• Title, Summary, Keyword: conventional drugs

Search Result 151, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

Antitumor Effects of Camptothecin Combined with Conventional Anticancer Drugs on the Cervical and Uterine Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line SiHa

  • Ha, Sang-Won;Kim, Yun-Jeong;Kim, Won-Yong;Lee, Chung-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.115-121
    • /
    • 2009
  • Functional defects in mitochondria are involved in the induction of cell death in cancer cells. We assessed the toxic effect of camptothecin against the human cervical and uterine tumor cell line SiHa with respect to the mitochondria-mediated cell death process, and examined the combined effect of camptothecin and anticancer drugs. Camptothecin caused apoptosis in SiHa cells by inducing mitochondrial membrane permeability changes that lead to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased Bcl-2 levels, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of GSH. Combination of camptothecin with other anticancer drugs (carboplatin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin and mitomycin c) or signaling inhibitors (farnesyltransferase inhibitor and ERK inhibitor) did not enhance the camptothecin-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that camptothecin may cause cell death in SiHa cells by inducing changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, which leads to cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3. This effect is also associated with increased formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of GSH. Combination with other anticancer drugs (or signaling inhibitors) does not appear to increase the anti-tumor effect of camptothecin against SiHa cells, but rather may reduce it. Combination of camptothecin with other anticancer drugs does not seem to provide a benefit in the treatment of cervical and uterine cancer compared with camptothecin monotherapy.

Interaction of Nonsedating Antihistamines with Cerebral Muscarinic Receptors (비수기성 항 Histamine제와 대뇌 Muscarine 수용체와의 상호작용)

  • 김영열;이정수;박인숙
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
    • /
    • v.43 no.5
    • /
    • pp.642-651
    • /
    • 1999
  • Nonsedating antihistamines do net cause sedation in therapeutic doses because these drugs hardly cross the blood-brain barrier. Since most of the peripheral side dffects of conventional antihistamines are related to their muscarinic receptor blocking action, the present study was performed to investigate whether nonsedating antihistamines interact with the muscarinic receptors and discriminate the muscarinic receptor subtypes in the rat cerebral microsomal fraction which containes both $M_1,{\;}M_2,{\;}M_3{\;}and{\;}M_4$ receptors. Five nonsedating antihistamines at high concentrations inhibited [$^3H$]QNB binding to the muscarinic receptor in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition curves of these drugs except loratadine which showed positive cooperativity (nH=1.55) were steep (nH=1), indicating interaction with a single homogenous population of the binding sites. Astemizole, clemizole and mequitazine increased the $K_D$ value for [$^3H$]QNB without affecting the binding site concentrations, and this increase in the $K_D$ value resulted from the ability of these drugs to slow [$^3H$]QNB-receptor association. The Ki values of astemizole, clemizole and mequitazine for the inhibition for the inhibition of [$^3H$]QNB binding to muscarinic receptor were 0.58, 5.99 and $0.007{\;}{\mu}M$, respectively. However, loratadine and terfenadine inhibited noncompetitively [$^3H$]QNB binding with the normalized $IC_50$ value of about $2{\;}{\mu}M$. These results demonstrate that; 1) astemizole, clemizole and mequitazine interact directly with the muscarinic receptor at high concentrations; 2) muscarinic receptor blocking potency of these drugs varies widely among drugs; 3) these drugs do not discriminate between muscarinic receptor subtypes.

  • PDF

How to establish the definition of Conventional medicine and Korean herbal medicine? (한약과 양약의 개념 설정 어떻게 할 것인가?)

  • Yin, Chang Shik;Lee, Seung-Woo;Kim, Yun-Kyung
    • Herbal Formula Science
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.187-197
    • /
    • 2012
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to find a reasonable solution to a current status of drug classification between the drugs of western conventional (allopathic) medicine and Korean medicine. A clear and distinct concept on the drugs of allopathic medicine and Korean medicine based on reasonable concepts and broad consensus is a pressing issue in Korea, and will facilitate the development of herbal medicinal products and pharmaceutical industry. Methods : Considering the issue of drug classification from domestic and international regulations, we reviewed the current Drug Law of Korea and China, Guidance for Industry, Botanical Drug Products of USA, Directive 2004/24/EC of the European parliament and of the council. Results : In Korea, the drug classification of allopathic medicine and Korean medicine is quite vague even though differential licensure system is enforced for the clinicians of allopathic medicine and Korean medicine field. According to the definition in the Drug Law, the scope of Korean medicine drug is so broad that even a drug made of single-compound material, as well as herbal extract of crude mixture, is regarded as a drug of Korean medicine, as long as the material may be separated from medicinal herbs, animal tissues, or mineral resources. Only new compound not found in natural resources are outside of the scope of Korean medicine drug. In USA and EU, medicinal products manufactured from herbs are approved by separate regulations for the herbs with special waivers. In China, the category of new medicine and the definition of allopathic medicine and traditional chinese medicine are clearly specified and classified. Conclusions : As medicines are validated therapeutic materials for efficacy and toxicity, we suggest that generally the concept of conventional medicines is based on a single compound that has been synthesized and individually validated and that of Korean medicines is based on a compound extracted from natural materials or a complex of compounds that has been validated as a whole in its totality.

NEW DRUG THERAPY IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS (소아청소년 정신과 영역에서의 새로운 약물치료 ; 비정형 항정신병약물)

  • Bahn, Geon-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.26-35
    • /
    • 2003
  • Conventional antipsychotics are commonly used to treat children and adolescents suffered from schizophrenia to other neuropsychiatric conditions. Regrettably, studies for typical antipsychotics report high rates of sedation, orthostatic hypotension, and extrapyramidal side effects. Over the past few years, atypical antipsychotics have been prescribed for use in adults with psychotic symptoms. Child psychiatrists have begun using these drugs to children and adolescents hoping safe and better alternatives to the conventional antipsychotics. However, there is not enough short-term and almost no long-term data about atypical antipsychotics for pediatric patients. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review what is known about the use of the atypical antipsychotics in young patients. To do so, an appropriate approach to the use of these drugs in child and adolescent patients my be offered.

  • PDF

Application of sickle red blood cells for targeted cancer therapy (항암치료를 위한 겸형적혈구의 응용)

  • Choe, Se-woon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.715-717
    • /
    • 2016
  • Conventional drug carriers such as liposomes, nanoparticles, polymer micelles, polymeric conjugate and lipid microemulsion for cancer chemotherapy shield normal tissues from toxic drugs to treat cancer cells in tumors. However, inaccurate tumor targeting uncontrolled drug release from the carriers and unwanted accumulation in healthy sites can limit treatment efficacy with current conventional drug carriers with insufficient concentrations of drugs in the tumors and unexpected side effects as a result. In this research, we examined the use of sickle red blood cells as a new drug carrier with novel tumor targeting and controlled release properties. Sickle red blood cells show natural tumor preferential accumulation without any manipulation and controlled drug release is possible using a hemolysis method with photosensitizers.

  • PDF

Controlled Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride and Indomethacin from Hollow Type Suppository Using Witepsol H-15 (Witepsol 중공좌제로부터의 염산프로프라놀롤 및 인도메타신의 방출제어)

  • Jin, Suk-Yeong;Gu, Yeong-Sun
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
    • /
    • v.40 no.4
    • /
    • pp.400-410
    • /
    • 1996
  • In oder to develop the controlled release of drugs from the suppositories, in vitro drug release and in vivo absorption in rabbits were investigated. Various suppo sitory forms with hollow cavities, into which drugs in the form of fine powder or solid dispersion system(SDS) could be placed, were utilized. The oleaginous Witepsol H-15 (WH-15) as a base, and indomethacin (IDM) of a very slightly soluble drug and propranolol-HCL (PPH) of a very soluble drug were employed as model drugs. The in vitro drug release showed that the cumulative release amount of PPH from PPH-(methylcellulose) MC-SDS and PPH-(ethylcellulose) EC-SDS hollow type suppositories reached 40% and 12% in 6 hrs,respectively. On the other hand, the drug release for a conventional suppository was 80% in 6 hrs. For the IDM suppositories,the cumulative drug release from IDM-(polyvinylpyrrolidone) PVP-SDS hollow type suppositories reached 99% in 24 hrs, whereas that from a conventional suppository reached 85%. An in vivo experiment with rabbits showed that IDM-PVP-SDS hollow type suppository delayed the absorption of IDM, significantly. The $t_{max},\;C_{max}\;and\;AUC_{0{\to}8}$ of IDM-PVP-SDS suppository were 60 min, 12.12${\mu}g$/ml and 2657${\mu}g$/ml/min, respectively. The $t_{max},\;C_{max}\;and\;AUC_{0{\to}8}$ of controlled group were 20 min, 15.49${\mu}g$/ml and 2190${\mu}g$/ml/min, respectively.

  • PDF

Development of Baccillus megaterium Disk Assay Kit for the Determination of Antibacterial Residues in Animal Tissues (식육중 잔류 향균물질의 검출을 위한 Bacillus megaterium 디스크 검사킷트 개발)

  • 손성완;조병훈;진남섭;이혜숙;윤순학;김재학;이재진;이영순
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.11 no.4
    • /
    • pp.315-321
    • /
    • 1996
  • Various antimicrobial drug screen tests have been used in order to ensure food safety. However, the conventional screen tests, the Swab Test on Premises(STOP, USA), the Calf Antibiotic and Sulfa Test(CAST, USA) and the European Economic Community 4-plate Test(FPT, EU) are not sufficiently rapid or sensitive enough to detect low levels of sulfa drugs in meat. We developed a new screen test kit for the determination of the antimicrobial residues in meat called the Bacillus megaterium Disk Assay(BmDA). A comparison of BmDA with the older screen tests showed BmDA was as good as the older ones with several advantages. The new test kit is faster-it can be read in 4∼6 hours instead of 16∼18 hours. Moreover, BmDA can discriminate sulfa drugs from other antimicrobial drugs because p-aminobenzoic acid countacts the inhibiting action of sulfa drugs. Minimum detectable levels of sulfa drugs were significantly improved at the lever of 0.025*0.1 pp, compared with the level of 1.0 ppm in FPT. A comparison of BmDA with the older screen tests in HPLC confirmed meat samples exceeded the Korean tolerance value of 0.1 ppm showed BmDA was the most sensitive in the microbiological screen tests. As the microbiological screen tests have already known, a person familiar with simple laboratory techniques should have no difficulty in using it to detect antimicrobial residues in meat. This would be a simple, economic method of antimicrobial residues detection which might be succesfully used by many laboratories.

  • PDF

An Investigation about the Present States of Clinical Trial for Traditional Medicine in Korea, China, Taiwan and Japan (한국과 중국, 대만, 일본의 전통약 임상시험 현황에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyun-Goo;Bae, Sun-Hee;Shin, Hyeon-Kyoo
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.13-22
    • /
    • 2006
  • Background and Aims: Herbal drugs and traditional medicines have lately attracted considerable attention by global pharmaceutical corporations because the conventional chemical drugs didn't work well for many chronic diseases or intractable diseases. The government of Korea is also supporting to develop the new drug which is high value added product, and the natural medicine including herbal medicine(or Traditional Korean Medicine) have a significant presence in this field. non-clinical pharmacology/toxicology study and clinical trial are the two major criteria which estimate efficacy and safety for registration of new drugs. All of the pharmaceutical companies producing herbal medicine and the academic and the academic world of Tradition Korean Medicine have the will to develop new herbal drugs, but there are obstacles that they have neither experience nor guideline about clinical trial. Therefore for developing new herbal drugs, it is necessary to research the present conditions and comprehensive systems about clinical trial in Northeast Asian countries China, Taiwan and Japan because they have the common background with Korea in traditional medicine fields. Methods : The present state of clinical trial for herbal medicine in Korea was investigated. And then, those in China, Taiwan, Japan was also investigated. Results and conclusions : There are significant differences among 4 Southeast Asian countries Korea, China, Taiwan and Japan each in present condition, purpose, involved comprehensive system including legislation, and actual operation of clinical trial for traditional medicine.

  • PDF

A Hot Melt w/o/w Emulsion Technique Suitable for Improved Loading of Hydrophilic Drugs into Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (현탁된 고형지질나노입자 내로 친수성 약물의 봉입률을 증대시키기 위한 w/o/w 에멀션 가온용융유화법의 평가)

  • Lee, Byoung-Moo;Choi, Sung-Up;Lee, Jae-Hwi;Choi, Young-Wook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
    • /
    • v.35 no.1
    • /
    • pp.33-38
    • /
    • 2005
  • Recently increasing attention has been focused on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as a parenteral drug carrier due to its numerous advantages that can come from both polymeric particle and fat emulsions, together with the possibility of controlled release and increasing drug stability. Lipophilic drugs such as paclitaxel, cyclosporin A, and all-trans retinoic acid have been successfully entrapped in SLN but the incorporation of hydrophilic drugs in SLN is very limited because of their very low affinity to the lipid. Therefore, as a new approach to improve the loading of hydrophilic drugs, a w/o/w emulsion technique has been developed. The primary objective of the current study was to improve the loading efficiency of a model hydrophilic drug, glycine (Log P = -3.44) into SLN. The proposed preparation process is as follows: A heated aqueous phase consisting of 0.1 ml of glycine solution in water (100 mg/ml), and poloxamer 188 (5 mg) were then added to a molten oil phase containing precirol (100 mg) and lecithin (5 mg). This mixture was dispersed by sonicator, leading to a w/o emulsion. A double emulsion (w/o/w) was formed after the addition of 2% poloxamer solution to the above dispersed system. After cooling the double emulsion, solid lipid nanosuspensions were successfully formed. The lipid nanoparticles had the mean particle size of 441.25 nm, and the average zeta potential of -20.98 mV. The drug loading efficiency was measured to be 8.54% and the drug loading amount was measured to be 0.92%. The w/o/w emulsion method showed an increased loading efficiency compared to conventional o/w emulsion method.

Sleep-Aids Derived from Natural Products

  • Hu, Zhenzhen;Oh, Seikwan;Ha, Tae-Woo;Hong, Jin-Tae;Oh, Ki-Wan
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.343-349
    • /
    • 2018
  • Although drugs such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines are often used for the treatment of insomnia, they are associated with various side effects such as habituations, tolerance and addiction. Alternatively, natural products with minimal unwanted effects have been preferred for the treatment of acute and/or mild insomnia, with additional benefits of overall health-promotion. Basic and clinical researches on the mechanisms of action of natural products have been carried out so far in insomnia treatments. Recent studies have been focusing on diverse chemical components available in natural products, with an interest of developing drugs that can improve sleep duration and quality. In the last 15 years, our co-workers have been actively looking for candidate substances from natural products that can relieve insomnia. This review is, therefore, intended to bring pharmacological data regarding to the effects of natural products on sleep duration and quality, mainly through the activation of $GABA_A$ receptors. It is imperative that phytochemicals will provide useful information during electroencephalography (EEG) analysis and serve as an alternative medications for insomnia patients who are reluctant to use conventional drugs.