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A Study on the Characteristics of Behavior of Block-type Reinforced Earth Retaining Wall Considering Failure Surface (파괴면을 고려한 블록식 보강토 옹벽의 거동 특성 연구)

  • Yoon, Won-Sub;Park, Jun-Kyu;Chae, Young-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 2016
  • In this study, more economical than conventional reinforced soil retaining walls, we compared the behavior characteristic about the safety block type numerically for reinforced retaining wall. In this study, reinforced soil retaining wall, first, was integrated a wall putting shear key on the blocks. Second, construction reinforcement focused on the theoretical failure surface was satisfied with the stability of a retaining wall reinforced by a shear plane. when analyzing, element of using reinforcement was carried out a numerical analysis for the cable element and the strip element, and they were analyzed under the conditions according to the stiffener length, distance, with or without shear key. Analysis for the integration of the front wall was reinforced soil retaining walls by installing a larger displacement shear key confinement effect, if reinforced construction and reinforcement with 1 interval and 2 interval, the failure surface was bigger displacement constraints. Generating a deformation amount was smaller than the generation amount of deformation accrued during construction of AASHTO so that it was stable.

Analysis of the primary and the permanent teeth dimension In korean hemifacial microsomia patients (한국인 반안면 왜소증 환자의 유치와 영구치 크기에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Young-Il;Yang, Won-Sik;Nahm, Dong-Seok;Kim, Tae-Woo;Baek, Seung-Hak
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 2000
  • Hemifacial microsomia ( HFM ) is the second most common craniofacial abnormalies. HFM represnted a spectrum of clinical findings such as hypoplasia of the mandibular ramus and condyle, confinement of maxilla growth, external and/or middle ear defects, involvement of some cranial suture, buccal soft tissue, facial nerve, and muscles in the affected side. HFM often showed progressive facial asymmetry and occlusal plane slanting to the affected side with growth. There were several reports about asymmetry of tooth maturation, hypodontia, delayed eruption, enamel hypoplasia in HFM. Since teeth develope in close association with size and morphology of the maxillary and the mandible, it is highly likely that dental changes will be present in HFM. So the Purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of the primary and the permanent teeth dimensions in the maxillary and the mandibular dentition between the affected and the non-affected side of HFM.. The sample of this study consisted of 34 unilateral HFM Patients (18 males and 16 females, average age : 5 year 11 months old). The authors examined the mesiodistal and the faciolingual dimensions of the primary and the permanent teeth and performed statistical study by using paired t-test. The results were as follows 1. The mesiodistal dimensions of the mandibular second primary molar and the mandibular first permanent molar in the affected side of HFM were significantly smaller than those of non-affected side. But there were no significant differences in the anterior teeth and the mandibular first primary molar. It means that a gradient of severity from anterior teeth to posterior teeth was found in the mandibular dentition. 2. Although there were no significant differences in the faciolingual dimensions of the primary and the permanent teeth in the maxillary and the mandibular dentition between the affected and non-affected side of HFM, there were general trend of compensatory increase in faciolingual dimension of the mandibular primary and the permanent teeth in the affected side Therefore these results showed that HFM might affect on the abnormality of tooth dimension, especially the most posterior teeth, in the affected side of the mandible.

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The Lymphocyte Dependent Bactericidal Assay of Human Monocyte and Alveolar Macrophage for Mycobacteria (마이코박테리아에 대한 인체 말초혈액 단핵구와 폐포대식세포의 림프구 의존적 살해능에 관한 연구)

  • Cheon, Seon-Hee;Lee, You-Hyun;Lee, Jong-Soo;Bae, Ki-Sun;Shin, Sue-Yeon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.5-16
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    • 2002
  • Background : Though mononuclear phagocytes serve as the final effectors in killing intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacilli readily survive in the intracellular environment of resting cells. The mechanisms through which cellular activation results in the intracellular killing is unclear. In this study, we sought to explore an in vitro model of a low-level infection of human mononuclear phagocytes with MAC and $H_{37}Ra$ and determine the extent of the lymphocyte dependent cytotoxicity of human monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Materials and Methods : The peripheral monocytes were prepared using the Ficoll gradient method from PPD positive healthy people and tuberculosis patients. The alveolar macrophages were prepared from PPD positive healthy people via a bronchoalveolar lavage. The human mononuclear phagocytes were infected at a low infection rate (bacilli:phagocyte 1:10) with MAC(Mycobacterium avium) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis $H_{37}Ra$. Non-adherent cells(lymphocyte) were added at a 10:1 ratio. After 1,4, and 7 days culture in $37^{\circ}C$, 5% CO2 incubator, the cells were harvested and inoculated in a 7H10/OADC agar plate for the CFU assay. The bacilli were calculated with the CFU/$1{\times}10^6$ of the cells and the cytotoxicity was expressed as the log killing ratio. Results : The intracellular killing of MAC and $H_{37}Ra$ within the monocyte was greater in patients with tuberculosis compared to the PPD positive controls (p<0.05). Intracellular killing of MAC and $H_{37}Ra$ within the alveolar macrophage appeared to be greater than that within the monocytes of the PPD positive controls. There was significant lymphocyte dependent inhibition of intracellular growth of the mycobacteria within the monocytes in both the controls and tuberculosis patients and within the macrophages in the controls(p<0.05). There was no specific difference in the virulence between the MAC and the $H_{37}Ra$. Conclusion : This study is an in vitro model of a low-level infection with MAC and $H_{37}Ra$ of human mononuclear phagocytes. The intracellular cytotoxicity of the mycobacteria within the phagocytic cells was significantly lymphocyte dependent. During the 7 days culture after the intracellular phagocytosis, the actual confinement of the mycobacteria was observed within the monocytes of tuberculosis patients and the alveolar macrophages of the controls as in the case of adding lymphocytes.

A Rapid Analysis of 226Ra in Raw Materials and By-Products Using Gamma-ray Spectrometry (감마분광분석을 이용한 원료물질 및 공정부산물 중 226Ra 신속분석방법)

  • Lim, Chung-Sup;Chung, Kun-Ho;Kim, Chang-Jong;Ji, Young-Yong
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2017
  • A gamma-ray peak of $^{226}Ra$ (186.2 keV) overlaps with one of $^{235}U$ (185.7 keV) in a gamma-ray spectrometry system. Though reference peaks of $^{235}U$ can be used to correct the peak interference of $^{235}U$ in the analysis of $^{226}Ra$, this requires a complicated calculation process and a high limit of quantitation. On the other hand, evaluating $^{226}Ra$ using the correction constant in the overlapped peak can make a rapid measurement of $^{226}Ra$ without the complicated calculation process as well as overcome the disadvantage in the indirect measurement of $^{214}Bi$, which means the confinement of $^{222}Rn$ gas in a sample container and a time period to recover the secular equilibrium. About 93 samples with 6 species for raw-materials and by-products were prepared to evaluate the activity of $^{226}Ra$ using the correction constant. The results were compared with the activity of $^{214}Bi$, which means the indirect measurement of $^{226}Ra$, to validate the method of the direct measurement of $^{226}Ra$ using the correction constant. The difference between the direct and indirect measurement of $^{226}Ra$ was generally below about ${\pm}20%$. However, in the case of the phospho gypsum, a large error of about 50% was found in the comparison results, which indicates the disequilibrium between $^{238}U$ and $^{226}Ra$ in the materials. Application results of the contribution ratio of $^{226}Ra$ were below about ${\pm}10%$. The direct measurement of $^{226}Ra$ using the correction constant can be an effective method for its rapid measurement of raw materials and by-products because the activity of $^{226}Ra$ can be produced with a simple calculation without the consideration of the integrity of a sample container and the time period to recover the secular equilibrium.

Longest First Binary Search on Prefix Length for IP Address Lookup (최장 길이 우선 검색에 기초한 프리픽스 길이에 따른 이진 IP 검색 구조)

  • Chu Ha-Neul;Lim Hye-Sook
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.31 no.8B
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    • pp.691-700
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    • 2006
  • Based on the destination IP address of incoming packets, the Internet routers determine next hops and forward packets toward final destinations through If address lookup. The bandwidth of communication links increases exponentially fast as well as the routing table size grows significant as the number of single host networks attached to the Internet increases. Since packets should be processed at wire-speed, the increased link speed reduces the processing time of a packet in routers, and hence more efficient and fast IP address lookup algorithms and architectures are required in the next generation routers. Most of the previous IP lookup schemes compare routing prefixes of shorter length first with a given input IP address. Since IP address lookup needs to find the most specific route of the given input, search continues until the longest matched prefix is found while it keeps remembering the current test matching prefix. In this paper, based on binary search on prefix length, we proposed a new IP address lookup algorithm which compares longer prefixes first. The proposed scheme is consisted of multiple tries with prefixes on leaves only. The trie composed of the longest prefixes is primarily searched whether there is a match with the given input. This processing is repeated for the trio of the next longer prefixes until there finds a match. Hence the proposed algorithm provides the fast search speed. The proposed algorithm also provides the incremental update of prefixes while the previous binary search on length scheme does not provide the incremental update because of pre-processing requirement. In this paper, we performed extensive simulations and showed the performance comparisons with related works.