• Title, Summary, Keyword: column leaching

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Leaching characteristics of the bipyridylium herbicide paraquat in soil column (토양 column 중 bipyridylium계 제초제 paraquat의 용탈 특성)

  • Kwon, Jeong-Wook;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 1999
  • The leaching behaviour of $^{14}C$-paraquat in soil was investigated using soil columns (5 cm I.D. ${\times}$ 30 cm H.) parked with two soils of different physicochemical properties. $^{14}C$-Activities leached from the soil A (loam) columns with and without rice plants for 117 days were 0.42 and 0.54% of the originally applied, whereas those from the soil B (sandy loam) were 0.21 and 0.31%, respectively. $^{14}C$-Activities absorbed by rice plants from soil A and B were 3.87 and 2.79%, respectively, most of which remained in the root. Irrespective of soil types, more than 96% of the total $^{14}C$ resided in soil, mostly in the depth of $0{\sim}5$ cm. The water-extractable $^{14}C$ in soil was in the range of $6.10{\sim}9.01%$ of the total $^{14}C$ applied. The rest of $^{14}C$, which corresponds to non-extractable soil residues of [$^{14}C$]paraquat, was distributed in humic substances in the decreasing order of humin>humic acid>fulvic acid. The soil pH of the columns without rice plants increased after the leaching experiment due to the flooded anaerobic condition resulting in the reduction of the $H^{+}$ concentration, whereas that of the columns with rice plants did not increase by the offsetting effect of the acidic exudates from the roots. Low mobility of paraquat in soil strongly indicates that no contamination of ground water would be caused by paraquat residues in paddy soils under normal precipitation.

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Adsorption and Leaching of Organophosphorus Pesticides in the Soil of Cheju Island (제주도 토양에서 유기인계 농약의 흡착 및 용탈)

  • 감상규;고병철;오윤근;이용두;김정호
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.379-386
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    • 1999
  • The adsorption and leaching of organophosphorus pesticides (phenthoate, diazinon, methidathion) were investigated in Namwon soli(black volcanic soil), Aewol soil(very dark brown volcanic soil) and Mureung soil(dark brown nonvolcanic soil) sampled in Cheju Island. The Freundlich constant, K value, was 52.4, 31.3 and 27.7 for phenthoate, diazinon and methidathion in Namwonsoil, respectively and decreased in the order of phenthoate, diazinon and methidathion among the pesticides. The K value of phenthoate was 52.4, 15.9 and 5.9 for Namwon, Aewol and Mureung soil, respectively and was the highest for Namwon soil with very high organic matter content and cation exchange capacity(CEC). The Freundlich constant, 1/n, showed a high correlation with organic matter content, i.e., its value was less than unity for organic matter rich soil(Namwon soil) and greater than unity for organic matter poor soil(Mureung soil). Total recoveries of pesticides in soil and leachate with leaching in soil column, were in the range of about 74~86%. The leaching of pesticides was less for phenthate with high K values, and more for methidathion with low K values among the pesticides. It was slower for Namwon soil with high K values, and more for methidathion with low K values among the pesticides. It was slower for Namwon soil with high K values, and faster for Mureung soil with low K values among the soils.

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Potential Element Retention by Weathered Pulverised Fuel Ash : II. Column Leaching Experiments (풍화 석탄연소 고형폐기물(Pulverised Fuel Ash)의 중금속 제거가능성 : II. 주상용출실험)

  • Lee, Sanghoon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.259-269
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    • 1995
  • Column leaching tests were conducted using fresh and weathered pulverised fuel ash of some 17 and 40 years old from two major British power plants, with deionised water and simulated synthetic industrial leachate. The former was to see the leaching behaviour of weathered ash and the latter was to see if the formation of secondary products from water and PFA interaction and ameliorating effect in removing metals from industrial leachates. Fresh PFA liberates elevated concentrations of surface-enriched inorganics, including Ca, Na, K, B, $Cr_{total}$, Li Mo, Se and $SO^{2-}_4$. This might indicate their association with the surface of PFA particles. In the column leaching tests using weathered ash and deionised water, elements are not readily leached but are released more slowly, showing relatively constant concentrations. For the case of weathered ash, some readily soluble surface-enriched elements appears to have been liberated in their early stage of leaching and the liberation of glass associated elements are thought to be more important function in controlling the element concentration. The result from column leaching tests exceed for a number of elements when compared with various Water Standards and suggests the leachate from PFA disposal mound needs dilution to achieve target concentrations. PF A shows element retention effect for many elements, including B, Fe, Zn, Hg, Ni, Li and Mo, in the order of fresh Drax ash > weathered Drax ash > Weathered Meaford ash in retaining capacity. Geochemical modelling using a computer program WATEQ4F reveals some solubility controlling secondary solid products. These include $CaSO_4{\cdot}2H_2O$ for Ca, $Al(OH)_3$ for Al and $Fe(OH)_3$ for Fe.

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Evaluating germination of lettuce and soluble organic carbon leachability in upland sandy loam soil applied with rice husk and food waste biochar (왕겨 바이오차 및 음식물쓰레기 바이오차가 밭 사양토에서 상추발아 및 수용성 유기탄소 용출에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Han, Kyung-Hwa;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Jung, Kang-Ho;Cho, Hee-Rae;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.369-377
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of rice husk (RHB) and food waste biochar (FWB) on upland soil with sandy loam texture, in terms of physico-chemical analysis, lettuce seed germination test, and orgainc carbon leaching experiment. RHB and FWB had different physico-chemical properties each other. Carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) of RHB was 32, showing two times higher than that of FWB. FWB had high salt and heavy metal content, compared to RHB. This is probably due to different ingredients and production processing between two biochars each other. Results of germination test with Lettuce showed lower germination rate when FWB was applied because of higher salt concentration compared to control and RHB. Organic carbon leaching test using saturated soil column (${\Phi}75{\times}h75mm$) with $10MT\;ha^{-1}$ biochar application rate, showed higher saturated hydraulic conductivity in rice husk biochar treatment column, compared to control and food waste biochar treatment. The highest total organic carbon concentration in column effluent was lower than those in both of rice husk biochar and food waste biochar, whereas the differences was negligible after 9 pore volumes of effluent. Consequently, biochars from byproducts such as rice husk and food waste in sandy loam textured upland soil could enhance a buffer function such as reduction of leaching from soil, but the harmful ingredient to crops such as high salt and heavy metals could limit the agricultural use of biochars.

Behavior of Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticide Bifenthrin in Soil Environment II) Identification of Degradation Product and Leaching of Bifenthrin in soil (합성 Pyrethroid 계 살충제인 Bifenthrin의 토양환경중 동태 제2보. Bifenthrin의 토양중 분해산물의 동정 및 용탈)

  • Kim, Jang-Eok;Choi, Tae-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 1992
  • This study was conducted to know degradation products of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin under soil, aqueous solution and UV-light irradation, and know its movement by leaching in soil. The major degradation product of bifenthrin was identified with 2-methylbiphenyl -3-y1 methanol by HPLC, UV, Mass and NMR under soil, aqueous solution and UV-light irradiation, The main degradation route was hydrolysis of the ester linkage. On exposure to UV-light, bifenthrin was decomposed almost completely in concentrations of 10 and 100 ppm in 24 hr but decomposed about 80% in 1,000 ppm. Bifenthrin was immobile in soil column system and on soil thin-layer chromatography system. Mostly bifenthrin remained in the 0-2.0㎝ layer of soil column and soil TLC.

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Leaching of Trifluralin in the Commerce Clay Loam Soil (토양 중 Trifluralin의 용탈)

  • Kim, Jung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.464-471
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    • 1996
  • Trifluralin was selected to study the leaching potentials related to the pollution on Commerce silty clay loam soil near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. The batch equilibrium of trifluralin resulted in the Koc value of 875. When the soil columns(5.4 cm i.d. ${\times}$ 26 cm length) were leached with three pore volumes of water, the distributions of trifluralin in soil and leachate were 99.993% and 0.007% of the total recoveries, respectively. When applied at the rate of 1,683 g/ha in the field, the amount of trifluralin within the $0{\sim}10$ cm soil depth was 96.9% of that within the $0{\sim}60cm$ soil depth 31 days after application. The concentrations of trifluralin detected in 1- and 2m- depth wells during 62 days after application ranged from 0.04 ng/mL to 0.08 ng/mL, which were lower than 2.0 ng/mL of the U.S. EPA advisory levels for drinking water. Trifluralin was strongly adsorbed on soil and hardly reached ground water. The leaching properties of trifluralin in the fields were predicted and concurred with those in the columns.

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Leaching Characteristics on Clay Ground induced by Artesian Pressure (피압에 의한 점토 지반의 용탈 특성)

  • Yun, Daeho;Kim, Yuntae
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2016
  • This paper performed consolidation tests on soft ground with and without artesian pressure conditions to find out characteristics of leaching effects using two types of one-dimensional column equipment(height : 1,100mm, outer diameter : 250mm). Artesian pressure of 5.5kPa was applied to the bottom of soft ground inside column equipment. Distribution of salinity and shear strength with soil depth were measured after the consolidation test. From the results, it was found that distribution of undrained shear strength and salt concentrations were similar at the top of clay ground irrespective of artesian pressure condition. However, at the bottom of clay ground, the values of undrained shear strength and salt concentration under artesian pressure were lower than those without artesian pressure. This result indicates that structure of soft soil with artesian pressure was weakened by salt leaching. Electronic resistance results showed that void ratio under artesian pressure condition was more reduced than that without artesian pressure condition.

Leaching Characteristics of the Endocrine Disruptor-suspected Pesticides in Upland Soil (내분비계장애추정농약의 밭토양 중 용탈 특성)

  • Noh, Hyun Ho;Lee, Jae Yun;Lee, Kwang Hun;Park, Hyo Kyoung;Kyung, Kee Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.168-177
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    • 2013
  • This experiment was carried out to estimate leaching potential of thirteen endocrine disruptor-suspected pesticides in upland soils using soil columns (5 cm I.D. ${\times}$ 35 cm H.) packed with soil A (sandy loam) and soil B (loam). When 12.6 mL of water, average precipitation in Cheongju area during the period from June to August, 2001-2010, was percolated through soil column packed with soil A every day for 21 days, no pesticides were detected from leachate, with the exception of metribuzin which was detected with negligible. Also, when 2 L of water was percolated consecutively five times through soil columns packed with soil A and B, irrespective of soil types, cypermethrin, endosulfan, fenvalerate, parathion and trifluralin, which were very low water solubilities and high soil $K_{oc}s$, were not detected from leachate and were distributed mostly in the depth of 0-5 cm, representing that water solubility and soil $K_{oc}$ are major contributing factors to their leaching behavior. Despite high average leaching rates in carbaryl and methomyl, actual possibilities of ground water contamination in the agricultural environment by them would be very low, considering that the negligible amount of pesticide was percolated through a lysimeter with an undisturbed soil core simulating the field conditions, while most of pesticide was percolated through a soil column with the disturbed soil profile.

Leaching behavior of the herbicide bentazon in soil column (Soil column중 제초제 bentazon의 용탈 행적)

  • Kyung, Kee-Sung;Oh, Kyeong-Seok;Ahn, Ki-Chang;Kwon, Jeong-Wook;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 1998
  • In order to elucidate the leaching behaviour of the herbicide bentazon in soil, soil columns(5cm ID ${\times}$ 34 cm L) were packed with three different soils up to 30 cm height, followed by the treatment of [$^{14}C$]bentazon, and rice plants(Oryza sativa L.) were grown for 9 weeks on these columns, with the columns without growing rice plants as the control for comparison. The amounts of $^{14}C$ activities percolated were about 92% of the originally applied $^{14}C$ irrespective of the physicochemical properties of the soils in the absence of rice plants, whereas $21{\sim}50%$ of the originally applied $^{14}C$ was percolated in the presence of rice plants, suggesting that the amounts of $^{14}C$ leached decreased remarkably in rice-cultivating soils. Bentazon leached faster in soil with higher pH and with lower organic matter content in the presence of growing rice plants. The amounts of $^{14}CO_{2}$ evolved from the soil columns were less than 0.2% of the originally applied $^{14}C$. Smaller amounts of $^{14}C$ were translocated into shoots via roots in soils with higher organic matter content. $^{14}C$ activities distributed into the aqueous phase of the leachate collected from the soil columns increased with leaching period and by rice cultivation, whereas the physico-chemical properties of soils did not exhibit any effect. The amounts of soil-bound residues increased remarkably by cultivating rice plants.

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Fate of Nitrogen and Phosphorous in Hydroponic Waste Solution Applied to the Upland Soils (시설하우스 폐양액의 토양 처리에 따른 질소 및 인의 이동)

  • Yang, Jae-E.;Park, Chang-Jin;Yoo, Kyung-Yoal;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Ok, Yong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2005
  • Objective of this research was to evaluate the fate of nitrogen and phosphorous in hydroponic waste solution from the plastic film house cultivation applied to the upland soil by column leaching and field experiment. The pH and EC of leachate were decreased by the reaction with the upland soil in the column leaching experiment. The EC and concentrations of $H^+,\;K^+,\;and\;{NH_4}^+$ of leachate were decreased as the column length (soil depth) was increased. But these were increased as the amounts of the hydroponic waste solution were increased field experiment growing red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) to monitor the nutrients movement using ion exchange resin capsule demonstrated that the nutrient concentration of soil solution was increased in the orders of $PO_4-P. Nitrate concentration of resin capsule inserted into the soil was relatively higher than other nutrients $(NH_4-N\;and\;PO_4-P)$ at the 45 cm of soil depth. The overall results demonstrated that the hydroponic waste solution could be recycled as plant nutrients to enhance fertility of soils. But nitrate leaching was a major factor for safe use of the hydroponic waste solution in soil.