• Title, Summary, Keyword: conflict situation

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Children's Strategies, Goals and Peer Acceptance in Peer Conflict Situation (또래갈등상황에서 아동의 책략, 목표 및 또래 수용)

  • 송혜영;최보가
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.11-22
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    • 2002
  • This study investigated the difference in adopting strategies and goals and the relations in strategies, goals and peer acceptance in term of gender and ages under peer conflict situation. The 625 subjects were selected from the fifth and sixth graders of elementary schools and the first and second graders middle schools. The instruments of measurement were Conflict Resolution Measure, Sociometric Scale. The main findings of this study are as follows: 1) Children's strategies in peer conflict situation has significant difference according to gender and grade. 2) Children's goals in peer conflict situation has significant difference according to gender and grade. 3) There were signigicant correlation between strategies and goals. 4) There were significant correlation in strategies and peer acceptance.

The Relationship between the Cognitive Conflict Levels of Students Facing an Anomalous Situation Including Misconception and a Conceptual Change in Science (오개념이 포함된 불일치 상황에 대면한 학생들의 인지갈등 정도와 과학 개념변화의 관계)

  • Kang, Jihoon;Yoo, Pyoungkil
    • New Physics: Sae Mulli
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    • v.68 no.10
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    • pp.1116-1126
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between cognitive conflict levels of elementary school students facing an anomalous situation, including misconception and conceptual change in science. Cognitive conflict in conceptual change plays a key role in science education. That the cognitive conflict levels vary given the same situation is worth of note. Two hundred thirty elementary school students participated in this study. The students were presented with logical arguments including misconceptions; then, the cognitive conflict levels and conceptual changes were examined. The results of this study were as follows. First, the students with a correct conception created more cognitive conflict when faced with an anomalous situation including a conception contrary to their correct conception than the students not facing an anomalous situation did. Second, the cognitive conflict was the highest in the group of students that changed their conception, but the difference between 'C ${\rightarrow}$ M' type and 'C ${\rightarrow}$ C' type was not statistically significant.

Emotional Behavior in Preschoolers’ Peer Conflic: The Role of Peer Conflict Situation and Age (3세 및 5세 유아의 또래 갈등 상황에 따른 정서표현 행동)

  • 김지현;이순형
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.29-43
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of the current study was to investigate peer conflict situations and age differences in preschoolers' emotional behavior of happiness, sadness, and anger. Participants were twenty-two 3-year-olds and twenty 5-year-olds, and each pair of the same age interacted in two standardized conflict situations: object possession conflict and behavioural/interpersonal conflict. Participants' emotional behaviors of happiness, sadness, and anger were obsewationally coded through facial expression, verbal intonation, gesture, and physical contact. Preschoolers expressed more sadness and anger emotional behavior in object possession conflict than in behavioural/interpersonal conflict. In object possession conflict, 3-year-olds expressed more anger emotional behavior than 5-year-olds did. In behavioural/interpersonal conflict,5-year-olds expressed more happiness emotional behavior than 3-year-olds did.

Characteristics of Cognitive Conflict in Vocational Students Confronted with an Anomalous Situation of Action and Reaction Task (작용.반작용 과제에서 불일치현상에 대면한 실업계 고등학생의 인지갈등 특성)

  • Shin, Sang-Woo;Kim, Yeoun-Soo;Kwon, Jae-Sool
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.571-582
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    • 2005
  • In spite of the importance of cognitive conflict in conceptual change, there has been little research on the characteristics of cognitive conflict in students enrolled at vocational high schools. The purpose of this study was to expose these students' cognitive conflict types and investigate characteristics of cognitive conflict according to the type of cognitive conflict. This paper examined how vocational students' motivational beliefs and epistemological beliefs affect the process of cognitive conflict when students are confronted with an anomalous situation related to the action and reaction concept. Results indicated that many vocational students experienced low levels of cognitive conflict and remained passive during the explanation of anomalous phenomenon or easily desisted any attempt to resolve the conflict situation because of their epistemological belief to depend on the external absolute knowledge of teachers, an extrinsic motivation to choose easier tasks, or reliance on the teachers' reputations. Therefore, Instructors need to recognize these characteristics in order to facilitate vocational students' conceptual change when presenting cognitive conflict tasks.

The Change of High School Students' Mechanics Conceptions by the Types of Cognitive Conflict Situations (인지갈등 상황 제시유형에 따른 고등학생들의 역학 개념 변화)

  • Lee, Chae-Eun;Lee, Gyoung-Ho;Kim, Ji-Na;Kwon, Jae-Sool
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.697-709
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    • 2001
  • Researchers on conceptual change have been proposed that confronting a cognitive conflict situation would be important for a student to change his/her preexisting conception. There have been reported that there are three different methods of producing a cognitive conflict situation; the first is logical argument(LC), the second is demonstration of an actual phenomenon(DC), and the third is kinesthetic conflict which is a kind of physical experience(EC). In this study, the researcher tried to find out the differences in the conceptual changes by the three different conflict situations. Seventy two high school students were chosen in a high school in Kyungkido, Korea. The students were tested four times; pretest, posttest, one week delayed posttest, and one month delayed posttest. Six different test situations on mechanics were developed for this study. Test item for each situation was developed. Each item consisted of a multiple choice question and explanation of the choice. The result showed a clear differences among the three conflict groups. In general, kinesthetic conflict which is a kind of physical experience(EC) was proved to be the most efficient strategy for the conceptual change; however, logical argument(LC) seemed to be the least efficient. However, the effectiveness was not uniform from situation to situation. Results of some items showed that even the LC was quite good for the conceptual change. Therefore, it seems to be important to develope appropriate method for the target concept.

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The Effects of Conflict Situation Types on Inducing Students' Cognitive Conflicts in Newton's Laws (뉴턴 운동법칙에 관한 문제에서 갈등상황의 유형이 학생들의 인지적 갈등 유발에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Lee-Suk;Lee, Yung-Jick;Kwon, Jae-Sool
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.473-483
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    • 1998
  • A learner's cognitive conflict with his /her existing conception is regarded to be one of the most important factors for a conceptual change. In this study, the effects of the conflict situation types on inducing students' cognitive conflicts in Newton's law were examined. The thirty-four students of 10th grade were selected from a rural high school based on the result of pre-test. The two different types of conflict situations among many possible types were used in this study. One type was using logical conflict situation and the other was demonstrating real conflict situation. The levels of cognitive conflict were measured by 4-point Likert scale by three interviewers. As the results, the demonstration method was more effective than the logical argument method. In case of the logical argument method, rather than showing scientific conceptions, suggesting another misconception was more effective to the students who have misconception. However, logical argument method was not effective to those who have scientfic conceptions. To the students who have unscientific conceptions, the demonstration method was very effective for inducing cognitive conflict. From the results of this study, demonstration method of teaching seems to be very effective for inducing students' cognitive conflict and overcoming their misconceptions on scientific concept.

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The Development of an Instrument for the Measuring Cognitive Conflict Levels of Elementary Students Confronted with an Anomalous Situation in Science Learning (과학학습에서 불일치 상황에 대면한 초등학생의 인지갈등 측정 도구 개발)

  • 박상석;이경호;김정환;권혁구;권재술
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.21-33
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to develop an Instrument for the Measurement of Cognitive Conflict Levels of students who confronted with an anomalous situation in science teaming. Anomalous situation is generated when students' prediction is disconsistent with the observed fact. In this study, the researchers identified 4 components of cognitive conflict and developed three items for each component. The items were developed and revised by four pilot tests. In the first pilot test, 55 elementary school students participated in the test In the second pilot test, 88 students of the 5th and 6th grader participated in the test. The instrument of measuring cognitive conflict levels was given to the subjects right after demonstrating anomalous situation. For the demonstration, two different problem situations were developed: one was a pulley problem and the other was electric bulbs in parallel. Answered reasons for each items were analyzed to assess students' understanding on each items. In third pilot test, 125 elementary school students participated in the test. A factor analysis of the responses was carried out and reliability of the test was assessed by calculating internal consistency values. The items were finalized by three pilot tests. After 1 month after the third pilot test, researchers conducted the finalized test items to 323 students of the 5th and 6th grader. The final instrument showed moderate reliability (Cronbach-α 0.82∼0.87) and good content validity(0.93). A factor analysis of the response was carried out. 4 main factors completely coincided with 4 components that we supposed to be the conducts of cognitive conflict. The instrument can provide a means for both teachers and researchers to assess the cognitive conflict of a large number of students within a single class period. The results can be used by teachers to better understand the process of conceptual change of their students and to match instruction and materials accordingly.

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The Necessary Condition and the Sufficient Condition of Cognitive Conflict for Conceptual Change (인지갈등과 개념변화의 필요조건과 충분조건)

  • Kwon, Jae-Sool;Lee, Gyoung-Ho;Kim, Yeoun-Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.574-591
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    • 2003
  • According to conceptual change theory, cognitive conflict is known as an important factor in conceptual change even though there are still questions about its positive and negative effects on science learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of cognitive conflict in the conceptual change process in detail. Specific research questions are as follows, 1) Is presenting of an anomalous situation necessary or sufficient condition for cognitive conflict? 2) Is cognitive conflict necessary or sufficient condition for conceptual change? To answer these questions, we analyzed the theories and research results in the related literature. At the end, we discussed the complex role of cognitive conflict in the conceptual change and future research.

The Case Study on Conflict Causes and Solution Among The Members in A Hospital (병원조직구성원들의 갈등원인과 해결방법 사례연구)

  • Jung, Yong-Mo;Lee, Hyoung-Chan;Lee, Yong-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2009
  • This study tried to examine the conflict relationships and solutions among the members of a hospital structure, a structure composed of various experts and professionals. As the situations causing conflicts are very different depending on the sizes or structural types of hospitals, the samples were collected from total 235 people of 17 medical specialists, 46 residents, 74 nurses and 74 medical technicians, 40 administrators in a university hospital for clearing conflict relationships. The result showed that a hospital had separately different the conflict causes according to all types of occupations. That is, there were various conflict relationships such as the conflict with the medical specialists, with residents, with nurses, and with administrators, and resulted in respectively different causes from those conflict relationships. In addition to, looking into the top of conflict causes, the respondents in all occupations attributed the conflict with medical specialists to "authoritative attitude" of medical specialists, and attributed the rest types of conflict relationships to "lack knowledge of the work". And then, in terms of the top of conflict solutions according to the occupational types in the hospital structure, medical specialists and administrators chose competition & cooperation, and the way for residents, nurses and medical technicians was situation-avoidance. The competition & cooperation type, negotiation type and situation-avoidance type, among solution types, were little difference regardless of occupations, but in case of work-avoidance type, there were significant differences according to residents, nurses, medical technicians, administrators, and medical specialists in the order.

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The Characteristics of Elementary School Students' Prediction Changes by the Suggestion Types for Situation in Repeated Anomalous Situation - Focused on Buoyancy - (반복되는 불일치 상황에서 상황 제시 방법에 따라 초등학생들이 예상을 바꾸는 특성)

  • Jeon, Ah-Reum;Noh, SukGoo;Park, Jae-Keun
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.298-310
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of elementary school students' prediction changes by the suggestion types in a multiple anomalous situation. We investigated the responses, the rate and time of changing prediction, and cognitive conflicts of the students when repeated anomalous situation was suggested in experimental or logical way in science classes focused on buoyancy. As the anomalous situation was repeated, the students to change the prediction increased in number and also the rates to choose the correct prediction became higher. The group who was exposed in experimental way changed their prediction more than in logical way. In addition, when we classified the students to change the prediction by types, the group in experimental way showed higher rate of NM, MM type and FFT type. With anomalous situation repeated, cognitive conflicts of the students has been gradually declining in both groups. But it seemed that the group in experimental way experienced higher mental conflicts. In particular, as students changed the prediction more and arrived at the correct answer after changing their prediction, all the more so. It is concluded that the degree of students' changing prediction and experiencing cognitive conflict can be different according to the suggestion types for situation. Therefore the correlation with cognitive conflict factors can be also observed with the types of students' reactions.