• Title, Summary, Keyword: computed tomography

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18F-2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-D-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography: Computed Tomography for Preoperative Staging in Gastric Cancer Patients

  • Youn, Seok Hwa;Seo, Kyung Won;Lee, Sang Ho;Shin, Yeon Myung;Yoon, Ki Young
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.179-186
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The use of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography as a routine preoperative modality is increasing for gastric cancer despite controversy with its usefulness in preoperative staging. In this study we aimed to determine the usefulness of preoperative positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans for staging of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 396 patients' positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans acquired for preoperative staging from January to December 2009. Results: The sensitivity of positron emission tomography-computed tomography for detecting early gastric cancer was 20.7% and it was 74.2% for advanced gastric cancer. The size of the primary tumor was correlated with sensitivity, and there was a positive correlation between T stage and sensitivity. For regional lymph node metastasis, the sensitivity and specificity of the positron emission tomography-computed tomography were 30.7% and 94.7%, respectively. There was no correlation between T stage and maximum standardized uptake value or between tumor markers and maximum standardized uptake value. Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was detected by positron emission tomography-computed tomography in 24 lesions other than the primary tumors. Among them, nine cases were found to be malignant, including double primary cancers and metastatic cancers. Only two cases were detected purely by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Conclusions: Positron emission tomography-computed tomography could be useful in detecting metastasis or another primary cancer for preoperative staging in gastric cancer patients, but not for T or N staging. More prospective studies are needed to determine whether positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans should be considered a routine preoperative imaging modality.

Absorbed and effective dose from spiral and computed tomography for the dental implant planning (치과 임프란트 치료 계획을 위한 나선형 일반 단층촬영과 전산화 단층촬영시 흡수선량 및 유효선량 평가)

  • Hong Beong-Hee;Han Won-Jeong;Kim Eun-Kyung
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.165-173
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : To evaluate the absorbed and effective doses of spiral and computed tomography for the dental implant planning. Materials and Methods: For radiographic projection, TLD chips were placed in 22 sites of humanoid phantom to record the exposure to skin and the mean absorbed dose to bone marrow, thyroid, pituitary, parotid and submandibular glands and nesophagus. Effective dose was calculated, using the method suggested by Frederiksen et al.. Patient situations of a single tooth gap in upper and lower midline region, edentulous maxilla and mandible were simulated for spiral tomography. 35 axial slices (maxilla) and 40 axial slices (mandible) with low and standard dose setting were used for computed tomography. All the radiographic procedures were repeated three times. Results: The mean effective dose in case of maxilla was 0.865 mSv, 0.452 mSv, 0.136 mSv and 0.025 mSv, in spiral tomography of complete edentulous maxilla, computed tomography with standard mAs, computed tomography with low mAs and spiral tomography of a single tooth gap (p<0.05). That in case of mandible was 0.614 mSv, 0.448 mSv, 0.137 mSv and 0.036 mSv, in spiral tomography of complete edentulous mandible, computed tomography with standard mAs, computed tomography with low mAs and spiral tomography of a single tooth gap (p<0.05). Conclusions: Based on these results, it can be concluded that low mAs computed tomography is recommended instead of spiral tomography for the complete edentulous maxilla and mandible dental implant treatment planning.

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Preoperative N Staging of Gastric Cancer by Stomach Protocol Computed Tomography

  • Kim, Se Hoon;Kim, Jeong Jae;Lee, Jeong Sub;Kim, Seung Hyoung;Kim, Bong Soo;Maeng, Young Hee;Hyun, Chang Lim;Kim, Min Jeong;Jeong, In Ho
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Clinical stage of gastric cancer is currently assessed by computed tomography. Accurate clinical staging is important for the tailoring of therapy. This study evaluated the accuracy of clinical N staging using stomach protocol computed tomography. Materials and Methods: Between March 2004 and November 2012, 171 patients with gastric cancer underwent preoperative stomach protocol computed tomography (Jeju National University Hospital; Jeju, Korea). Their demographic and clinical characteristics were reviewed retrospectively. Two radiologists evaluated cN staging using axial and coronal computed tomography images, and cN stage was matched with pathologic results. The diagnostic accuracy of stomach protocol computed tomography for clinical N staging and clinical characteristics associated with diagnostic accuracy were evaluated. Results: The overall accuracy of stomach protocol computed tomography for cN staging was 63.2%. Computed tomography images of slice thickness 3.0 mm had a sensitivity of 60.0%; a specificity of 89.6%; an accuracy of 78.4%; and a positive predictive value of 78.0% in detecting lymph node metastases. Underestimation of cN stage was associated with larger tumor size (P<0.001), undifferentiated type (P=0.003), diffuse type (P=0.020), more advanced pathologic stage (P<0.001), and larger numbers of harvested and metastatic lymph nodes (P<0.001 each). Tumor differentiation was an independent factor affecting underestimation by computed tomography (P=0.045). Conclusions: Computed tomography with a size criterion of 8 mm is highly specific but relatively insensitive in detecting nodal metastases. Physicians should keep in mind that computed tomography may not be an appropriate tool to detect nodal metastases for choosing appropriate treatment.

Comparison Analysis of Donor Liver Volumes Estimated with 3D Magnetic Resonance and 3D Computed Tomography Image Data

  • Kim, Myeong-Seong;Park, Kyeong-Seok;Cho, Jae-Hwan
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.261-265
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    • 2014
  • Three-dimensional computed tomography is an effective tool to estimate the liver volume of living donors for the live liver transplantation. When additional operation is required, magnetic resonance imaging is conducted to determine the safety of the donor. This study compared the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in estimating 3D liver volume of 23 male and 7 female donors who underwent both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography tests before the transplantation. The analysis was conducted to see whether the liver's estimated total volumes and the left lobe volumes obtained from 3D-magnetic resonance imaging and 3D-computed tomography were identical. Volumes of the right lobe estimated with 3D-magnetic resonance imaging and 3D-computed tomography were compared with the actual volume of the right lobe harvested in the operating room because the volume of the right lobe is an important determinant in the safety of the donor. The total volume of the liver estimated from 3D-magnetic resonance imaging and 3D-computed tomography differed (1238.1904 units and 1402.364 units respectively). The left lobe volume of the liver estimated with 3D-magnetic resonance imaging and 3D-computed tomography also differed (450.530 units and 554.490 units, respectively). The right lobe volume of the liver estimated with 3D-magnetic resonance imaging and 3D-computed tomography were 787.660 units and 847.545 units, respectively, while the actual average right lobe volume of the harvested liver was 678.636 units. 3D-computed tomography has been widely used to estimate the right lobe volume of the donors' liver. However, 3D-magnetic resonance imaging was also very effective in estimating the volume of the liver. Thus, 3D-magnetic resonance imaging is also expected to become an important tool in determining the safety of the donors before transplantation.

Comparative evaluation of computed tomography for dental implants on the mandibular edentulous area (하악 무치악 부위의 임플란트 이식을 위한 전산화단층촬영 영상의 비교 평가)

  • Sun, Kyung-Hoon;Jeong, Ho-Gul;Park, Hyok;Park, Chang-Seo;Kim, Kee-Deog
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the recently developed multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in pre-operative implant evaluation, by comparing them with the single detector computed tomography, already confirmed for accuracy in this area. Materials and Methods: Five partially edentulous dry human mandibles, with $1{\times}1mm$ gutta percha cones, placed in 5mm intervals posterior to the mental foramen on each side of the buccal part of the mandible, were used in this study. They were scanned as follows: 1) Single detector computed tomography: slice thickness 1mm, 200mA, 120kV 2) Multi-detector computed tomography: slice thickness 0.75mm, 250mA, 120kV 3) Cone beam computed tomography: 15mAs, 120kV Axial images acquired from three computed tomographies were transferred to personal computer, and then reformatted cross-sectional images were generated using V-Implant $2.0^{(R)}$ (CyberMed Inc., Seoul, Korea) software. Among the cross-sectional images of the gutta perch a cone, placed in the buccal body of the mandible, the most precise cross section was selected as the measuring point and the distance from the most superior border of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest was measured and analyzed 10 times by a dentist. Results: There were no significant intraobserver differences in the distance from the most superior border of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest (p>0.05). There were no significant differences among single detector computed tomography, multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in the distance from the most superior border of the mandibular canal to the alveolar crest (p>0.05). Conclusion: Multi-detector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography are clinically useful in the evaluation of pre-operative site for mandibular dental implants, with consideration for radiation exposure dose and scanning time.

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Fundamentals and Applications of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography(CBCT) (임상가를 위한 특집 1 - CBCT의 기본원리 및 적용)

  • Park, In-Woo
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.180-188
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    • 2012
  • Cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) machines recently developed in Korea, being designed for imaging hard tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. I reported a brief overview of CBCT system, in comparison with coventional computed tomography(CT) system. CBCT provides high resolution, simpler image acquisition, lower dose and cost alternative to conventional CT, promising to revolutionize the practice of oral and maxillofacial radiology.

Utility of the computed tomography indices on cone beam computed tomography images in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in women

  • Koh, Kwang-Joon;Kim, Kyoung-A
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2011
  • Purpose : This study evaluated the potential use of the computed tomography indices (CTI) on cone beam CT (CBCT) images for an assessment of the bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Materials and Methods : Twenty-one postmenopausal osteoporotic women and 21 postmenopausal healthy women were enrolled as the subjects. The BMD of the lumbar vertebrae and femur were calculated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a DXA scanner. The CBCT images were obtained from the unilateral mental foramen region using a PSR-$9000N^{TM}$ Dental CT system. The axial, sagittal, and coronal images were reconstructed from the block images using $OnDemend3D^{TM}$. The new term "CTI" on CBCT images was proposed. The relationship between the CT measurements and BMDs were assessed and the intra-observer agreement was determined. Results : There were significant differences between the normal and osteoporotic groups in the computed tomography mandibular index superior (CTI(S)), computed tomography mandibular index inferior (CTI(I)), and computed tomography cortical index (CTCI). On the other hand, there was no difference between the groups in the computed tomography mental index (CTMI: inferior cortical width). Conclusion : CTI(S), CTI(I), and CTCI on the CBCT images can be used to assess the osteoporotic women.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE MACROSCOPIC FINDING, CONVENTIONAL TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING, AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING IN LOCATING THE MANDIBULAR CANAL (하악관 위치 분석시 일반단층사진과 전산화단층사진의 비교연구)

  • Choi Hang-Moon;You Dong-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.535-544
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was comparision of conventional tomography with reformatted computed tomography for dental implant in locating the mandibular canal. Five dogs were used and after conventional tomographs and reformatted computed tomographs were taken, four dentist traced all films. Mandibles were sectioned with 2mm slice thickness and the sections were then radiographed(contact radiography). Each radiographic image was traced and linear measurements were made from mandibular canal to alveolar crest, buccal cortex, lingual cortex, and inferior border. Following results were acquired : 1. Reformatted computed tomographs were exacter than conventional tomography by alveolar crest to canal length of -0.6mm difference between real values and radiographs. 2. The average measurements of buccal cortex to mandibular canal width and lingual cortex to mandibular canal width of conventional tomographs were exacter than reformatted computed tomographs, but standard deviations were higher than reformatted computed tomographs. 3. Standard deviations of reformatted computed tomographs were lower than conventional tomographs at all comparing sites 4. At reformatted computed tomography 62.5% of the measurements performed were within. : filmm of the true value, and at conventional tomography 24.1% were. 5. Mandibular canal invisibiity was 0.8% at reformatted computed tomography and 9.2% at conventional tomography. Reformatted computed tomography has been shown to be more useful radiographic technique for assessment of the mandibular canal than conventional tomography.

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Detection of maxillary second molar with two palatal roots using cone beam computed tomography: a case report (두개의 구개측 치근을 갖는 상악 제2대구치에서 cone beam computed tomography 활용: 증례보고)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hee;Song, Byeongcheol
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this clinical report was to show anatomical variations in permanent maxillary second molar using computed tomography (CT). This case report describes the application of CT to detect the unusual root anatomy of maxillary second molar with 2 separate palatal roots for successful endodontic treatment procedures. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) can overcome the limitation of the periapical standard radiography caused by the overlap of buccal and secondary palatal roots.

Multiple intraosseous cervical pneumatocysts: A case report of a rare incidental finding on cone-beam computed tomography

  • Jadhav, Aniket B.;Sarah, Sangeetha Gajendran;Cederberg, Robert;Wagh, Aditya;Kiat-amnuay, Sudarat
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.223-226
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    • 2018
  • This report presents a case of cervical pneumatocysts as an incidental finding on cone-beam computed tomography. Pneumatocysts are gas-containing lesions of unknown etiology. They usually present in the ilium or sacrum, adjacent to the sacroiliac joint. In the literature, 21 case reports have described cervical pneumatocysts. Cervical pneumatocysts should be differentiated from other lesions, such as osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis, and neoplasms, as well as post-traumatic and post-surgical cases. Computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are appropriate tools to diagnose cervical pneumatocysts.