• Title, Summary, Keyword: comet assay

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Changes of DNA fragmentation by Irradiation Doses and Storage in Gamma-irradiated Meats and Poultry (감마선 조사 육류, 가금류에서 저장전과 후의 조사선량에 따른 DNA fragmentation의 변화)

  • Lee, Hye-Jin;Kim, Sang-Mi;Park, Yoo-Kyoung;Yang, Jae-Seung;Kang, Myung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2004
  • The changes in DNA damage were investigated during storage after irradiation. Beef, pork and chicken were irradiated at 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 kGy and stored for 6 months at $-20^{\circ}C$. The comet assay was applied to the sample muscles at the beginning of irradiation and at the end of storage. Muscles were isolated, sliced, and the suspended cells were embedded in an agarose layer. After lysis of the cells, they were electrophoresed for 2 min. and then stained. DNA fragmentation in tissues caused by irradiation was quantified as tail length and tail moment (tail length ${\times}$ % DNA in tail) by comet image analyzing system. Right after irradiation, the differences in tail length between unirradiated and irradiated muscles were significant(p<0.05) in beef, pork and chicken. With increasing the increasing doses, statistically significant longer extension of the DNA from the nucleus toward anode was observed. Similarly even 6 months after irradiation, all the irradiated muscles significantly showed longer tail length than the unirradiated controls. The results represented as tail moment showed similar tendency to those of tail length, but the latter parameter was more sensitive than the former. These results indicate that the comet assay could be one of the simple methods of detecting irradiated muscles. Moreover, this method suggest that using comet assay, we were able to detect DNA damage differences even after 6 months after irradiation.

Genotoxicity Study of Sophoricoside, a Constituent of Sophora japonica, in Bacterial and Mammalian Cell System

  • Kim, Youn-Jung;Park, Hyo-Joung;Kim, Young-Soo;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Lee, Seung-Ho;Jung, Sang-Hun;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 2001
  • Sophoricoside was isolated as the inhibitor of IL-5 bioactivity from Sophora japonica (Leguminosae). It has been reported to has an anti-inflammatory effect on rat paw edema model. To develope as an anti-allergic drug, genotoxicity of sophoricoside was investigated in bacterial and mammalian cell system such as Ames bacterial reversion test, chromosomal aberration assay and single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. As results, in the range of 1,250~40 $\mu\textrm{g}$/plate sophoricoside concentrations was not shown significant mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535 and TA 1537 strains in Ames test. The 80% cell growth inhibition concentration (IC/SUB 80/) of sophoricoside was determined as above 5,000 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblast cell and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell line for the chromosomal aberration and comet assay, respectively. Sophoricoside was not induced chromosomal aberration in CHL fibroblast cell at concentrations of 700, 350 and 175 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ or 600, 300 and 150 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ in the absence or presence of S-9 metabolic activation system, respectively. Also, in the comet assay, the induction of DNA damage was not observed in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell line both in the absence or presence of S-9 metabolic activation system. From these results, no genotoxic effects of sophoricoside were observed in bacterial and mammalian cell systems used in these experiments.

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Protective Effect of Yellow-Green Vegetable Juices on DNA Damage in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell Using Comet Assay (Comet Assay를 이용한 케일, 명일엽, 당근, 돌미나리 녹즙의 Chinese Hamster Lung 세포 DNA 손상 보호 효과)

  • 전은재;김정신;박유경;김태석;강명희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2003
  • The present study was attempted to investigate the antioxidant capacity of popular yellow-green vegetable juices (kale, Angelica keishei, carrot, small water dropwort) and to investigate the effect of vegetable juices on protecting oxidative damage to DNA in cultured Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. Antioxidant capacity was analyzed by TRAP assay (Total radical-trapping antioxidant potential). Cellular DNA dmamage was measured by SCGE (single-cell gel electrophoresis, also known as comet assay. Cells incubated in medium with PBS (negative control) or with various concentration of the freeze dried green juices (25, 50, 100, 250 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$) resuspended in PBS were treated with $H_2O_2$ (200 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) as an oxidative stimulus for 5 min at 4$^{\circ}C$. The physiological function of each vegetable juice on oxidative DNA damage was analyzed and expressed as tail moment (tail length X percentage migrated DNA in tail) . Kale juice had the highest TRAP value suggesting that kale has the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Angelica keishei, small water dropwort and carrot. Cells treated with $H_2O_2$ had extensive DNA damage compared with cells treated with PBS or pre-treated with vegetable juice extracts. All green juices inhibited $H_2O_2$-induced DNA damage with kale being the most effective juice among the tested juices. These results indicate that green juice supplementation to CHL cells followed by oxidative stimulus inhibited damage to cellular DNA, supporting a protective effect against oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. (Korean J Nutrition 36(1) : 24-31, 2003)

Recent Advanced Toxicological Methods for Environmental Hazardous Chemicals (환경 오염물질의 진보된 독성 평가 기법)

  • 류재천;최윤정;김연정;김형태;방형애;송윤선
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.14 no.1_2
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1999
  • Recently, several new methods for the detection of genetic damages in vitro and in vivo based on molecular biological techniques were introduced according to the rapid progress in toxicology combined with cellular and molecular biology. Among these methods, mouse lymphoma thymidine kanase (tk) gene forward mutation assay, single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and transgenic animal and cell line model as a target gene of lac I (Big Blue) and lac Z (Muta Mouse) gene mutation are newly introduced based on molecular toxicological approaches. The mouse lymphoma tk$\^$+/-/ gene assay (MOLY) using L5178Y tk$\^$+/-/ mouse lymphoma cell line is one of the mammalian forward mutation assays, and has many advantages and more sensitive than hprt assay. The target gene of MOLY is a heterozygous tk$\^$+/-/ gene located in 11 chromosome, so it is able to detect the wide range of genetic changes like point mutation, deletion, rearrangement, and mitotic recombination within tk gene or deletion of entire chromosome 11. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, visual and sensitive technique for measuring and analysing DNA breakages in mammalian cells, Also, transgenic animal and cell line models, which have exogenous DNA incorporated into their genome, carry recoverable shuttle vector containing reporter genes to assess endogenous effects or alteration in specific genes related to disease process, are powerful tools to study the mechanism of mutation in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Also in vivo acridine orange supravital staining micronucleus assay by using mouse peripheral reticulocytes was introduced as an alternative of bone marrow micronucleus assay. In this respect, there was an International workshop on genotoxicity procedure (IWGTP) supported by OECD and EMS (Environmental Mutagen Society) at Washington D. C. in March 25-26, 1999. The objective of IWGTP is to harmonize the testing procedures internationally, and to extend to finalization of OECD guideline, and to the agreement of new guidelines under the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) for these methods mentioned above. Therefore, we introduce and review the principle, detailed procedure, and application of MOLY, comet assay, transgenic mutagenesis assay and supravital staining micronucleus assay.

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Detection of Radiation Induced Markers in Oranges Imported from the United States of America (미국산 오렌지의 Radiation Induced Marker 검색)

  • 조덕조;권중호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2003
  • Radiation induced markers were investigated for the detection of irradiated oranges imported from America. In the DNA comet assay, the non-irradiated and irradiated samples showed the comets with long tails in both seed and flesh. Though this tendency was maintained for 6 weeks, identification of non-irradiated or irradiated samples was impossible. In the thermoluminescence (TL) measurement, the non-irradiated samples revealed a glow curve with low intensity at about 28$0^{\circ}C$, while the irradiated samples showed with higher intensity at around 18$0^{\circ}C$. There were no remarkable changes in detection properties for 6 weeks after irradiation. The TL ratio of area for TL$_1$ glow curve to TL$_2$ was below 0.1 for the non-irradiated samples and 0.5 or more for the irradiated ones during storage. In the electron spin resonance (RSR) measurement, irradiated oranges showed an unspecific central signal in all parts (seed, flesh and peel), so the detection for radiation treatment of oranges was impossible. Based on the results, DNA comet assay and ESR were not useful for the detection, but TL was appropriate to search radiation induced markers of oranges during storage period. The detectable period during storage is confirmed by sensory evaluation.

In Vitro Genotoxicity Assessment of a Novel Resveratrol Analogue, HS-1793

  • Jeong, Min Ho;Yang, Kwangmo;Lee, Chang Geun;Jeong, Dong Hyeok;Park, You Soo;Choi, Yoo Jin;Kim, Joong Sun;Oh, Su Jung;Jeong, Soo Kyung;Jo, Wol Soon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.211-220
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    • 2014
  • Resveratrol has received considerable attention as a polyphenol with various biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, and cardioprotective properties. As part of the overall safety assessment of HS-1793, a novel resveratrol analogue free from the restriction of metabolic instability and the high dose requirement of resveratrol, we assessed genotoxicity in three in vitro assays: a bacterial mutation assay, a comet assay, and a chromosomal aberration assay. In the bacterial reverse mutation assay, HS-1793 did not increase revertant colony numbers in S. typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537) or an E. coli strain (WP2 uvrA) regardless of metabolic activation. HS-1793 showed no evidence of genotoxic activity such as DNA damage on L5178Y $Tk^{+/-}$ mouse lymphoma cells with or without the S9 mix in the in vitro comet assay. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations following HS-1793 treatment was observed on Chinese hamster lung cells exposed with or without the S9 mix. These results provide additional evidence that HS-1793 is non-genotoxic at the dose tested in three standard tests and further supports the generally recognized as safe determination of HS-1793 during early drug development.