• Title, Summary, Keyword: colon cancer

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Elevated Mean Platelet Volume is Associated with Presence of Colon Cancer

  • Li, Jia-Ying;Li, Ying;Jiang, Zheng;Wang, Rui-Tao;Wang, Xi-Shan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10501-10504
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colon cancer is the second most common cancer in developed countries. Activated platelets play a key role in inflammation and atherothrombosis, with mean platelet volume (MPV) is an early marker of platelet activation. The aim of the study was to clarify the relevance of MPV in patients with colon cancer. Materials and Methods: We measured MPV levels in 128 patients with colon cancer before and after surgery, and 128 controls matched for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colon cancer were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses across MPV quartiles. Results: Patients with colon cancer had higher MPV compared with controls. Surgical tumor resection resulted in a significant decrease in MPV levels (11.4 fL vs 10.7 fL; p<0.001). A positive correlation between MPV and tumor-nodule-metastases (TNM) stage was found. Furthermore, after adjusting for other risk factors, the ORs (95%CIs) for colon cancer according to MPV quartiles were 1.000, 2.238 (1.014-4.943), 3.410 (1.528-7.613), and 5.379 (2.372-12.198), respectively. Conclusions: The findings show that patients with colon cancer have higher MPV levels compared with controls, and these are reduced after surgery. In addition, MPV was found to be independently associated with the presence of colon cancer. Further studies are warranted to assess the utility of MPV as a novel diagnostic screening tool for colon cancer.

Associations of Probiotics with Vitamin D and Leptin Receptors and their Effects on Colon Cancer

  • Ranji, Peyman;Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl;Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3621-3627
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    • 2015
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that microbial and environmental factors including diet and lifestyle can impact on colon cancer development. Vitamin D deficiency and dysfunction of vitamin D receptor (VDR) also correlate with colon cancer. Moreover, leptin, a 16-kDa polypeptide, participates in the regulation of food intake and is associated with other environmental factors affecting colon cancer through the leptin receptor. Altered levels of serum leptin and patterns of expression of its receptor (LPR) may be observed in human colon tumours. Furthermore, the collected data from in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that consuming probiotic non-pathogenic lactic acid bacteria have beneficial effects on colon cancer. Probiotics, inflammation and vitamin D/VDR have been correlated with leptin and its receptor and are also with colon cancer. Thus, in this paper, we review recent progress on the roles of probiotic, vitamin D/VDR and leptin/LPR in inflammation and colon cancer.

The Role of Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group H Member 4 (NR1H4) in Colon Cancer Cell Survival through the Regulation of c-Myc Stability

  • Lee, Yun Jeong;Lee, Eun-Young;Choi, Bo Hee;Jang, Hyonchol;Myung, Jae-Kyung;You, Hye Jin
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.459-468
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    • 2020
  • Nuclear receptor subfamily group H member 4 (NR1H4), also known as farnesoid X receptor, has been implicated in several cellular processes in the liver and intestine. Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested a role of NR1H4 in colon cancer development; however, how NR1H4 regulates colon cancer cell growth and survival remains unclear. We generated NR1H4 knockout (KO) colon cancer cells using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CAS9) technology and explored the effects of NR1H4 KO in colon cancer cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Interestingly, NR1H4 KO cells showed impaired cell proliferation, reduced colony formation, and increased apoptotic cell death compared to control colon cancer cells. We identified MYC as an important mediator of the signaling pathway alterations induced by NR1H4 KO. NR1H4 silencing in colon cancer cells resulted in reduced MYC protein levels, while NR1H4 activation using an NR1H4 ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid, resulted in time- and dose-dependent MYC induction. Moreover, NR1H4 KO enhanced the anti-cancer effects of doxorubicin and cisplatin, supporting the role of MYC in the enhanced apoptosis observed in NR1H4 KO cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that modulating NR1H4 activity in colon cancer cells might be a promising alternative approach to treat cancer using MYC-targeting agents.

Developing the Predictive Model for the Group at High Risk for Colon Cancer (대장암 발생 고위험군의 예측모형 개발과 활용)

  • Lee, Ae-Kyoung;Park, Il-Soo;Kim, Su-Young;Yoon, Tae-Ho;Jeong, Baek-Geun;Lee, Sang-Yi
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.438-446
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: We developed the predictive model for the incidence of colon cancer by utilizing the health screening data of the National Health Insurance in Korea. We also explored the characteristics of the high risk group for colon cancer. Methods: The predictive model was used to determine those people who have a high risk for colon cancer within 2 years of their NHI health screening, and we excluded the people who had already been treated for cancer or who were cancer patient. The study population is the insured of the NHI, aged 40 or over and they had undergone health screening from the year 2000 to 2004, according to NHI health screening formula. We performed logistic regression analysis and used SAS Enterprise Miner 4.1. Results: This study shows that there exists a higher rate of colon cancer in males than females. Also, for the population in their 60s, the incidence rate of colon cancer is much higher by 5.36 times than that for those people in their 40s. Amongst the behavioral factors, heavy drinking is the most important determinant of the colon cancer incidence (7.39 times in males and 21.51 times in females). Conclusions: Our study confirms that the major influencing factors for the incidence of colon cancer are drinking, lack of exercise, a medical history of colon polypus and a family history of colon cancer. As a result, we can choose the group that is at a high risk for colon cancer and provide customized medical information and selective management services according to their characteristics.

Systemic Therapy for Advanced and Metastatic Colon Cancer (진행성 및 전이성 대장암에서의 전신 항암 치료)

  • Park, Jae Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.73 no.4
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    • pp.202-206
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    • 2019
  • Colon cancer is one of the three most common cancers in both men and women in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Approximately one-quarter of colon cancer patients have a metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and systemic therapy is used in many of them as a first line therapy. In addition to existing cytotoxic drugs, target therapy has been introduced in colon cancer and immunotherapy has shown clinical benefits in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer. The purpose of this review was to briefly summarize the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for systemic therapy in colon cancer with special reference to targeted agents and novel agents.

The oncogenic effects of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) in colon cancer cells

  • Park, Seon-Joo;Kim, Hong Beum;Kim, Jeeho;Park, Sanggon;Kim, Seok Won;Lee, Jung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 2017
  • The p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), initially identified as a gene downstream of p53, plays an important role in the apoptotic process triggered by p53-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Recently, several studies have suggested that PIG3 may play a role in various types of cancer. However, the functional significance of PIG3 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we found that PIG3 was highly expressed in human colon cancer cell lines compared to normal colon-derived fibroblasts. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the functional role of PIG3 in colon cancer. PIG3 overexpression increases the colony formation, migration and invasion ability of HCT116 colon cancer cells. Conversely, these tumorigenic abilities were significantly decreased in in vitro studies with PIG3 knockdown HCT116 cells. PIG3 knockdown also attenuated the growth of mouse xenograft tumors. These results demonstrate that PIG3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and could play a key oncogenic role in colon cancer.

Effects of Duchesnea Indica of Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cells (사매가 대장암 세포에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Do-Hyoung;Kim, Jin-Sung;Yoon, Sang-Hyub;Ryu, Ki-Won;Ryu, Bong-Ha
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.310-319
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: The aim is to identify any anti-tumor effects of Duchesnea indica(Andr.) Focke on colon cancer cells. Materials & Methods: Colo201 human adenocarcinoma cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection. The boiled extract of Duchesnea indica(Andr.) Focke was added (10 and 20 microliters) to cultures and observed at 0, 6, and 12 hours, and at 12-hour intervals thereafter. Morphological changes in colon cancer cells were observed through an inverted microscope, Destruction of colon cancer cells was measured through Trypan blue exclusion testing. Suppression of the viability of colon cancer cells were measured via MTT assay. Anti-cancer mechanisms in the cell cycle of colon cancer cells were analysed via flow cytometry. Results: After introduction of Duchesnea indica(Andr.) Focke to cultures several changes were seen. Significant atrophy of the nucleus and cytoplasm of colon cancer cells was observed, indicating cell injury. Destruction of colon cancer cells was observed in direct proportion to dosage and duration. Suppression of viability of colon cancer cells for each test group was greater than that of the control group increasingly over time(36h, 48h, 60h, 72h), which was statistical significant (p<0.05). Cell numbers of the mitosis phase of the colon cancer cell cycle reduced. Conclusions: Statistcally significant anti-tumor effects of Duchesnea indica(Andr.) Focke were observed in this in vitro experiment. Results support a role for Duchesnea indica(Andr.) Focke in treatment of colon cancer. though it will required progressive research to develop a practical treatment.

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Effect of Luteolin on the Levels of Glycoproteins During Azoxymethane-induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice

  • Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar;Dharmalingam, Prakash;Sadagopan, Suresh Kumar Ananda;Ganapasam, Sudhandiran
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1569-1573
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    • 2012
  • Luteolin (LUT), a bioflavonoid has been used as a chemopreventive agent world-wide against chemically induced cancer. Hence we designed an experiment to assess chemopreventive action of LUT on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glycoconjugates in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer was induced by 15 mg/body kg. body weight of AOM and administration of LUT (at the dose of 1.2 mg/kg. body weight) was till end of the study. Analysis of lipid peroxidative end products such as protein carbonyl (PC), malonadehyde (MDA) and conjucated dienes (CD) demonstrated significant increase in in AOM-induced animals with reduction by LUT (p<0.05). Increased levels of glycoconjugates such as hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose and mucoprotein were analyzed in serum and colon tissues examined histopathologically by periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) staining were also reversed by LUT l(p<0.05). The secondary marker of colon cancer mucin depleted foci (MDF) was assessed in control and experimental group of animals. A characteristic increase of MDF was observed in AOM-induced colon cancer animals. Treatment with LUT decreased the incidence of MDF. These results suggest that LUT alters the expression of glycoconjugates and suppress colon cancer. Hence, we speculate that LUT can be used as a chemopreventive agent to treat colon cancer.

Galectin-3-independent Down-regulation of GABABR1 due to Treatment with Korean Herbal Extract HAD-B Reduces Proliferation of Human Colon Cancer Cells

  • Kim, Kyung-Hee;Kwon, Yong-Kyun;Cho, Chong-Kwan;Lee, Yeon-Weol;Lee, So-Hyun;Jang, Sang-Geun;Yoo, Byong-Chul;Yoo, Hwa-Seong
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Many efforts have shown multi-oncologic roles of galectin-3 for cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which galectin-3 is involved in cell proliferation are not yet fully understood, especially in human colon cancer cells. Methods: To cluster genes showing positively or negatively correlated expression with galectin-3, we employed human colon cancer cell lines, SNU-61, SNU-81, SNU-769B, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 in high-throughput gene expression profiling. Gene and protein expression levels were determined by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The proliferation rate of human colon cancer cells was measured by using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: Expression of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 (GABABR1) showed a positive correlation with galectin-3 at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. Down-regulation of galectin-3 decreased not only GABABR1 expression but also the proliferation rate of human colon cancer cells. However, Korean herbal extract, HangAmDan-B (HAD-B), decreased expression of GABABR1 without any expressional change of galectin-3, and offset ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enhanced human colon cancer cell proliferation. Conclusions: Our present study confirmed that GABABR1 expression was regulated by galectin-3. HAD-B induced galectin-3-independent down-regulation of GABABR1, which resulted in a decreased proliferation of human colon cancer cells. The therapeutic effect of HAD-B for the treatment of human colon cancer needs to be further validated.

Association Between Survivin Gene Polymorphisms and the Susceptibility to Colon Cancer Development in the Turkish Population

  • Yamak, Nesibe;Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz;Yilmaz, Umit;Eroz, Recep;Uzunlar, Ali Kemal;Ankarali, Handan;Sahiner, Cem;Baltaci, Davut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8963-8967
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    • 2014
  • Background: Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Apoptosis is a necessary physiological process for cell elimination which is very important both cellular homeostasis and cell proliferation and differantiation. Dysregulation can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor development. Survivin, a member of the IAP family, plays a key role in promotion of cell proliferation as well as inhibition of apoptosis in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific genetic polymorphisms of survivin could be associated with colon cancer development and progression in a Turkish population. Our study is the first to our knowledge to investigate the relationship between colon cancer risk and survivin gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: The relation between colon cancer and survivin -31 G/C (rs9904341), -241 C/T (rs17878467) and -625 C/G (rs8073069) polymorphism in promotor site of survivin gene associated with apoptosis was investigated using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: Individuals with -31C allele and CC genotype were found to have a higher risk of developing colon cancer (OR=13.4, p=0.01). The -241 CT genotype considerably increased the risk of colon cancer (OR=12.0, p=0.0001). However, there was no significant varaition of the survivin -625 C/G polymorphism among colon cancer patients and controls in our study. Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that survivin -31 G/C and -241 C/T SNP significantly contribute to the risk of colon cancer in the Turkish population.