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The Nutrients and Microbial Properties of Animal Manure and Spent Mushroom Compost Tea and the Effect of Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) (가축분뇨와 폐버섯 퇴비차의 양분 및 미생물적 특성과 상추의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.589-602
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    • 2011
  • In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different compost teas on plant growth reponses and yield of leaf lettuce. Compost tea is a liquid extract of compost obtained by mixing compost and water for a defined period of time. The pig manure and spent mushroom compost were made by steeping compost in water. Compost tea was aerated from 24 hours and molasses and kelp were added as supplements. The four types of compost were tested growth of lettuce. EC of animal manure compost tea was higher than that of spent mushroom compost tea. Mineral nutrients were significantly higher in animal manure compost tea compared with spent mushroom compost tea. Compost tea contains nutrient and a ranges of different organisms. The beneficial fungi and actinomycetes were prominent in a spent mushroom compost tea. Compost tea from animal manure had the higher numbers of total bacteria. The actinomycetes densities were high in spent mushroom compost tea. But actinomycetes were not founded in animal manure compost tea. The growth characteristics of lettuce in animal manure compost tea were higher than those of spent mushroom compost tea. And also SPAD value in leaf was high in plot treated with animal manure compost tea. The fresh yield of lettuce in animal compost tea was higher by 181% that of control plot. The effect of compost tea on growth of lettuce was largely attributable to mineral nutrient.

SAPS의 탄소원 공급을 위한 유기물 연구

  • 이지은;고주인;김선준;유상희
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.231-234
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    • 2004
  • The experiments on some organic materials used in SAPS are carried out for the better sulfate reduction efficiency and the longer lifetime. Organic materials include spent mushroom compost, sewage sludge, oak chip compost and the combination of there. Reactors with mushroom compost, sewage sludge, the mixture of mushroom compost and sewage sludge, and the mixture of mushroom compost and oak chip compost maintained pH higher than 6.0. Reactors with mushroom compost, the mixture of mushroom compost and sewage sludge, and the mixture of mushroom compost and oak chip compost maintained reduction condition. Reactors with sewage sludge, oak chip compost and the mixture of sewage and oak chip compost produced COD less than 2,000ppm. Reactors with sewage and the mixture of mushroom compost, sewage sludge, oak chip compost showed about 60% of sulfate removal ratios.

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Long-term Effects of Chemical Fertilizer and Compost Applications on Yield of Red Pepper and Soil Chemical Properties

  • Park, Young-Eun;Lim, Tae-Jun;Park, Jin-Myeon;Lee, Seong-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2018
  • A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of long-term (21-year) fertilizer and compost treatments on the yield of red pepper and chemical properties in top-dong, Suwon. Six treatments were chosen for this work: No fertilization (No fert.), NPK fertilizers (NPK), NPK and compost (NPK+Compost), NP and compost (NP+Compost), NK and compost (NK+Compost), PK and compost (PK+Compost). The yield of red pepper for 21 years indicated the significant differences among the No fertilization, the PK+Compost, and other treatments. The relative yield index was 13% and 59% respectively, for the No fertilization and the PK+Compost if the average yield of red pepper for the NPK regards $20,048kg\;ha^{-1}$ as the yield index with 100%. Soil organic matter at the compost applied treatments significantly increased compared with the No fert. and the NPK. The average increase rates of soil organic matter by applying the compost ranged from 0.69 to $0.73g\;kg^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$. Available phosphate content in soil appeared the significant increase all treatments excluding the No fert. It is estimated that the available phosphate in soil was increased by $7.0mg\;kg^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ by applying compost and $14.2mg\;kg^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ by applying P fertilizer. Application of K fertilizer or the compost alone, the NPK, the NP+Compost, continuously caused soil K depletion whereas K fertilization plus the compost maintained at a constant level of exchangeable K. The results indicated that the addition of compost to NPK fertilizer is recommended for the maximum stable yield for red pepper and enhancement of organic matter though it is also needed for adjusting of P and K fertilization.

Effects of Compost Mixed with Microorganism Compost Fermented on the Seedlings Growth of Tomato and Red Pepper (미생물부숙퇴비의 상토 혼합처리가 토마토, 고추 유묘의 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • 김홍기;서범석;정순주
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.125-140
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of compost mixed with microorganism compost fermented for the production of high quality plug seedlings of tomato and red pepper. The results are summarized as follows. As a result of compost analysis, EC value was increased with increment of microorganism compost supplemented but lowered gradually in the late period of seedlings growth, pH value of microorganism compost fermented was 9.3 which is strong alkalinity. In the plot of 30 percent of microorganism compost fermented early growth of tomato seedlings was better in terms of plant height, leaf area and total dry weight. However, early growth of red pepper seedlings was shown in the plot of supplemented with 20 percent of microorganism compost fermented. The higher the mixing rate over 60 percent of micrroganism compost fermented to the soil used retarded the seedlings growth regardless of tomato and red pepper.

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Effects of Compost Tea Making from Differently Treated Compost on Plant Disease Control

  • Tateda, Masafumi;Yoneda, Daisuke;Sato, Yukio
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2007
  • Antifungal activity of compost teas was evaluated in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro test, fourteen compost teas were produced using five different composts and through six different methods for compost tea production. Eleven pathogenic fungi were used as indicators of antifungal activity of compost teas. In vivo test, one of the compost teas used in vitro test was sprayed to cucumber leaves which were infected with powdery mildew in order to evaluate antifungal activity of compost tea. From the results of the tests, it was found that all compost teas used this study showed antifungal activity and the proper application of compost teas against pathogenic fungi for obtaining optimal effects was important to know.

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Effects of Long-Term Application of Rice Compost on Rice Yields and Macronutrients in Paddy Soil

  • Park Chang-Young;Jeon Weon-Tae;Park Ki-Do;Kang Ui-Gum;Lee Jae-Seng;Cho Young-Son;Park Sung-Tae
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 2006
  • A long-term experiment was carried out to examine the effects of compost on the long-term trends and synergy effects with chemical fertilizer and saving the chemical fertilizers of paddy cropping. The experiment was conducted for the past 36 years with constant amounts of N, P, K and compost in a paddy field at Milyang, South Korea. Grain yield was significantly increased in the plots with compost application. Twenty five years after the compost treatment, grain yield was significantly increased and it reached almost 90% of NPK plots. The effect of rice straw compost on grain yield was not clear during the early cropping years about 60%, but it slightly increased there after about 95% during the late five years. In compost plots, soil organic matter content, K and $SiO_2$ was greater in the compost applied plots than with application of recommended doses of NPK. However, soil pH was reduced in compost applied plots and Ca, and Mg were remained unchanged when compared to the application of recommended doses NPK. Soil nutrient contents were less in compost applied plots than with the application of recommended doses of NPK along with compost but was found to be increased than that of un-fertilized plots. The present study indicated that the application of rice straw compost with NPK is the best of all and followed by NPK and Compost. However, treatment of Compost is time consuming and hard working desired and eventually non economical practice in mechanized agricultural systems, even though Compost is very useful source of improving the soil fertility and its physical characteristics and also the application of inorganic N and P are essential for sustaining high yield.

Change in three dry rangeland species growth and soil properties by compost application

  • Sadeghi, Hossein;Shourije, Fatemeh Ansar;Masoudi, Masoud
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2012
  • There are different types of compost used as soil conditioners and fertilizers. Plants can have different responses to different forms of compost. This field study was performed to examine the effects of different types of compost on growth factors of three dry rangeland species (Atriplex, $Atriplex$ $lentiformis$; Saltwort, $Seidlitzia$ $rosmarinus$; Haloxylon, $Haloxylon$ $persicum$) and soil properties. The experiment was conducted in the Fars Province of Iran during the year 2010-2011. Compost applications consisted of compost tea, solid compost (SC), solid and liquid mixture (MX) and no compost as the control. The study was a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The results showed that all the tested compost applications enhanced the growth traits of all three species. It was also demonstrated that the use of compost significantly increased the organic matter (1% probability level [PL]), nitrogen concentration (5% PL), phosphorous (5% PL) and potassium (5% PL) concentrations of the soil. The soil's pH level was unchanged (range, 7.3 to 7.6), and the sodium concentration was also significantly decreased (1% PL) by the use of compost. The higher responses were observed in canopy volume and soil sodium and the lower were observed in stem diameter and soil pH level. Among the three plants in the study, Atriplex showed the best response to the application of compost. Based on the results of this study, it can be recommended that the best compost application to increase growth and improve soil condition is the mixed compost (MX) for Atriplex and the SC for Saltwort and Haloxylon.

Survival of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Chicken and Pig Manure Compost

  • Jung, Kyu-Seok;Heu, Sung-Gi;Roh, Eun-Jung;Kim, Min-Ha;Gil, Hyun-Ji;Choi, Na-Young;Lee, Dong-Hwan;Lim, Jeong-A;Ryu, Jae-Gee;Kim, Kye-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.469-473
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    • 2013
  • Livestock manure is a valuable source of nutrients and organic matter for plant. Thus, livestock manure compost is commonly used fertilizer in organic vegetable and fruit production in many countries. However, contaminated or inadequate manure compost can give negative effect to soil microorganisms. This study was conducted to investigate the survival difference of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in chicken and pig manure compost under the selected environmental conditions. Commercially available manure compost (pig, chicken) was inoculated with S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. Manure compost was incubated at $25^{\circ}C$ and consistent moisture content. Samples had been collected during 200 days depending on the given conditions. S. enterica survived for 130 days in pig manure compost and over 200 days in chicken manure compost, respectively. L. monocytogenes persisted for 120 days in pig manure compost and over 200 days in chicken manure compost, respectively. It is noted that the number of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes gradually decreased over time. The results indicate that S. enterica survived longer than L. monocytogenes in manure compost at $25^{\circ}C$. S. enterica and L. monocytogenes survived longer in chicken manure compost than in pig manure compost. Increased knowledge of pathogen behavior in agricultural environments is a valuable part of future work on improving risk evaluations and, in a longer perspective, in providing data for guidelines regarding safe handling of pathogen-contaminated manure compost and soil.

Heavy Metals Contents and Chemical Characteristics in Compost from Animal Manures (가축분 퇴비의 중금속 함량 및 화학적 형태별 특성)

  • Ko, Han Jong;Kim, Ki Youn
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.170-177
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the total heavy metals contents and chemical forms in the animal manure compost. Materials and methods: A total of 109 compost samples were collected throughout the country and classified into three groups in accordance with the raw materials; pig manure, poultry manure and mixed(pig+poultry+cattle) manure. The compost samples were analyzed for total metal content and sequential chemical extraction to estimate the quantities of metals. Results: Concentrations of Zn and Cu in several compost samples were higher than the maximum acceptable limits by the Korea Compost Quality Standards. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Cd in compost samples were 257~5,102, 68~1,243, and 0.02~2.54 mg/kg respectively, while Cr, Ni, As, and Pb were < 20 mg/kg. The concentrations of heavy metals in pig manure compost were higher than those of both the poultry and the mixed manure compost. The predominant forms for extracted metals were Cr, Ni, Zn, As, and Pb, residual; Cu, organic; and Cd, carbonate. Conclusions: Results indicate that the Zn and Cu contents in compost were higher than other heavy metals and the heavy metal contents were greater in pig manure compost followed by mixed and poultry manure compost. To prevent the accumulation of heavy metals in soil where animal manure compost is applied, strategy for reducing heavy metal concentrations in animal manure and compost must be considered.

Enzyme and Microbial Activities in Paddy Soil Amended Continuously with Different Fertilizer Systems

  • Gadagi, Ravi;Park, Chang-Young;Im, Geon-Jae;Lee, Dong-Chang;Chung, Jong-Bae;Singvilay, Olayvanh;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.325-329
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    • 2001
  • Soil enzyme and microbial activities are affected by fertilizer and compost applications and can be used as sensitive indicators of ecological stability. Microbial population and soil enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and aryl-sulphatase were determined in the long-term fertilizer and compost applied paddy soil. Soil samples were collected from the four treatments (control, compost, NPK and compost+NPK). Long-term NPK+compost application significantly increased activities of urease, dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase than all other treatments. The compost application enhanced activities of urease, dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase than the NPK application. However, arylsulfatase activity was not significantly different between compost and fertilizer application. The highest microbial population was recorded in the NPK+compost treatment. The compost application also resulted in higher microbial population than the NPK application. The above results indicate that ecological stability could be maintained by application of compost alone or with NPK.

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