• Title, Summary, Keyword: conventional drugs

Search Result 151, Processing Time 0.035 seconds

pH Solubility Properties and Improved Dissolution of Pranlukast as an Poorly Water-soluble Model Drug Prepared by Spray-drying with Plasdone S-630 (플라스돈 S-630과 함께 분무건조된 모델 난용성 약물로서 프란루카스트의 pH 용해도 특성 및 용출률 개선)

  • Cho, Won-Hyung;Lee, Young-Hyun;Song, Byung-Joo;Yoo, Seok-Cheol;Lim, Dong-Kyun;Khang, Gil-Son
    • Polymer Korea
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.277-283
    • /
    • 2011
  • Solid dispersion is mainly used for improved dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solid dispersion of pranlukast was prepared by spray-drying with plasdone S-630. When pH of water was high, pranlukast was highly soluble in the solubility experiment of solid dispersions with varying pH. The particle size of pranlukast particles in solid dispersions was measured to be in nanometers scale based on particle size analysis. Zeta-potential analysis confirmed the negative charge of solid dispersion. SEM was used to observe the surface of solid dispersion, which confirmed spherical morphology, DSC and XRD confirmed the amorphous nature of solid dispersions. The in vitro test was carried out to find improved dissolution rate of pranlukast solid dispersion in simulated juice gastric and a controlled experiment was carried out to compare pranlukast solid dispersions with a conventional drug (Onon$^{(R)}$), These results showed the dissolution properties of pranlukast solid dispersions prepared by spray drying proper for the oral pharmaceutical formulation.

A Study on the Effect of Doula's Roles including Therapeutic Touch on Labor and Delivery Process (치료적 터치를 병용한 듀라 (Doula)의 역할이 분만 제 요인에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Gum-Juing;Yoo, Eun-Kwang
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.262-277
    • /
    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is to define the effects of the roles played by the Doulas : one group educated on the conventional Lamaze method known to have effects on birth pang during delivery process and the other group educated both on Lamaze and therapeutic touch. On the various factors of delivery, and thereby, provide for some basic data to develop an effective nursing intervention to relieve women of their birth pang. 136 mothers who were hospitalized in a general hospital from June 13, 1998 to May 13, 1998 to May 13, 1999 to deliver their first babies were sampled to be divided into control group, test group I and test group II and thus be subject to interviews and observations. As for the tool of study, melzack's(1975) 'pain scale', McCaffery's(1972) and Mcrachlan's(1974) 'pain expression scales' and Spielberger's (1975) 'anxiety scale' were used. The preparatory educational programs consisted of 5week Lamaze method and therapeutic touch. The research, design was quasi-experimental, non equivalent, posttest only control group design. The collected data were processed using the SPSS/PC statistics software for frequencies, means and one-way Anova as well as Tukey HSD and Scheffe test as post hoc for individual comparison. Moreover, chi-square test was used to test the differences between groups, while Pearson's correlation coefficients were analyzed to determine the correlations between anxiety and variables. The findings are as follows ; 1. The birth pain of the mothers delivering first babies scored in a subjective and objective pain scale; 1) There was a significant difference of subjective birth pain at 8~10cm opening of cervix between control group and two test groups. 2) There was no significant difference of objective birth pain as per opening of cervex among three groups in terms of sweating, facial movement, bodily posture and vocal changes. 2. There was no significant difference of trait anxiety among three groups. however, there was a significant difference of state anxiety during labor process between control group and two test groups. On the other hand, all the three groups showed a significantly lower level of anxiety during labor process than when they were carried to the hospital. 3. There was a significant difference of the time of total and first-stage labor among three groups, while there was a significant but small difference of the time elapsed from 8~10cm cervix open to the full among three groups. 4. Two test groups showed a higher frequency of natural deliveries than the control group. 5. Two test groups were subject to these drugs than the control group. In conclusion, it was found that the test group I and II showed a shorter delivery time than the control group, a higher frequency of natural delivery and a lesser use of anodyne or epidural. In particular, this study is significant to develop a nursing intervention service or a therapeutic touch which the nursing administrators can apply to their hospitals in marketing programs.

  • PDF

Antifungal Activity of Rheum undulatum on Candida albicans by the Changes in Membrane Permeability (막투과성 변화로 인한 대황의 Candida albicans에 대한 항진균 활성)

  • Lee, Heung-Shick;Kim, Younhee
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.50 no.4
    • /
    • pp.360-367
    • /
    • 2014
  • Candida albicans is an opportunistic and the most prevalent fungal pathogen that can cause superficial and systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans can promote the transition from budding yeast to filamentous form, generating biofilms. Infections associated with C. albicans biofilms are frequently resistant to conventional antifungal therapy. Therefore, the development of more effective antifungal drugs related with biofilm formation is required urgently. The roots of Rheum undulatum have been used for medicinal purposes in Korea and China traditionally. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of R. undulatum extract upon preformed biofilms of 12 clinical C. albicans isolates and the antifungal activities. Its effect on preformed biofilms was evaluated using XTT reduction assay, and metabolic activity of all tested strains was reduced significantly ($49.4{\pm}6.0%$) at 0.098 mg/ml R. undulatum. The R. undulatum extract blocked the adhesion of C. albicans biofilms to polystyrene surfaces, and damaged the cell membrane integrity of C. albicans which was analyzed by CFDA, AM, and propidium iodide double staining. It caused cell lysis which was observed by Confocal laser scanning and phase contrast microscope after propidium iodide and neutral red staining, respectively. Membrane permeability was changed as evidenced by crystal violet uptake. The data suggest that R. undulatum inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans, which can be associated with the damage of the cell membrane integrity, the changes in the membrane permeability and the cell lysis of C. albicans.

Antibacterial Effect of Sinhyowoldosan Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (신효월도산(神效越桃散)이 메티실린에 내성이 있는 Staphylococcus aureus에 대한 항균활성에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, In-Sik;Kang, Ok-Hwa;Joung, Dae-Ki;Kang, Hee-Jung;Kim, Ji-Eun;Hwang, Hyeong-Chil;Kim, In-Won;Kwon, Dong-Yeul
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
    • /
    • v.28 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-64
    • /
    • 2013
  • Objectives : Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a cephalosporin and beta-lactam antibiotic-resistant strains. In most cases, that is spread from infected patients and infection rates are growing increasingly. Thus, accordingly, increased resistance to antibiotics is causing serious problems in the world. Therefore, there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of infections diseases. Methods : The antibacterial activities of Sinhyowoldosan were evaluated against 3 strains of Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and 1 standard Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain by using the disc diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay, colorimetric assay using MTT test, checkerboard dilution test and time-kill assay was performed under dark. Results : The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of Sinhyowoldosan water extract against S. aureus strains ranged from 500 to 2,000 ${\mu}g/mL$, so we have confirmed it on a strong antibacterial effect. Also, the combinations of Sinhyowoldosan water extract and conventional antibiotics exhibited improved inhibition of MRSA with synergy effect. We suggest that Sinhyowoldosan water extract against MRSA have antibacterial activity, it has potential as alternatives to antibiotic agent. the combination test was used, Triton X-100 (TX) and DCCD for measurement of membrane permeability and inhibitor of ATPase. As a result, antimicrobial activity of SH is affected by the cell membrane were assessed. Conclusion : We suggest that the Sinhyowoldosan water extract lead the treatment of bacterial infection to solve the resistance and remaining side-effect problems that are the major weak points of traditional antibiotics.

Anti-diabetic efficacy of the alcoholic extracts in Ganoderma sp. and Phellinus Baumi (영지, 상황버섯 주정추출물의 항당뇨 효능)

  • Cho, Jae-Han;Park, Hye-Sung;Han, Jae-Gu;Lee, Kang-Hyo;Jhune, Chang-Sung
    • Journal of Mushroom
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.326-329
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to anti-diabetic efficacy of alcoholic extracts in Ganoderma species and Phellinus Baumi. Ganoderma species and Phellinus Baumi. showed inhibitory activity of PTP1B, which acts as negative regulator of diabetes. The ${\alpha}-amylase$ is an important enzyme in the digestion of carbohydrates in the saliva and pancreatic. If inhibition of the enzyme Delaying the digestion rate of the carbohydrate can be reduced postprandial rise in blood glucose levels. The results of the tests the active level that showed a similar inhibition ${\alpha}-amylase$ inhibitory activity and a positive control. Phellinus Baumi. showed the inhibitory activity to 89%, Acarbose as positive control. ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ is an essential enzyme in the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates that break down carbohydrates into simple sugars polysaccharides. The results of the tests the active level that showed a low inhibitory activity. It is thought to be able to complement the shortcomings of conventional anti-diabetic drugs.

Effects of Regional Hyperthermia with Moderate Temperature on Cancer Treatment (국부 중등도 온열요법의 암치료 효과)

  • Kang, Chi-Dug;Kim, Sun-Hee
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1088-1096
    • /
    • 2016
  • Despite that moderate hyperthermia can exert various antitumor activities such as direct cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, effects on tumor vasculatures and immunological effects, hyperthermia has been usually combined with radiotherapy or chemotherapy due to its limited efficacy in cancer treatment, showing some positive clinical benefits with generally well-tolerated side effects. Since heat shock responses itself can interfere with the anti-tumor effects of hyperthermia, not all of these studies might have demonstrated positive clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Therefore, the negative anti-tumor effect of hyperthermia should be reduced to enhance the effectiveness of hyperthermia. Although the responses to heat stress of tumor tissues containing vessels, immune cells, connective tissues as well as cancer cells, are very complicated, it is needed to study in the near future if some clinically available drugs, which can modulate heat stress responses, can improve the efficacy of hyperthermia in patients with cancer. In this review, the effect of clinical hyperthermia centered on non-invasive external hyperthermia using radiofrequency at moderate temperature will be discussed, since it is the state-of-the-art technology in the current clinical practice of hyperthermia, and a moderate operational temperature is used to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of conventional therapy without additional toxicity to normal tissues.

Characterization and Transdermal Delivery of Ethosomes Loaded with Liquiritigenin and Liquiritin (리퀴리티게닌과 리퀴리틴을 담지한 에토좀의 특성 및 경피 전달)

  • Im, Na Ri;Kim, Hae Soo;Lim, Ji Won;Kim, Kyeong Jin;Noh, Geun Young;Park, Soo Nam
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
    • /
    • v.26 no.5
    • /
    • pp.563-568
    • /
    • 2015
  • Liquiritin and its aglycone, liquiritigenin are flavonoid found in licorice that show anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. In this study, ethosomes loaded with hydrophobic liquiritigenin or liquiritin were prepared as a transdermal delivery system. The particle size, entrapment efficiency, and skin permeability of ethosomes were evaluated. Ethosome containing liquiritigenin was stable up to 2 mM and ethosome containing liquiritin was stable up to 0.75 mM concentration. The particle size of ethosomes containing 0.75 mM liquiritigenin and liquiritin was 143.85 and 158.90 nm, respectively and the entrapment efficiency was 47.51 and 54.61%, respectively. The entrapment efficiency was improved with increasing concentrations of drugs. Ethosomes loaded with liquiritigenin or liquiritin were superior in skin permeation ability compared to that of 20% ethanol solution and conventional liposomes. These results suggest that ethosomes containing 0.50 mM liquiritigenin or liquiritin are effective for the skin permeation and may be used as an antiaging and antioxidant ingredient in cosmetic formulation.

Study on Medical Records In ${\ulcorner}$the Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms${\lrcorner}$ ("삼국사기(三國史記)"에 기록된 의약내용(醫藥內容) 분석)

  • Shin, Soon-Shik;Choi, Hwan-Soo
    • Journal of The Association for Neo Medicine
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.35-54
    • /
    • 1997
  • We tried to observe the features of ancient medical practice by analysing the records related to medicine in the book, ${\ulcorner}$the Historical Records of the Three Kingdom${\lrcorner}$ of which content includes the features of medicine in mythology, plague, delivery of twins, drugs, medical system, shamanism, constitutional medicine, psychiatry, forensic medicine, deformity, a spa, medical phrase, health and welfare work, religion, death. physiological anatomy, Taoist medicine, acupuncture, the occult af of transformation and etc. Our initial concern was about where to draw line as of medical field and we defined medicine in more broad meaning. The book ${\ulcorner}$the Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms${\lrcorner}$ describes the world of mythology by way of medicine which is not clearly a conventional one. There appears records of birth of multiple offsprings 7 times in which cases are of triplets or more. Delivering multiple offsprings were rare phenomenon though such fertility was highly admired. This shows one aspect of ancient country having more population meant more power of the nation. Of those medical records conveyed in that book includes stories of childbirth such as giving birth to a son after praying, giving birth to Kim Yoo-shin after 20 months after mother's dream of conception, and a song longing for getting a laudable child. Plagues were prevalent throughout winter to spring season and one can observe various symptoms of plagues in the record. Of these epidemic diseases, cold type might have been more common than the heat one. Appearance of epidemic diseases frequently coincided with that of natural disasters that this suggests a linkage between plague and underlying doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors. There exists only a few names of diseases such as epidemic disease, wind disease, and syndrome characterized by dyspnea. Otherwise there appeared only afflictions that were not specified therefore it remains cluless to keep track of certain diseases of prevalence. Since this ${\ulcorner}$Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms'${\lrcorner}$ wasn't any sort of medical book, words and terms used were not technical kind and most were the ones used generally among lay people. Therefore any mechanisms of the diseases were hardly mentioned. Some of medicinal substances such as Calculus Bovis, Radix Ginseng, Gaboderma Luciderm, magnetitum were also in use in those days. 53 kinds of dietary supplies appears in the records and some of these might have been used as medicinal purpose. Records concerning dicipline of one's body includes activities such as hunting, archery, horseback riding etc. In Shilla dynasty there were positions such as professor of medicine, Naekongbong(內供奉), Kongbong's doctor(供奉醫師), Kongbong's diviner(供奉卜師). As an educational facility, medical school was built at the first year of King Hyoso's reign and it's curricula included various subjects as ${\ulcorner}$Shin Nong's Herbal classic${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Kabeul classic of acupuncture and moxbustion${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$The Plain Questions of the Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Classic of Acupuncturer${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$The Pulse Classic${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Classic of Channels and Acupuncture Points${\lrcorner}$ and ${\ulcorner}$Difficult Classic${\lrcorner}$. There were 2 medical professors who were in charge of education. To establish pharmacopoeia, 2 Shaji(舍知), 6 Sha(史), 2 Jongshaji(從舍知) were appointed. In Baekje dynasty, Department of Herb was maintained. Doing praying for the sake of health, doing phrenology also can be extended to medical arena. Those who survived over 100 years of age appear 3 times in the record, while 98 appears once. The earliest psychiatrist Nokjin differentiated symptoms to apply either therapies using acupuncture and drug or psychotherapy. There appears a case of rape, a case of burying alive with the dead, 8 cases of suicide that can characterize a prototype of forensic medicine. Deformity-related records include phrases as follow: 'there seems protrudent bone behind the head', 'a body which has two heads, two trunks, four arms.', 'a body equipped with two heads' In those times spa can be said to be used as a place for he리ing, convalescence, and relaxation seeing the records describing a person pretended illness and went to spa to enjoy with his friends. Priest doctors and millitary surgeons were in charge of the medical sevice in the period of the Three Kingdoms by the record written by Mookhoja(墨胡子) and Hoonkyeom(訓謙). Poor diet and regimen makes people more vulnerable to diseases. So there existed charity services for those poor people who couldn't live with one's own capacity such as single parents, orphans, the aged people no one to take care and those who are ill. The cause of affliction was frequently coined with human relation. There appeared the phenomenon of releasing prisoners and allowing people to become priests at the time of king's suffering. Besides, as a healing procedure, sutra-chanting was peformed. There appears 10 cases of death related records which varies from death by drowning, or by freezing, death from animals, death from war, death from wightloss and killing oneself at the moment of spouse's death and etc. There also exist certain records which suggest the knowledge of physiology and anatomy in those times. Since the taoist books such as ${\ulcorner}$Book of the Way and Its Power(老子道德經)${\lrcorner}$ were introduced in the period of Three Kingdoms, it can be considered that medicine was also influenced by taoism. Records of higher level of acupuncture, records which links the medicine and occult art of transformation existed. Although limited, we could figure out the medical state of ancient society.

  • PDF

Cross-resistance Between Rifampicin and Rifabutin and Its Relationship with rpoB Gene Mutations in Clinically Isolated MDR-TB Strains (다제내성 결핵 균주에서 리팜핀과 리파부틴간의 교차내성률 및 rpoB 유전자 돌연변이와의 연관성)

  • Kim, Byoung Ju;Oh, Seung Hwan;Cho, Eun Jin;Park, Seung Kyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.60 no.2
    • /
    • pp.171-179
    • /
    • 2006
  • Background : Despite the emerging danger of MDR-TB to human beings, there have only been a limited number of drugs developed to treat MDR-TB since 1970. This study investigated the cross-resistance rate between rifampicin (RFP) and rifabutin (RBU) in order to determine the efficacy of rifabutin in treating MDR-TB. In addition, the results of rifabutin were correlated with the rpoB mutations, which are believed to be markers for MDR-TB and RFP resistance. Methods : The MICs of RBU were tested against 126 clinical isolates of MDR-TB submitted to the clinical laboratory of National Masan TB Hospital in 2004. Five different concentrations ($10-160{\mu}g/ml$) were used for the MICs. The detection of the rpoB mutations was performed using a RFP resistance detection kit with a line probe assay(LiPA), which contains the oligonucleotide probes for 5 wide type and 3 specific mutations (513CCA, 516GTC, and 531TTG) The rpoB mutation was determined by direct sequencing. Results : The rate of cross-resistance between RFP and RBU was 70.5%(74/105) at $20{\mu}g/ml$ RBU(ed note: How much RFP?) Most mutations (86.3%) occurred in the 524~534 codons. The His526Gln, His526Leu, Leu533Pro, Gln513Glu, and Leu511Pro mutations(Ed note: Is this correct?) were associated with the susceptibilty to RBU. Conclusion : Based on the cross-resistance rate between RFP and RBU, RBU may be used effectively in some MDR-TB patients. Therefore, a conventional drug susceptibility test for RBU and a determination of the critical concentration are needed. However, rpoB gene mutation test may be have limited clinical applications in detecting RBU resistance.

Comparative Evaluation of Colon Cancer Stemness and Chemoresistance in Optimally Constituted HCT-8 cell-based Spheroids (적정 구성 배양 HCT-8 기반 대장암 스페로이드의 암 줄기세포능 및 항암제 내성 평가의 비교 평가 연구)

  • Lee, Seung Joon;Kim, Hyoung-Kab;Lee, Hyang Burm;Moon, Yuseok
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1313-1319
    • /
    • 2016
  • Cancer is a complex disease heterogeneously composed of various types of cells including cancer stem-like cells responsible for relapse and chemoresistance in the tumor microenvironment. The conventional two-dimensional cell culture-based platform has critical limitations for representing the heterogeneity of cancer cells in the three-dimensional tumor niche in vivo. To overcome this insufficiency, three-dimensional cell culture methods in a scaffold-dependent or -free physical environment have been developed. In this study, we improved and simplified the HCT-8 colon cancer cell-based spheroid culture protocol and evaluated the relationship between cancer stemness and responses of chemosensitivity to 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU), a representative anticancer agent against colon cancer. Supplementation with defined growth factors in the medium and the culture dish of the regular surface with low attachment were required for the formation of constant-sized spheroids containing $CD44^+$ and $CD133^+$ colon cancer stem cells. The chemo-sensitivities of $CD44^+$ cancer stem cells in the spheroids were much lower than those of $CD44^-$ non-stem-like cancer cells, indicating that the chemoresistance to 5-FU is due to the stemness of colon cancer cells. Taken together, the inflammation and oncogenic gut environment-sensitive HCT-8 cell-based colon cancer spheroid culture and comparative evaluation using the simplified model would be an efficient and applicable way to estimate colon cancer stemness and pharmaceutical response to anticancer drugs in the realistic tumor niche.