung
    • Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2015
  • In pediatric dentistry, chloral hydrate is habitually selected for sedation of uncooperative children. Although chloral hydrate has been used for decades, various adverse effects are reported and necessity for new alternative drugs has increased. Dexmedetomidine was approved by FDA for sedation at intensive care units (ICU) in 1999. Compared to conventional sedative drugs, dexmedetomidine has not only analgesic and sedative effects but also it barely suppresses the respiratory system. Due to these characteristics, dexmedetomidine is known as safe sedative drug for children and elderly patients. Furthermore, approved by KFDA in 2010 in Korea, the frequency of sedation using dexmedetomidine is increasing. However, due to its intravenous administration method, it was difficult to apply in pediatric dentistry. Recently, intranasal administration method was introduced which might be a new possible alternative of oral sedation. In this study, we compare the mechanisms, pros and cons of chloral hydrate and dexmedetomidine, introducing new possibilities.

Treatment of two cases of chronic kidney disease with dietotherapy (ilaj-bil-ghiza), regimenal therapy (bukhoor aam) and Unani drugs without dialysis

  • Ansari, Shabnam;Maaz, Mohammad;Alam, Shah;Alam, Sazid;Ahmad, Ijhar
    • CELLMED
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.17.1-17.5
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    • 2020
  • Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is affective a large portion of the world population prompting the need for extensive healthcare resources such as lifelong dialysis or kidney transplantation. The beneficial effect of conventional therapy in controlling the CKD progression remains a challenge due to their relative efficacy, safety, and accessibility. On the other hand, Unani medicine provides a therapeutic regimen that consists of a combination of treatment from rehabilitation to herbal pharmacotherapy. Methods: Two cases of chronic kidney disease were treated with dietotherapy, regimenal therapy ('bukhoor aam') and oral herbal drugs for 2-3 weeks. Endpoints of evaluation were symptoms and signs of the CKD, kidney function test, urine albumin, urine RBC, hemoglobin and liver function test. Result: Notable improvement was observed in the endpoints. Conclusion: Unani treatment was observed preliminarily beneficial in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Rigorous pharmacological and clinical studies should be performed to warrant their efficacy and safety in CKD individuals.