• Title, Summary, Keyword: comet assay

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Optimal Conditions of Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) Assay to detect DNA single strand breaks in Mouse Lymphoma L5178Y cells

  • Ryu, Jae-Chun;Kwon, Oh-Seung;Kim, Hyung-Tae
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2001
  • Recently, single cell gel electrophoresis, also known as comet assay, is widely used for the detection and measurement of DNA strand breaks in vitro and in vivo in many toxicological fields such as radiation exposure, human monitoring and toxicity evaluation. As well defined, comet assay is a sensitive, rapid and visual method for the detection of DNA strand breaks in individual cells. Briefly, a small number of damaged cells suspended in a thin agarose gel on a microscope slide were lysed, unwinded, electrophoresed, and stained with a fluorescent DNA binding dye. The electric current pulled the charged DNA from the nucleus such that relaxed and broken DNA fragments migrated further. The resulting images which were subsequently named for their appearance as comets, were measured to determine the extent of DNA damages. However, some variations could be occurred in procedures, laboratories's conditions and kind of cells used. Hence, to overcome and to harmonize these matters in comet assay, International Workshop on Genotoxicity Test Procedure (IWGTP) was held with several topics including comet assay at Washington D.C. on March, 1999. In spite of some consensus in procedures and conditions in IWGTP, there are some problems still remained to be solved. In this respect, we attempted to set the practical optimal conditions in the experimental procedures such as lysis, unwinding, electrophoresis and neutralization conditions and so on. First of all, we determined optimal lysis and unwinding time by using 150 $\mu$M methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) which is usually used concentration. And then, we determined optimal positive control concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and MMS in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system, respectively.

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Exploitation of the Dose/Time-Response Relationship for a New Measure of DNA Repari in the Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) Assay

  • Kim, Byung-Soo;Edler, Lutz;Park, Jin-Joo;Fournier, Dietrich Von;Haase, Wulf;Sautter-Bihl, Mare-Luise;Hagmuller, Egbert;Gotzes, Florian;Thielmann, Heinz Walter
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.89-100
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    • 2004
  • The comet assay (also called the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay) has been widely used for detecting DNA damage and repair in individual cells. Since the conventional methods of evaluating comet assay data using frequency statistics are unsatisfactory we developed a new quantitative measure of DNA damage/repair that is based on all information residing in the dose/time-response curves of a comet experiment. Blood samples were taken from 25 breast cancer patients before undergoing radiotherapy. The comet assay was performed under alkaline conditions using isolated lymphocytes. Tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and tail inertia of the comet were measured for each patient at four doses of $\gamma$-rays (0, 2, 4 and 8 Gy) and at four time points after irradiation (0, 10, 20 and 30 min) using 100 cells each. The resulting three-dimensional dose-time response surface was modeled by multiple regression, and the second derivative, termed 2D, on dose and time was determined. A software module was programmed in SAS/AF to compute 2D values. We applied the new method successfully to data obtained from cancer patients to be assessed for their radiation sensitivity. We computed the 2D values for the four damage measures, i.e., tail moment, tail length, tail DNA and tail inertia, and examined the pairwise correlation coefficients of 2D both on the log scale and the unlogged scale. 2D values based on tail moment and tail DNA showed a high correlation and, therefore, these two damage measures can be used interchangeably as far as DNA repair is concerned. 2D values based on tail inertia have a correlation profile different from the other 2D values which may reflect different facets of DNA damage/repair. Using the dose-time response surface, other statistical models, e.g., the proportional hazards model, become applicable for data analysis. The 2D approach can be applied to all DNA repair measures, Le., tail moment, tail length, tail DNA and tail inertia, and appears to be superior to conventional evaluation methods as it integrates all data of the dose/time-response curves of a comet assay.

Comet Assay to Detect the DNA Breakages in the Tissue of the Purple Clam ( Saxidomus purpuratus) and the Blood of the Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Exposed to 5 PAHs

  • Lee, Taek-Kyun;Kim, So-Jung;Park, Eun-Seok;Rora Oh;Yun, Hee-Young;Man Chang
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.159-159
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    • 2003
  • Comet assay is a potential monitoring tool because DNA strand breakage may be produced by a wide range of agents. The comet assay, also called the single-cell gell electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, is rapid and sensitive method for the detection of DNA damage in cells. This study was performed for the identification of DNA damage in the cells from flounders and clams exposed to PAHs. As a control experiments, flounder and clam cells were exposed to $H_2O$$_2$. The cells exposed to $H_2O$$_2$ were displayed a typical nuclei movement DNA damage of cells were significantly increased when the isolated cells from the blood of flounders and the tissue of clams were in vitro exposed to the different concentrations (5, 10, 50, 100 ppb) of five kinds of PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, anthrancene, and phenanthrene). For the in vivo test, flounders and clams were exposed to the different concentrations of BaP for 4 days. The results showed that DNA strand breakage was effected by the concentration of BaP and the duration of exposure. In high concentration of BaP, the mean tail lengths of nuclei was longer than it In low concentration, while the mean size of head DNA decreased. In this research, both in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of PAHs could be biomonitored by the comet assay. Especially, clams and flounders seem to be useful as materials for monitoring genotoxic damage by comet assay.

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Changes of DNA Fragmentation by Irradiation Doses and Storage in Gamma-Irradiated Fruits (감마선 조사 과일류에서 조사선량과 저장기간에 따른 DNA Fragmentation의 변화)

  • Kim, Sang-Mi;Park, Eun-Ju;Yang, Jae-Seung;Kang, Myung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.594-598
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    • 2002
  • The changes in DNA damage were investigated during storage after irradiation. Kiwi, orange and pear were irradiated at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 kGy and stored for 3 months at 4$^{\circ}C$. The comet assay was applied to the sample seeds alt the beginning of irradiation and at the end of storage. Seeds were isolated and crushed, and the suspended cells were embedded in an agarose layer. After lysis of the cells, they were electrophoresed for 2 min and then stained. DNA fragmentation in seeds caused by irradiation was quantified as tail length and tail moment (tail length $\times$ % DNA in tail) by comet image analyzing system. Immediately after irradiation, the differences in tail length between unirradiated and irradiated fruit seeds were significant (p<0.05) in kiwi, orange and pear seeds. With in-creasing the irradiation doses, statistically significant longer extension of the DNA from the nucleus toward anode was observed. The results represented as tail moment showed similar tendency to those of tail length, but tile latter parameter was more sensitive than the former. Similarly even 3 months after irradiation, all the irradiated fruit seeds significantly showed longer tail length than the unirradiated controls. These results indicate that the comet assay could be one of the simple methods of detecting irradiated fruit seeds. Moreover, the method could detect DNA damage even after 3 months after irradiation.

Assessment of Nucleus-DNA Damage in Red Pepper Cells Treated with γ-Radiation through Comet Assay (Comet 분석을 통한 방사선처리 고추세포의 핵 DNA 손상평가)

  • An, Jung-Hee;Back, Myung-Hwa;Kim, Jae-Sung;Jeong, Jeong-Hag;Kwon, Soon-Tae
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.225-230
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    • 2004
  • We employed single cell gel electrophoresis method (comet assay) to analyze the degree of nucleus-DNA damage in the leaves of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings exposed to $^{60}$ CO v-radiation stress. Nucleus-DNA damage was measured as the ratio of tail length (T) to head length (H) in individual comet image isolated from pepper leaf cell. The T/H ratio of control-cells and treated-cells at 50 or 100 Gy were 1.28 and 3.54 or 3.39, respectively, suggesting that nuclei of pepper cells were severely damaged in the integrity of DNA strand by the treatment of enhanced v-radiation. The percentage of head-DNA in control-cells was 76.8%, whereas those of 50 and 100 Gy treated-cells were 55.9% and 59.9%, respectively. Pretreatment of low dose (4 to 20 Gy) radiation to seeds decreased DNA-damage in the leaves of seedlings treated with high dose radiation at 50 or 100 Gy. In this experiment, we developed a sensitive, reliable and rapid method for evaluating genotoxic effect in the nuclei of plant cells by employing comet assay.

DNA Damage and Micronuclei Induced by Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in Human Breast Carcinoma MCF-7 cells (Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate에 의해 유도된 DNA손상과 소핵 형성)

  • 김종원;한의식;박미선;엄미옥;김인숙;전혜승;정해관;심웅섭;오혜영
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.34-43
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    • 2001
  • Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is the most commonly used phthalate ester in polyvinyl chloride formulations including food packing and storage of human blood. DEHP is a well known as non-genotoxic carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). DEHP have shown all negative results in ICH-guildeline recommended standard genotoxicity test battery. In this study, to assess the clastogenic and DNA damaging effect in human-derived tissue specific cells, DEHP was treated in human derived MCE-7 cells, HepG2 cells, LNCap cells, BeWo cells, MCE-10A cells, and female peripheral blood cells using micronucleus assay and in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells up to $1.28$\times$10^{-2}$ M using Comet assay. The in vitro micronucleus assay is a mutagenicity test system for the detection of chemicals which induce the formation of small membrane bound DNA fragment i.e. micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells, originated from clastogenic and/or aneugenic mechanism. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) is used to detect DNA strand-breaks and alkaline labile site. In our results, DEHP increased significantly and/or dose-depentently and time-dependently micronucleus frequency at the 6 and 24 hr without metabolic activation system only in MCE-7 cells. DEHP treated with 2 hrs in MCF-7 cells using Comet assay induced DNA damage dose-depentantly.

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Genotoxicity Study on Khal, a Halocidin Derivative, in Bacterial and Mammalian Cells

  • Kim, Youn-Jung;Kim, Mi-Soon;Jeon, Hee-Kyoung;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2006
  • Khal was a synthetic congener of halocidin, a heterodimeric peptide consisting of 19 and 15 amino acid residues detected in Halocynthia aurantium. This compound was considered a candidate for the development of a novel peptide antibiotic. The genotoxicity of Khal was subjected to high throughput toxicity screening (HTTS) because they revealed strong antibacterial effects. Mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase ($tk^{+/-}$) gene assay (MOLY), single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay and chromosomal aberration assay in mammalian cells and Ames reverse mutation assay in bacterial system were used as simplified, inexpensive, short-term in vitro screening tests in our laboratory. These compounds are not mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Before performing the comet assay, $IC_{20}$ of Khal was determined the concentration of $25.51\;{\mu}/mL\;and\;21.99\;{\mu}g/mL$ with and without S-9, respectively. In the comet assay, Khal was not induced DNA damage in mouse lymphoma cell line. Also, the mutation frequencies in the Khal-treated cultures were similar to the vehicle controls. It is suggests that Khal is non-mutagenic in MOLY assay. And no clastogenicity was observed in Khal-treated Chinese hamster lung cells. The results of this battery of assays indicate that Khal has no genotoxic potential in bacterial or mammalian cell systems. Therefore, we suggest that Khal, as the optimal candidates with both no genotoxic potential and antibacterial effects must be chosen.

In Vitro Studies on the Genotoxic Effects of Wood Smoke Flavors

  • Chung, Young-Shin;Ahn, Jun-Ho; Eum, Ki-Hwan;Choi, Seon-A;Oh, Se-Wook;Kim, Yun-Ji;Park, Sue-Nie;Yum, Young-Na;Kim, Joo-Hwan;Lee, Michael
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.321-328
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    • 2008
  • Smoke flavors based on the thermal decomposition of wood have been applied to a variety of food products as an alternative for traditional smoking. Despite its increasing use, the available genotoxicity data on wood smoke flavors (WSF) are still controversial. Thus, potential genotoxic effects of WSF in four short-term in vitro genotoxicity assays were investigated, which included the Ames assay, chromosomal aberration assay, micronucleus test and the alkaline comet assay. WSF did not cause any mutation in the Ames assay using five tester strains at six concentrations of 0.16, 0.31, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 ${\mu}l/plate$. To assess clastogenic effect, the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay was performed using Chinese hamster lung cells. No statistically significant increase in the number of metaphases with structural aberrations was observed at the concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 ${\mu}l/ml$. The in vitro comet assay and micronucleus test results obtained on L5178Y cells also revealed that WSF has no genotoxicity potential, although there was a marginal increase in micronuclei frequencies and DNA damage in the respective micronucleus and comet assays. Taken together, based on the results obtained from these four in vitro studies, it is concluded that WSF is not a mutagenic agent in bacterial cells and causes no chromosomal and DNA damage in mammalian cells in vitro.