• Title, Summary, Keyword: column leaching

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Dissipation of Cyclosulfamuron in Rice Paddies (수도 재배환경 중 제초제 Cyclosulfamuron의 잔류특성)

  • Lee, Young-Deuk;Song, Sung-Do
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2001
  • Several experiments including persistence, distribution, leaching, and terminal residue trials were carried out to investigate the behavior of cyclosulfamuron in rice paddies. Cyclosulfamuron was gradually dissipated in two different soils showing the first-order kinetics. Half-lives of the herbicide were calculated to be $17{\sim}30$ and $14{\sim}16$ days under field and laboratory conditions, respectively. In the paddy soil/water system, the residue tended to reside more in the soil phase as time elapsed. Cyclosulfamuron was less persistent in paddy water than in soil with half-lives of 10 and 19 days, respectively. No cyclosulfamuron was leached below 20 cm-deep soil during water percolation with 50 cm hydraulic head, while some downward mobility was observed within the soil column. When EC and SC formulations of cyclosulfamuron were applied to the paddy field at 120 or 150-day pre-harvest intervals, its terminal residues in hulled rice were all less than 0.01 mg/kg, irrespective of formulation type and application timing. In rice straw, however, some residues were found at $<0.02{\sim}0.05$ mg/kg as SC formulation was applied. Rapid dissipation, restricted mobility, and low terminal residues of cyclosulfamuron in rice paddies suggest that no significant residues would be transported or carried over to the non-target environment.

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Physicochemical Effects of Bottom Ash on the Turfgrass Growth Media of Sandy Topsoil in Golf Course (석탄바닥재 처리가 골프장 잔디식재 사질토양의 이화학성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ju-Young;Choi, Hee-Youl;Yang, Jae-E
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.199-204
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    • 2010
  • Much of the coal ash by thermal power plant has gradually been increased, however researches on the recycling of bottom ash has not been investigated enough so far. In this research, the lysimeter test was conducted to find out the possibilities of bottom ash as soil amendment to improve the physiochemical properties of sandy topsoil of turfgrass in golf course. The turfgrass growth test and leaching test were conducted on the lysimeter. The lysimeter columns were manufactured with various topsoil mixing ratios of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 50% of bottom ash with sand. As a result of leachate analysis through the lysimeter column, the higher ratios of bottom ash mixed affect significantly on water holding capacity of topsoil sand media with decreasing of the percolation rate. The results of leachate analysis in every three days interval, the pH of leachate increased with the bottom ash ratios, but the volume of $NO_3$-N, $NH_4$-N and K decreased significantly. However, the level of EC of leachate had constantly maintained. These results indicate that the application of bottom ash may improve turfgrass growth with water holding capability and fertility of sandy topsoil. However, the negative effects of the bottom ash also evaluated by reducing water permeability and solubility of $PO_4$-P by adsorption into soil particles. The results indicates that the reasonable mixing ratio of the bottom ash as soil amendment should be less than 20% (v/v) with sand which has a low water-holding and fertility in golf course topsoil layers.

An Experimental Study on Surfactant Enhanced LNAPL Removal Behavior in Saturated Zone (계면활성제를 이용한 포화지층내 저비중 비수용성 유기용매의 제거거동에 관한 연구)

  • 이재원;박규홍;박준범;임경희
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.291-300
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    • 1999
  • Surfactant flushing for enhancing the removal of BTEX from contaminated sand/clay mixtures was investigated. Eight soil columns packed with relatively undisturbed BTEX contaminated soils, were leached with water, methyl alcohol and then flushed with surfactant with or without several additives. Initial concentrations of BTEX mixture range from 278mg/kg to 1975mg/kg. Initial BTEX removal efficiency was 98% when the contaminated soil was flushed with water of 850 pore volumes. Because of tailing effect, water flushing could not remove below 8mg/kg concentrations during the experimental period. Eventually, the most effective surfactant for flushing was turned out to be 4% SOFTANOL(equation omitted)-90 with 3% ethyl alcohol and 3% SXS. In interrupted flow conditions, the removal efficiency was 99.5% with the flushed water of 95 pore volumes. The BTEX mixture removed from the soil columns during the surfactant flushing ranges from 84.5% to 99.5% of the initial amount for both water leaching(850 pore volumes) and surfactant flushing(95-165 pore volumes), respectively. Test results indicated that surfactant flushing could enhance the removal of BTEX mixture from contaminated soils and could reduce the aqueous phase BTEX mixture concentration in leachate.

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Leaching Characteristics of Arsenic and Heavy Metals and Stabilization Effects of Limestone and Steel Refining Slag in a Reducing Environment of Flooded Paddy Soil (담수된 논토양의 환원 환경에서 비소 및 중금속의 용출특성과 석회석 및 제강슬래그의 안정화 효과 검토)

  • Yun, Sung-Wook;Kang, Sin-Il;Jin, Hae-Geun;Kim, Ha-Jin;Yu, Chan
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.251-263
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    • 2011
  • In order to investigate treatment effects of limestone and steel refining slag for paddy soils contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals, a lab-column test was carried out under reducing environments of flooded paddy soils. In conditions of the flooded paddy soils, at the point of time when iron and manganese were reduced and leached rapidly, heavy metals also leached rapidly, and some leachate samples from an untreated soil exceeded regulatory standards. On the contrary, all samples from soils treated with limestone 5% and steel refining slag 5% respectively were below the regulatory standards, showing much lower heavy metal concentrations than in the untreated soil. Arsenic increased continuously during the observation period according to its typical characteristics, and along with decreasing redox potential, arsenic was expected to leach as $H_3AsO_3$-of form $A^{3+}$ with high mobility and strong toxicity. Limestone and steel refining slag showed high treatment effects against heavy metals present in soil and steel refining slag especially showed the high treatment effects against arsenic.

Leaching and Distribution of Cation in Multi-layered Reclaimed Soil Column with Intermediate Macroporous Layer (대공극층위 형성 간척지 다층토주의 양이온 용탈 및 분포)

  • Ryu, Jin-Hee;Chung, Doug-Young;Hwang, Seon-Woong;Kang, Jong-Guk;Lee, Sang-Bok;Choi, Weon-Young;Ha, Sang-Keun;Kim, Si-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.602-609
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    • 2010
  • To investigate desalinization patterns of surface reclaimed saline-sodic soil (RSSS) with subsurface layer of macroporous medium, multi-layered soil columns were constructed. For the multi-layered soil columns, gypsum was treated at the rate of 5 cmolc $kg^{-1}$ in surface (top) while coal bottom ash (CBA) was placed into intermediate layer below the gypsum-treated surface soils followed by the reclaimed saline-sodic soil as bottom layer (BL). The lengths of top soil was 30 cm long while the lengths of the CBA were 20 and 30 cm long. The saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ksat) were $0.39{\times}10^{-4}$ and $0.31{\times}10^{-4}cm\;sec^{-1}$ for RSSS(30 cm)-CBA(20 cm)-BL(20 cm) and RSSS(30 cm)-CBA(20 cm)-RSSS(20 cm), respectively while the lowest $K_{sat}$. was $0.064{\times}10^{-4}cm\;sec^{-1}$ for RSSS(30 cm)-CBA(20 cm)+BL(20 cm). The time required to reach the lowest EC in eluent, 0.3 dS $m^{-1}$ from 33.9 dS $m^{-1}$ was shorter in multi-layered soil columns with GR-CBA than that of RS-SRS, representing that rate of desalinization was greater than 99%. Exchangeable Na decreased by 94.8~96.2 %, while exchangeable Ca increased by 98~129 %.

Effects of the Fractionated Raw Cow Manure on Mobility of NO3--N in A Double-Layered Soil Column with Constant Water Head (상존수두상태의 이중토양토주에서 질산태질소 이동에 대한 분쇄우분의 효과)

  • Chung, Doug-Young;Lee, K.S.;Baek, M.J.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2001
  • Influence of various rates of fractionated raw cow manure on hydraulic conductivity of the soil was observed. The fractionated raw cow manure(hereafter as FRCM) incorporated into soil. The hydraulic conductivity was measured for the double-layered soil while maintaining the water head by 5 cm over the soil surface. The influence on the mobility of $NO_3{^-}$-N transformed from the FRCM was analyzed. The upper layers (Wolgok series) were made with FRCM ranging from 0% to 10.4 % on weight basis for air-dried soil while the organic matter in the bottom layers (Chungwon series) was removed by combustion. The initial bulk densities for both layers were adjusted to $1.25g\;cm^{-3}$. In this experiment the $K_{sat}$ for the upper layer gradually decreased from $4.71{\times}10^{-3}cm\;min^{-1}$ to $1.2{\times}10^{-3}cm\;min^{-1}$ with increasing the rate of the FRCM from 0 % to 10.4%, while the Ksat of the bottom layer was maintained as $3.7cm\;min^{-1}$. For the double-layered soil columns, the $K_{sat}$ decreased with increasing rate of FRCM at the upper layer from $1.7{\times}10^{-3}cm\;min^{-1}$ to $8{\times}10^{-4}cm\;min^{-1}$ as the rate of organic matter increased from 0 % to 10.4 %, while it took almost 7 days to 64 days to obtain the steady state $K_{sat}$ The elution patterns of $NO_3{^-}$-N and $NH_4{^+}$-N showed that the amounts of both $NO_3{^-}$-N and $NH_4{^+}$-N rapidly approached to the maximum ranging from $14.8mmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ to $0.58mmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ as the rate of FRCM decreased from 10.7 % to 0 % which is equivalent to indigenous amount of $NO_3{^-}$-N and $NH_4{^+}$-N. And the amounts of $NO_3{^-}$-N were approximately three or four time than those of $NH_4{^+}$-N, indicating that the transformation rate of $NO_3{^-}$-N was improved by the higher FRCM rate. Thus, the ability of a soil to supply N can be predicted from its mineralization parameters and leaching potentials influenced by water flow regime in soil.

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Treatment of Contaminated Sediment for Water Quality Improvement of Small-scale Reservoir (소하천형 호수의 수질개선을 위한 퇴적저니 처리방안 연구)

  • 배우근;이창수;정진욱;최동호
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2002
  • Pollutants from industry, mining, agriculture, and other sources have contaminated sediments in many surface water bodies. Sediment contamination poses a severe threat to human health and environment because many toxic contaminants that are barely detectable in the water column can accumulate in sediments at much higher levels. The purpose of this study was to make optimal treatment and disposal plan o( sediment for water quality improvement in small-scale resevoir based on an evaluation of degree of contamination. The degree of contamination were investigated for 23 samples of 9 site at different depth of sediment in small-scale J river. Results for analysis of contaminated sediments were observed that copper concentration of 4 samples were higher than the regulation of hazardous waste (3 mg/L) and that of all samples were exceeded soil pollution warning levels for agricultural areas. Lead and mercury concentration of all samples were detected below both regulations. Necessary of sediment dredge was evaluated for organic matter and nutrient through standard levels of Paldang lake and the lower Han river in Korea and Tokyo bay and Yokohama bay in Japan. The degree of contamination for organic matter and nutrient was not serious. Compared standard levels of Japan, America, and Canada for heavy metal, contaminated sediment was concluded as lowest effect level or limit of tolerance level because standard levels of America and Canada was established worst effect of benthic organisms. The optimal treatment method of sediment contained heavy metal was cement-based solidification/stabilization to prevent heavy metal leaching.

An Investigation of Treatment Effects of Limestone and Steel Refining Slag for Stabilization of Arsenic and Heavy Metal in the Farmland Soils nearby Abandoned Metal Mine (폐금속 광산 주변 비소 및 중금속 오염농경지의 안정화 처리를 위한 석회석과 제강슬래그의 처리효과 검토)

  • Yun, Sung-Wook;Kang, Sin-Il;Jin, Hae-Geun;Kim, Ha-Jin;Lim, Young-Cheol;Yi, Ji-Min;Yu, Chan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.734-744
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    • 2011
  • A soil stabilization method is an effective and practical remediation alternative for arsenic (As) and heavy metal contaminated farmland soils nearby abandoned metal mine in Korea. This method is a technique whereby amendments are incorporated and mixed with a contaminated soil. Toxic metal bind to the amendments, which reduce their mobility in soil, so the successful stabilization of multi-element contaminated soil depends on the combination of critical elements in the soil and the type of amendments. The objective of this study is to investigate the treatment effects and applicability of limestone (LS) and steel refining slag (SRS) as the amendment for farmland soil contaminated with As and heavy metals, and a lab-column test was conducted for achieving this purpose. The result showed that soil treated with LS and SRS maintained pH buffer capacity and, as a result, the heavy metal leaching concentration was quite low below the water quality standard compared to untreated soil which leachate exceeding the water quality standard was observed, however, the arsenic concentration rather increased with increasing mixture ratio of SRS. This was believed to be related to phosphorus (P) contained in SRS, and dominancy in the competitive adsorption relation between As and P binding strongly to iron might be different according to soil characteristic. We suggested that LS is a effective amendment for reducing heavy metals in soil, and SRS should be used after investigating its applicability based on the adsorption selectivity of arsenic and phosphorus in selected soil.