• Title/Summary/Keyword: confounding

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Implementation and Features for Design of Experiment (품질실험계획 모형의 특징 및 적용방안)

  • Choi, Sung-Woon
    • Proceedings of the Safety Management and Science Conference
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    • pp.519-524
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    • 2010
  • The research presents implementation strategy and features for experimental design of quality. The MINITAB models of experimental design classfies by the kinds of factors, orthogonality, blocking, confounding and rotationability. The results discussed in this paper can be easily used for practictioners.

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Covariate selection criteria for controlling confounding bias in a causal study (인과연구에서 중첩편향을 제거하기 위한 공변량선택기준)

  • Thepepomma, Seethad;Kim, Ji-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.849-858
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    • 2016
  • It is important to control confounding bias when estimating the causal effect of treatment in an observational study. We illustrated that the covariate selection in the causal inference is different from the variable selection in the ANCOVA model. We then investigated the three criteria of covariate selection for controlling confounding bias, which can be used when we have inadequate information to draw a complete causal graph. VanderWeele and Shpitser (2011) proposed one of them and claimed it was better than the other two. We show by example that their criterion also has limitations and some disadvantages. There is no clear winner; however, their criterion is better (if some correction is made on its condition) than the other two because it can remove the confounding bias.

A Simple Algorithm for Factorial Experiments in $\rho^N$

  • Donwonn Kim
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.353-359
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    • 1998
  • Factorial designs with two-level factors represent the smallest factorial experiments. The system of notation and confounding and fractional factorial schemes developed for the $2^N$system are found in standard textbooks of experimental designs. Just as in the $2^N$ system, the general confounding and fractional factorial schemes are possible in $3^N,5^N$, .... , and $\rho^N$ where $\rho$ is a prime number. Hence, we have the $\rho^N$ system. In this article, the author proposes a new algorithm for constructing fractional factorial plans in the $\rho^N$ system.

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Suppression and Collapsibility for Log-linear Models

  • Sun, Hong-Chong
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.519-527
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    • 2004
  • Relationship between the partial likelihood ratio statistics for logisitic models and the partial goodness-of-fit statistics for corresponding log-linear models is discussed. This paper shows how definitions of suppression in logistic model can be adapted for log-linear model and how they are related to confounding in terms of collapsibility for categorical data. Several $2{times}2{times}2$ contingency tables are illustrated.

Survey of the use of statistical methods in Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

  • Choi, Yong-Geun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.25-28
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: This study aimed to describe recent patterns in the types of statistical test used in original articles that were published in Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six original articles published in the Journal in 2015 and 2016 were ascertained. The type of statistical test was identified by one researcher. Descriptive statistics, such as frequency, rank, and proportion, were calculated. Graphical statistics, such as a histogram, were constructed to reveal the overall utilization pattern of statistical test types. Results: Twenty-two types of statistical test were used. Statistical test type was not reported in four original articles and classified as unclear in 5%. The four most frequently used statistical tests constituted 47% of the total tests and these were the chi-square test, Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney test in descending order. Regression models, such as the Cox proportional hazard model and multiple logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding variables, were used in only 6% of the studies. Normality tests, including the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene test, Shapiro-Wilk test, and $Scheff{\acute{e}}^{\prime}s$ test, were used diversely but in only 10% of the studies. Conclusion: A total of 22 statistical tests were identified, with four tests occupying almost half of the results. Adoption of a nonparametric test is recommended when the status of normality is vague. Adjustment for confounding variables should be pursued using a multiple regression model when the number of potential confounding variables is numerous.

The Impact of Medicaid Expansion to include population with low income on the preventable hospitalizations (의료급여 수급권자 확대정책이 예방가능한 입원율에 미친 영향)

  • Shin, Hyun-Chul;Kim, Se-Ra
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.87-102
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study were to examine the impact of medicaid coverage expansion policy aimed at improving access to primary care. The case-control study was conducted to compare preventable hospitalization(PH) rate in new medicaid recipients versus national health insurance(NHI) enrollees form 1996 to 2001. Rates of preventable hospitalization associated with ambulatory care sensitive conditions(ACSC) were calculated and standardized by age and sex. Multinomial logit regression model was used to control the confounding factors such as age, gender and charlson comorbidity index Annual PH rates in the new medicaid increased 1.64 times after medicaid expansion, with controling confounding factors. Meanwhile, annual PH rate in the NHI increased 1.68 times during the same period, with adjusting confounding factors. Current findings suggest that the new medicaid PH rate was less likely to rise than NHI PH rate after implementing medicaid expansion. This study is expected to provide policy-relevant evidence of medicaid expansion to include population with low income.

Confounding of Time Trend with Dropout Process in Longitudinal Data Analysis

  • Kim, Ji-Hyun;Choi, Hye-Hyun
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.703-713
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    • 2002
  • In longitudinal studies, outcomes are repeatedly measured over time for each subject. It is common to have missing values or dropouts for longitudinal data. In this study time trend in longitudinal data with dropouts is of concern. The confounding of time trend with dropout process is investigated through simulation studies. Some simulation results are reported for binary responses as well as continuous responses with patterns of dropouts varying. It has been found that time trend is not confounded with random dropout process for binary responses when it is estimated using GEE.

The Study of the Influence of Induced Abortion on Secondary Infertility analyzed by Logistic Regression (Logistic Analysis를 이용하여 분석한 인공유산이 속발성불임에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Won-Chul
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.179-186
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    • 1982
  • The methods controlling the confounding factors were discussed using the data of secondary infertility with induced abortion. Mantel-Haenszel method and logistic model were applied in the analysis to find out which factors were confounding and/or effect modification variables. In the logistic analysis, the main effect of induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, age and interaction effect between induced abortion and spontaneous abortion were chosen as independent variables being regressed into logistic functions. Spontaneons abortion was interpreted as a potential confounder and at the same time potential effect modifier and age was interpreted as potential confounder. Spontaneous abortion was shown to be more important influencing factor than age to the secondary infertility. In the course of logistic analysis, the problem of parameter estimation and hypothesis testing, assessing the fitness of a model, and selection of the best model were briefly explained. For the program of logistic model, FUNCAT Procedure of SAS package was chosen.

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Association between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adults (한국 성인에서 간접흡연노출과 우울증상 간의 상관관계)

  • Jin, Sunkwon;Han, Kyu-Man;Nam, Min;Chang, Jisoon
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 2020
  • Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and depressive symptoms among Korean adults. This study also explored the mediating role of self-rated health (SRH) and perceived usual stress (PUS) in the association between depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and SHS exposure. Methods Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) in 2014 and 2016 was analyzed for 10539 participants aged 19 years or older. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the logistic regression analysis with adjustment for the potential confounding factors. We also adopted the mediation analysis method by Hayes and Preacher. Results After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, SHS at home and at public places were associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among non-smokers. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, SHS at home and at public places was associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among non-smokers. Meanwhile SHS at workplaces was associated with depressive symptoms among former smokers and with suicidal ideation among current smokers. There was an additive effect of SHS on depressive symptoms only among non-smokers. SRH mediated the association between SHS and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among non-smokers. We did not observe any significant mediating effect of SRH nor PUS on the association between SHS and depressive symptoms among former and current smokers. Conclusions SHS may be associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in Korean adults. Our study elucidated how SHS interacted with depressive symptoms among non-smokers through the mediation by SRH.

Relevance of Dental Health Capacity and Pulmonary Function Status in Adults

  • Song, Kwui-Sook;Ryu, Da-Young;Kim, In-Ja
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.454-461
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to confirm the relevance of dental health capacity and pulmonary function status. The subjects of this study were adults aged 40 years and older, who participated in pulmonary function and oral examinations. The data used for this study were raw data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013~2015). Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of complex sample survey data. The results were as follows: First, restrictive and obstructive patterns were more prevalent among males than females. They were even worse in older subjects. Approximately 67% of smokers had obstructive pattern. Second, there was a relevance between dental health capacity and pulmonary function status. The functioning teeth index, number of present teeth, and number of sound teeth (ST), which are indicators of dental health, declined with decreased pulmonary function. The number of missing teeth (MT) increased as the pulmonary function deteriorated (p<0.05). Third, the relevance between dental health capacity and pulmonary function status after stratifying the life-long smoking experience was statistically significant in the tissue health (T-health) index and ST among non-smokers. The relevance between dental health capacity and pulmonary function status after stratifying the life-long smoking experience was statistically significant (p<0.05) for the T-health index, ST, and MT among smokers. However, there was no relevance between dental health capacity and pulmonary function status after stratifying the life-long smoking experience and adjusting confounding variables. In conclusion, there was a relevance between dental health capacity and pulmonary function status after confounding variables were adjusted. However, there was no relevance between dental health capacity and pulmonary function status after stratifying the life-long smoking experience and adjusting confounding variables.