• Title, Summary, Keyword: column leaching

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The Evaluation on the Environmental Effect of Coal-Ash and Phosphogypsum as the Evapotranspiration Final Cover Material (증발산 원리를 이용한 매립장 최종 복토공법의 복토재로서 석탄재와 인산석고의 환경적 영향 평가)

  • Yu, Chan;Yang, Kee-Sok
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2005
  • In this study, the utilization of coal-ash and phosphogypsum was considered as the evapotranspiration final landfill cover(ET cover) material. Cover material considered was the mixture of the weathered granite soil, coal-ash and phosphogypsum and so we sequentially performed the leaching test, column test and field model test to investigate the environmental effects of mixtures of coal-ash and phosphogypsum. In the leaching test, all materials had lower heavy metal concentration than the regulated threshold values. The column test and the review of related regulations were carried out to determine the optimum mixing ratio(OMR) and OMR was soil(4):coal-ash(1): phosphogypsum(1) on the volume base, which was applied to field model test. Field model tests were continued from February to June, 2004 in the soil box that was constructed with cement block. It was verified that coal-ash and phospogypsum mixed with soil was safe environmentally and the mixture of both wastes could improve the water retention capacity of cover materials.

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Investigation of the Rice Plant Transfer and the Leaching Characteristics of Copper and Lead for the Stabilization Process with a Pilot Scale Test (논토양 안정화 현장 실증 시험을 통한 납, 구리의 용출 저감 및 벼로의 식물전이 특성 규명)

  • Lee, Ha-Jung;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.255-264
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    • 2012
  • The stabilization using limestone ($CaCO_3$) and steel making slag as the immobilization amendments for Cu and Pb contaminated farmland soils was investigated by batch tests, continuous column experiments and the pilot scale feasibility study with 4 testing grounds at the contaminated site. From the results of batch experiment, the amendment with the mixture of 3% of limestone and 2% of steel making slag reduced more than 85% of Cu and Pb compared with the soil without amendment. The acryl column (1 m in length and 15 cm in diameter) equipped with valves, tubes and a sprinkler was used for the continuous column experiments. Without the amendment, the Pb concentration of the leachate from the column maintained higher than 0.1 mg/L (groundwater tolerance limit). However, the amendment with 3% limestone and 2% steel making slag reduced more than 60% of Pb leaching concentration within 1 year and the Pb concentration of leachate maintained below 0.04 mg/L. For the testing ground without the amendment, the Pb and Cu concentrations of soil water after 60 days incubation were 0.38 mg/L and 0.69 mg/l, respectively, suggesting that the continuous leaching of Cu and Pb may occur from the site. For the testing ground amended with mixture of 3% of limestone + 2% of steel making slag, no water soluble Pb and Cu were detected after 20 days incubation. For all testing grounds, the ratio of Pb and Cu transfer to plant showed as following: root > leaves(including stem) > rice grain. The amendment with limestone and steel making slag reduced more than 75% Pb and Cu transfer to plant comparing with no amendment. The results of this study showed that the amendment with mixture of limestone and steel making slag decreases not only the leaching of heavy metals but also the plant transfer from the soil.

The Laboratory Column Examination of Stabilization for Agricultural Land Contaminated by Heavy Metals using Sequential Stabilization (연속 안정화 공법을 이용한 중금속 오염 농경지 토양 안정화 처리를 위한 Column 실험 연구)

  • Park, Dong-Hyeok;Cho, Yun-Chul;Choi, Sang-Il
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2010
  • In order to treat paddy soils contaminated by Pb, Cd, and As near the abandoned mine, $H_2PO_4$ was used for stabilization of Pb ($PO_4$/Pb mole ratio of 2/1). In addition, $CaCO_3$ and $FeSO_4$ were used as stabilizers for treating Cd and As (2% w/w), respectively. Leaching tests were conducted with artificial rain in the column to assess the heavy metal stabilization efficiency. The mass of heavy metals in the effluents passed through the columns were analyzed. The remaining heavy metals in the soils were also analyzed as Korean soil standard method, phytoavailability test and sequential extraction test. Lead in the effluent was not detected when $H_2PO_4$ was used as a stabilizer. This result suggests that $H_2PO_4$ is efficient for Pb stabilization. In addition results of sequential extraction scheme suggest that heavy metals are present as residual forms which is not easily extracted.

Stabilization for Heavy Metal Contamination Soils which Uses the Coal Mine Drainage Sludge (폐 석탄광산 배수처리 시 발생되는 슬러지를 이용한 오염토양 중금속 안정화)

  • Cui, Mingcan;Lim, Jung-Hyun;Son, Young-Gyu;Jang, Min;Shim, Yon-Sik;Khim, Jee-Hyeong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 2009
  • In this study, to stabilize the heavy metal in the contaminated soils, the column leaching test based on rainfall and pH value was performed by using coal mine drainage sludge(CMDS): which was generated during electrical purification of abandoned coal mine wastewater. Four types of testing column were used in this study. That were the CMDS and the heavy metal contaminated soils well mixed in 0 wt%, 1 wt%, 3 wt% and 3 wt% layered column. According to the investigation, when the influent pH was $5.5{\sim}6.2$, there were no heavy metal elution at all conditions, and when the influent pH was $3{\sim}3.3$, the order of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr elution concentration was 3 wt% M(mixed)<3 wt% S(separation)<1 wt% M<0 wt% and the average elution concentration was quite low, the value was 0.005 mg/L. Therefore, CMDS can used as new stabilizer of the heavy metal in the contaminated soils.

Characteristics of Nutrient Release of Biochar Pellets through Soil Column during Rice Cultivation (토양 Column을 이용한 벼 재배 시 바이오차 팰렛의 양분용출 특성)

  • Shin, JoungDu
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2018
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient leaching and mobility through soil column for application of biochar pellet during rice cultivation. For nutrient leaching through soil column experiment, it was also consisted with four treatments as control, 100% of pig manure compost pellet (PMCP), biochar pellet (pig manure compost:biochar, 6:4)(BP), and slow release fertilizer (SRF). For experimental results, it was observed that $NH_4-N$ concentration in the leachate was gradually decreased at pick of 35 days and $NO_3-N$ concentration was highest from 60 to 98 days after transplanting. $PO_4-P$ concentration in the leachate was shown to be lowest in the PMCP and BP. K concentration in the leachate was highest in the control, but lowest in SRF. For mobility of nutrient in soil depths, it shown that $NH_4-N$ concentrations were highest from 40 to 60cm and did not significantly different among treatments except the control. It was observed that the deeper depth, the higher concentration for $NH_4-N$ concentrations, but for $PO_4-P$ concentrations the deeper depth, the lower concentration. And also $PO_4-P$ concentration was highest in the control. For K mobility in soil, its pattern was appeared to be approximately same between the control and PMCP, and between BP and SRF. Therefore, it might be potential to be applied biochar pellet to reduce mobility of plant nutrients for rice cultivation.

Leaching of Arsenic in Soils Amended with Crushed Arsenopyrite Rock

  • Lee, Kyosuk;Shim, Hoyoung;Lee, Dongsung;Yang, Jae E.;Chung, Dougyoung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 2014
  • Arsenic and its compounds which is one of the most toxic elements that can be found naturally on earth in small concentrations are used in the production of pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides. Most arsenic that cannot be mobilized easily when it is immobile is also found in conjunction with sulfur in minerals such as arsenopyrite (AsFeS), realgar, orpiment and enargite. In this investigation we observed the leaching of arsenic in soils amended with several levels of gravel size of arsenopyrite collected from a road construction site. Soil and gravel size of arsenopyrite were characterized by chemical and mineralogical analyses. Results of XRF analysis of arsenopyrite indicated that the proportion of arsenate was 0.075% (wt $wt^{-1}$) while the maximum amount of arsenic in soil samples was 251.3 mg $kg^{-1}$. Cumulative amounts of effluent collected from the bottom of the soil column for different mixing rate of the gravel were gradually increased where proportion of the gravel mixed was greater than 70% whereas the effluent was stabilized to the maximum after approximately 45 pore volumes of effluent or greater were collected. The arsenic in the effluent was recovered from the soil columns in which the proportion of arsenopyrite gravel was 60% or greater. The total amount of arsenic recovered as effluent was increased with increasing proportion of gravel in a soil, indicating that the arsenic in the effluent was closely related with gravel fraction of arsenopyrite.

Evaluation for Contents of Contaminants and Leaching Characteristics of Bottom Ash (바텀애쉬의 유해물질 함량 측정 및 용출특성 평가연구)

  • Koh, Taehoon;Lee, Sungjin;Shin, Minho;Kim, Byongsuk;Lee, Jeakeun;Lee, Taeyoon
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we tried to determine any detrimental effects on water quality when bottom ash obtained from a coal-fired power plant intended to be used as a fill material in construction sites. Physical-chemical properties of bottom ash were determined using proximate analysis, elemental analysis, XRD, and XRF. Classification of bottom ash as a waste material and soil contamination due to the use of bottom ash were performed by Korea waste standard leaching test and soil toxicity test, respectively. Results of leaching tests were compared to the regulations for water quality and groundwater quality and no harmful effects on water quality were found. Most of heavy metals in leachate were below detection limits but trace amount of $Cr^{6+}$ was found. However, concentration of $Cr^{6+}$ was below the regulation criteria. Column leaching tests indicated that concentrations of Pb and Zn were slightly higher than regulations but below regulations within 1 PVE, but concentrations of sulfate were 10 times higher than regulation and thus, the required time to reach regulation was almost 8 PVE.

Source Identification of Heavy Metal Contamination at an Industrial Complex Established Using Construction Wastes (건설폐기물을 성토재로 사용한 산업단지에서의 중금속 오염 원인 규명)

  • JOO, Gwonho;KIM, Kibeum;NAM, Kyoungphile;JUNG, Jae-Woong;Moon, Seheum;CHOI, Yongju
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2018
  • This paper is aimed at source tracking of soil heavy metal contamination at a site established by reusing construction wastes. The soil heavy metal concentration at the study site peaked at a depth range of 5-10 m. Column studies were conducted to investigate the possibility of the contamination scenario of infiltration of stormwater carrying heavy metals of ground origin followed by selective heavy metal accumulation at the 5-10 m depth range. Almost all amount of lead, zinc, cadmium, and nickel introduced to the columns each packed with 0-5 m or 5-10 m field soil were accumulated in the column. The very poor heavy metal mobility in spite of the weak association of the heavy metals with the soil (characterized by a sequential extraction procedure) can be attributed to the high pH (10-11) of the construction wastes. From the results, the heavy metal contamination of the subsurface soil by an external heavy metal source was determined to be very unlikely at the study site. The column study applied in the current study is expected to be a useful methodology to present direct evidence of the contaminant source tracking at soil contamination sites.

Leaching of the herbicide quinclorac in soil columns (제초제 quinclorac의 토양컬럼 중 용탈)

  • Ahn, Ki-Chang;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2000
  • The leaching behaviour of quinclorac was elucidated using soil columns. On top of each glass column packed with a rice paddy soil up to the 30 cm height were applied three different treatments of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac: quincloiac only (T-1), quinclorac adsorbed onto active carbon (T-2), and quinclorac adsorbed onto a mixture of active carbon and $Ca(OH)_{2}$ (T-3). Half of the columns were planted with rice plants for 17 weeks and half of them unplanted for comparison. Average amounts of $^{14}C$-activity percolated from tile soil columns without rice plants in T-1, T-2, and T-3 were 81.1%, 27.8% and 48.0%, respectively, of tile originally applied $^{14}C$, whereas those with rice plants grown were 36.8%, 9.6% and 11.0%, respectively, indicating that the leaching of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac was significantly affected by vegetation and by treatment with the adsorbents. The bioavailability of the herbicide to rice plants in T-1, T-2, and T-3 were 13.6%, 11.0% and 13.9%, respectively. The residue levels of quinclorac in the edible part of rice grains would be far less than the maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.5 ppm). After the leaching, the amounts of $^{14}C$ remaining in soil in with rice planting T-1, T-2, and T-3 were 36.3%, 73.7%, and 61.8%, whereas those without rice planting were 19.7%, 71.1%, and 52.3%, respectively. The balance sheets indicate that [$^{14}C$]quinclorac translocated to rice shoots would be lost by volatilization and/or in other ways in T-1 and T-3. The $^{14}C$-activity partitioned into the aqueous phase of the leachates collected from all treatments was less than 7% of the total, but it increased gradually with time in the case of rice growing, suggesting tile formation of some polar degradation products.

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Mobility Characteristics of Veterinary Antibiotics in Soil Column (토주실험에서 동물용 의약품의 이동 특성)

  • Hwang, Sun-Young;Han, Man-Hye;Cho, Jae-Young
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2012
  • Veterinary antibiotics can enter the soil ecosystem and then may be transported into groundwater via leaching process. The main aim of this study is to investigate the distribution and mobility of tetracycline, amoxicillin and sulfathiazole in soil. The adsorption of veterinary antibiotics were applied to the Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Adsorption coefficient ($K_F$) was indicated oxytetracycline > amoxicillin > sulfathiazole. Oxytetracycline concentration was highly detected in soil than in leachate. It is assumed that oxytetracycline was strongly absorbed by divalent cations such as $Ca^{2+}$ in soil. However, amoxicillin and sulfathiazole were shown higher mobility due to the lower distribution coefficient.