• Title, Summary, Keyword: constituent

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Studies on Constituents and Culture of the Higher Fungi of Korea (한국산(韓國産) 고등균류(高等菌類)의 성분(成分)및 배양(培養)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Shim, Mi-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.49-66
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    • 1981
  • The objectives of this investigation were to produce artificially an antitumor constituent by submerged culture of the mycelium of Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Quel., to characterize the influence of various modifications of the nutrient and culture conditions with respect to the pro­duction, to determine chemical composition of the antitumor constituent, and to examine effects of the constituent on the immune response of mice. Submerged agitation of the mycelium in flasks containing a nutrient solution showed its adequate growth. Especially the mycelial growth in the medium containing glucose and yeast extract was abundant. The addition of cotton seed flour or ginseng waste to the medium increased the yield of mycelial growth and the production of the antitumor constituent. The replacement of glucose with starch also yielded the adequate growth. The antitumor constituent extracted from the mycelium and isolated from the culture filtrate was a protein-bound polysaccharide. The analyses of this constituent by GLC and amino acid autoanalysis showed that it contained four monosaccharides and fifteen amino acids. The protein-free polysaccharide of the constituent was also found to exert greater antitumor activity against sarcoma-180 in mice than the entire constituent. The antitumor constituent was found to potentiate the immune response of mice against sheep red blood cell. The protein-bound polysaccharide exerted more favorable influence on the immunity than the protein-free moiety.

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Relationship of Attribution Styles and Science-related Attitude and Science Process Skills of Science-gifted (초등학교 과학영재의 귀인성향과 과학 관련 태도 및 과학탐구능력과의 관계)

  • Lee, Yong-Seob;Park, Mi-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Earth Science Education
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.124-131
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is examine relationship of attribution styles and attitude toward Science and Science Process Skills of Science-gifted, to understand unique characteristics of the Science-gifted and to give useful information that can be use in develop special programs for the Science-gifted. The result of this study were as follows: First, there was no difference between genders. But there was a significant difference in attribution of luck. Second, there was a correlation between internal tendencies and Scientific attitude. Especially attribution of effort correlated with sub - constituent of Scientific attitude. Internal tendencies correlated with the Cognition in Scientific Professions that sub - constituent of the attitude toward Science. Third, There was a correlation between external tendencies and the interest activity in Science that sub - constituent of the attitude toward Science. There are correlations between sub - constituent of the attitude toward Science and sub - constituent of external tendencies that attribution of luck and interest in Scientific Professions, attribution of task difficulty and Cognition activity in Science. Fourth There was no correlation between Attribution styles and Science Process Skills. But Internal tendencies correlated with classification that sub - constituent of Science Process Skills. And classification correlated with attribution of ability that sub - constituent of external tendencies. Attribution of effort that sub - constituent of internal tendencies correlated with Science Process Skills.

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A Cytotoxic Constituent from Sophora flavescens

  • Kim, Youn-Kwan;Min, Byung-Sun;Bae, Ki-Hwan
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.342-345
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    • 1997
  • A cytotoxic constituent was isolated by bioassay-guided procedure from the roots of Sophora flavescens Aiton (Leguminosae). The constituent was identified as sophoraflavanone G (I) by means of chemical methods and in comparsion with spectral data of standard compound. The $ED_50$ values of constituent I were 0.78, 1.57, 2.14 and $8.59{\mu}g/ml$ against A549, HeLa, K562 and L1210 cell lines, respectively. Constituent I exhibited highly cytotoxic activities against A549, K562 and HeLa cells, but showed a mild activity $$(ED_50 value, 5{\mu}g/ml)$$ against L1210 cells. Among the tested cell lines, A549 cells were the most sensitive to constituent I.

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Cytotoxicity, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of the Prescription Cheongyeolsodokum and Its Constituent Herbs (청열소독음(淸熱消毒飮)과 구성약재의 암세포 독성, 항균 및 항산화 효과)

  • Lee, Jin-Tae;Lee, Chang-Eon;Son, Jun-Ho;Lee, Jin-Young;Park, Tae-Soon;Lee, In-Cheol;Song, Mi-Ae;Cheon, Soon-Ju;Jee, Seon-Young;An, Bong-Jeun
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The purpose of this research was physiological activities, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activities of the Cheongyeolsodokum and its constituent herbs. Methods : Physiological activities, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activities were examined through the Cheongyeolsodokum and its constituent herbs. Results : In the physiological activities, the electron donating ability(EDA) of the water and ethanol extracts from the Cheongyeolsodokum were over 60% and 80% at 100 ppm, respectively. The EDA of the water and ethanol extract from the Cheongyeolsodokum ingredients were gradually increased as well. Water and ethanol extracts from the Cheongyeolsodokum and its constituent herbs inhibited xanthine oxidase activity, they showed superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity. The Cheongyeolsodokum and its constituent herbs inhibited cancer cell growth in a dose-dependant manner. Also, the clear zones against Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were clear shown at 2.5 and 5 mg/disc. Its constituent herbs showed the clear zone against various bacteria such as Candida albicans, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. mutans were shown at 0.5 and 1mg/disc. Conclusions : We observed physiological activities, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activities of the Cheongyeolsodokum and its constituent herbs. The results also indicated that water extract and ethanol extract of Cheongyeolsodokum and its constituent herbs can be used as a natural ingredient in food or cosmetic industry.

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The Linear Constituent Order of the Noun Phrase: An Optimality Theoretic Account

  • Chung, Chin-Wan
    • English Language & Literature Teaching
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.23-48
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    • 2003
  • This paper provides an analysis of the linear constituent order of the NP in three different types of languages based on 33 languages: the NP with the prenominal modifiers, the NP with the postnominal modifiers, and the NP with both prenominal and postnominal modifiers (the mixed NP). Languages have NPs that feature different linear order, of the NP constituents. We attribute such different linear constituent orders within the NP to the linguistic distance and the limits imposed by the constituency and adjacency. We use the various kinds of alignment constraints which properly reflect the linguistic distance between the noun and each constituent. Language universals on word order provide us some general orders of various NP constituents. If we adopt the linguistic distance, the limits imposed by the constituency and the adjacency, and the alignment constraints, we can explain the complicated differences of NP constituent orders of languages of the world.

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Text Watermarking Based on Syntactic Constituent Movement (구문요소의 전치에 기반한 문서 워터마킹)

  • Kim, Mi-Young
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartB
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    • v.16B no.1
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2009
  • This paper explores a method of text watermarking for agglutinative languages and develops a syntactic tree-based syntactic constituent movement scheme. Agglutinative languages provide a good ground for the syntactic tree-based natural language watermarking because syntactic constituent order is relatively free. Our proposed natural language watermarking method consists of seven procedures. First, we construct a syntactic dependency tree of unmarked text. Next, we perform clausal segmentation from the syntactic tree. Third, we choose target syntactic constituents, which will move within its clause. Fourth, we determine the movement direction of the target constituents. Then, we embed a watermark bit for each target constituent. Sixth, if the watermark bit does not coincide with the direction of the target constituent movement, we displace the target constituent in the syntactic tree. Finally, from the modified syntactic tree, we obtain a marked text. From the experimental results, we show that the coverage of our method is 91.53%, and the rate of unnatural sentences of marked text is 23.16%, which is better than that of previous systems. Experimental results also show that the marked text keeps the same style, and it has the same information without semantic distortion.

Effect of Knit Fabric Constituent Characteristics on Preference (니트 소재 구성특성이 선호도에 미치는 영향)

  • Roh, Eui-Kyung;Kim, Seong-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.651-658
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    • 2008
  • Conjoint analysis estimates how much each of the attributes is valued on the basis of the choices consumers make among product concepts that are varied in systematic ways. The purposes of this research were to evaluate the relative importance of each fabric constituent characteristic for the consumer's utility or preference, to compare with the relative importance between the trained and the untrained panelists, and to identify the combinations of the constituent characteristic of knit fabric which offer consumers greater utility. Conjoint analysis was conducted using data taken from 54 trained and 54 untrained panelists, who rated preference for 12 different knit fabrics. The stitch length had a greater effect on knit fabric preference than the mixture ratio of fiber. There was no difference on effect of knit constituent characteristics for preference between the trained and the untrained panelists. Total, trained and untrained group preferred a knit fabric that had a higher acrylic mixture ratio and a short stitch length.

Effects of Lycium chinense Miller Fruit and its Constituent Betaine on Immunomodulation in Balb/c Mice

  • Kim, Na-Hyung;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Lycium chinense Miller fruit and its representative constituent betaine on reduction of immobility time and blood parameters in balb/c mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the immobility time and the changes in aspects of blood biochemical parameters by the administration of L. chinense Miller fruit and its representative constituent betaine, after the forced swimming test. The immobility time was significantly reduced about 41.3% and 53.6%, respectively, in the animal of L. chinense Miller fruit and its representative constituent betaine-administrated group for 7 days, in comparison with that of the control group. The level of blood urea nitrogen was significantly decreased in L. chinense Miller fruit and its representative constituent betaine-treated group compared with the control group (P < 0.05), respectively. In addition, the interlukin-2 levels of mice in L. chinense Miller fruit and betaine treated group was increased compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that L. chinense Miller fruit and betaine might be helpful in the immune function improvement, enhance physical stamina, and fatigue recovery.

Modeling of Irradiation Temperatures and Constituent Redistribution in U-10Zr Metallic Fuel

  • Nam, Cheol;Hwang, Woan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 1997
  • The computational scheme on a irradiation temperature of U-10Zr fuel was established considering porosity formation, bond sodium infiltration and constituent redistribution. Thermotransport theory was adapted to model the redistribution phenomenon. As a results, the bond sodium seems to be logged in the outer region of fuel slug. The main driving force for constituent redistribution appears to be the Zr solubility change along to radial position of the fuel. It is evident that the heat of transport also has some contribution to the redistribution.

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Topical Features of the Preposed Constituents in English Sentences. (전치되는 구성소의 화제적 속성)

  • 정일병
    • Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.651-671
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    • 2001
  • There are several English constructions in which a certain constituent appears to the left of its canonical position, typically sentence-initially, leaving its canonical position empty. Such constructions involve Left-dislocation and Y-movement. These operations are called ‘Preposing.’ The preposed constituent of such constructions is generally regarded as the topic of the sentence which involves that constituent. Topics must have at least two features; ‘aboutness’ and ‘givenness.’ The feature ‘aboutness’ defines the range of comment, and the feature ‘givenness’ means ‘informationally old or given.’ The purpose of this paper is to show that the function of Preposing is to reinforce the aboutness of the preposed constituent of a sentence and that most preposed constituents have givenness. We examined Preposing for this purpose. Tough-movement and Passivization were examined also, because they have characteristics informationally similar to those of Preposing.

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