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Multidimensional Poverty Analysis of Elderly Households by Cohort (노인가구의 코호트별 다차원빈곤 분석)

  • Kim, Soon-Mi;Cho, Kyung-Jin
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.51-71
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed the poverty rate by poverty dimension, correlation between multidimensional poverty, variables that affected the number of poverty dimension and the probability of the poor or not. The sample consisted of 6,361 elderly households (1,561 baby boom birth cohort, 1,793 post-liberation birth cohort, 3,007 Japanese colonial period birth cohort) taken from the $12^{th}$ Korean Welfare Panel Study. First, the highest poverty rate among the baby boom birth cohort was 62.8% of employment poverty. The highest rate among the post-liberation birth cohort and Japanese colonial period birth cohort, was 82.5%, 92.3% of health poverty, respectively. Second, the highest coefficient in the baby boom birth cohort was .354 for asset poverty and relation poverty. In the remaining two cohorts, the coefficient for asset poverty and relation poverty was the highest at .268, .284, respectively. Third, the average number of poverty dimensions was 2.318 of the baby boom birth cohort, 2.921 of the post-liberation birth cohort, 3.564 of the poverty in the Japanese colonial period birth cohort. Also, the poverty rate for each cohort was 20.179%, 28.779%, and 50.083%, respectively. Fourth, the significant variables in all cohorts were gender, education, marital status, residence, and equalized ordinary income for the multiple regression analysis on the number of poverty dimensions. Additionally, age of the post-liberation birth cohort was significant, age and family numbers of the Japanese colonial period birth cohort were significant. Significant variables in logistic analysis on the probability of poverty or not were the same as those of regression analysis.

Review on Cohort Projects in Domestic and Overseas and Establishment of Cohort on Korean Medicine (국내외 코호트 사업 고찰 및 한의학 코호트 구축)

  • Kim, Jiyoung;Baek, Younghwa;Lee, Siwoo;Ko, Kwang Pil;Yoo, Jonghyang
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : In this study, we investigated the trends of cohort project in domestic and overseas, and suggested the necessity of cohort on korean medicine and the direction of research. Methods : The papers which include cohort in the title and published by 2015 were searched using PubMed. In order to study the history of cohort in domestic and overseas, research trend was investigated based on the websites of each cohort projects and traditional medicine searching engine named OASIS. Results : Using PubMed, 42,802 papers were searched. Most of the studies over 50 % of total articles, however, were conducted in these 6 years. Nevertheless, cohort studies are being actively proceed, the korean medicine based on cohort studies are nonexistent. Therefore, further discussion about cohort study on korean medicine is necessary to gather physiological index and clinical index of korean medicine consistently. Conclusions : Systematically constructed cohort on korean medicine would be the foundation which collects information, such as gene information, bio information, dietary habit, life style, and Pattern identification (辨證), and integrates them. The analysis of massive clinical materials could suggest the basis of Prevention and treatment of korean medicine considering the difference between personal.

Statistical Issues in Genomic Cohort Studies (유전체 코호트 연구의 주요 통계학적 과제)

  • Park, So-Hee
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.108-113
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    • 2007
  • When conducting large-scale cohort studies, numerous statistical issues arise from the range of study design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. In genomic cohort studies, these statistical problems become more complicated, which need to be carefully dealt with. Rapid technical advances in genomic studies produce enormous amount of data to be analyzed and traditional statistical methods are no longer sufficient to handle these data. In this paper, we reviewed several important statistical issues that occur frequently in large-scale genomic cohort studies, including measurement error and its relevant correction methods, cost-efficient design strategy for main cohort and validation studies, inflated Type I error, gene-gene and gene-environment interaction and time-varying hazard ratios. It is very important to employ appropriate statistical methods in order to make the best use of valuable cohort data and produce valid and reliable study results.

Ethical Considerations in Genomic Cohort Study (유전체 코호트 연구의 윤리적 고려 사항)

  • Choi, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Ock-Joo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.122-129
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    • 2007
  • During the last decade, genomic cohort study has been developed in many countries by linking health data and genetic data in stored samples. Genomic cohort study is expected to find key genetic components that contribute to common diseases, thereby promising great advance in genome medicine. While many countries endeavor to build biobank systems, biobank-based genome research has raised important ethical concerns including genetic privacy, confidentiality, discrimination, and informed consent. Informed consent for biobank poses an important question: whether true informed consent is possible in population-based genomic cohort research where the nature of future studies is unforeseeable when consent is obtained. Due to the sensitive character of genetic information, protecting privacy and keeping confidentiality become important topics. To minimize ethical problems and achieve scientific goals to its maximum degree, each country strives to build population-based genomic cohort research project, by organizing public consultation, trying public and expert consensus in research, and providing safeguards to protect privacy and confidentiality.

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Liver Cancer Mortality in Korea

  • Park, Jihwan;Jee, Yon Ho
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8589-8594
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    • 2016
  • Background: Liver cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world. In Korea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for liver cancer but infection rates have been declining since the implementation of the national vaccination program. In this study, we examined the secular trends in liver cancer mortality to distinguish the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. Materials and Methods: Data for the annual number of liver cancer deaths in Korean adults (30 years and older) were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service for the period from 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to study the shapes of and to detect the changes in mortality trends. Also, an age-period-cohort model was designed to study the effect of each age, period, and birth cohort on liver cancer mortality. Results: For both men and women, the age-standardized mortality rate for liver cancer increased from 1984 to 1993 and decreased thereafter. The highest liver cancer mortality rate has shifted to an older age group in recent years. Within the same birth cohort group, the mortality rate of older age groups has been higher than in the younger age groups. Age-period-cohort analysis showed an association with a high mortality rate in the older age group and in recent years, whereas a decreasing mortality rate were observed in the younger birth cohort. Conclusions: This study confirmed a decreasing trend in liver cancer mortality among Korean men and women after 1993. The trends in mortality rate may be mainly attributed to cohort effects.

Recent Decrease in Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rate is Affected by Birth Cohort in Korea

  • Jee, Yonho;Oh, Chang-Mo;Shin, Aesun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3951-3955
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer mortality has started to decrease in several developed countries in Asia. The current study aimed to present the long-term trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Korea using joinpoint analysis and age-period-cohort modeling. Materials and Methods: The number of colorectal cancer deaths and the population for each 5-year age group were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013 for adults 30 years and older. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to determine changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates, and age-period-cohort analysis was performed to describe trends in colorectal cancer mortality using the intrinsic estimator method. Results: In men, the age-standardized mortality rate for colorectal cancer increased from 1984 to 2003, and the mortality rates stabilized thereafter, whereas the mortality rate of colorectal cancer in women has decreased since 2004. The age-specific mortality rate of colorectal cancer increased in both men and women over time, whereas decreases in the age-specific mortality rate in younger cohorts were observed. In the age-period-cohort analysis, old age and recent period were associated with higher mortality for both men and women. The birth cohort born after 1919 showed reduced colorectal cancer mortality in both men and women. Conclusions: Our study showed a recent decreasing trend in colorectal cancer mortality in women and a stable trend in men after 2003-2004. These changes in colorectal cancer mortality may be attributed to birth cohort effects.

Cohort Study for Investigation of the Causes in Agricultural Injuries and Diseases (농작업재해의 원인구명 및 코호트 구축방안)

  • Lim, Hyun-Sul
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.119-144
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    • 2006
  • The Korea rural health study, a large prospective cohort study, the objectives of this study are exploration for potential causes of agricultural injuries and diseases among farmers. Current medical research suggests that they may have higher rates of some traumatic injuries, pesticide poisoning, infectious diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, asthma and other respiratory diseases. This study is designed to identify occupational, lifestyle, and environmental factors of workplace that may affect the rate of diseases in farming population. Round 1, initial cohort recruitment, will begin in 2006 and conclude in 2009. Round 2, follow-up will begin in 2010 and conclude in 2014. Approximately 54,000 persons will be selected to study population. Nested case-control studies and case-crossover studies will be conducted for getting to the bottom of agriculture-related diseases. Recruitment and follow-up are conducted in collaboration with multi-centers. As data on the exposures and health outcomes of this study population are collected and analyzed in 2014. This study will be evaluated by public health experts for effort, achievement, adequacy of performance, efficacy, process of study and so on. The author expects that this cohort study may reduce agricultural injuries and diseases and will provide information that agricultural workers can use in making decisions about their health. Also, this study will be significant basis for strengthening the competitiveness of agriculture in Korea.

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Strategy Considerations in Genome Cohort Construction in Korea (한국 유전체 코호트 구축의 전략적 고려사항)

  • Sung, Joo-Hon;Cho, Sung-Il
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2007
  • Focusing on complex diseases of public health significance, strategic issues regarding the on-going Korean Genome Cohort were reviewed: target size and diseases, measurements, study design issues, and follow-up strategy of the cohort. Considering the epidemiologic characteristics of Korean population as well as strengths and drawbacks of current research environment, we tried to tailor the experience of other existing cohorts into proposals for this Korean study. Currently 100,000 individuals have been participating the new Genome Cohort in Korea. Target size of de novo collection is recommended to be set as between 300,000 to 500,000. This target size would allow acceptable power to detect genetic and environmental factors of moderate effect size and possible interactions between them. Family units and/or special subgroups are recommended to parallel main body of adult individuals to increase the overall efficiency of the study. Given that response rate to the conventional re-contact method may not be satisfactory, successful follow-up is the main key to the achievement of the Korean Genome Cohort. Access to the central database such as National Health Insurance data can provide enormous potential for near-complete case detection. Efforts to build consensus amongst scientists from broad fields and stakeholders are crucial to unleash the centralized database as well as to refine the commitment of this national project.

Age-period-cohort Analysis of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Japan, 1995-2018

  • Okui, Tasuku
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.198-204
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the mortality of heart disease (HD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) through an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Methods: We used data on mortality due to cardiovascular disease from 1995 to 2018 in Japan, as determined by Vital Statistics. Age groups from 0 years to 99 years were defined by 5-year increments, and cohorts were defined for each age group of each year with a 1-year shift. We used Bayesian APC analysis to decompose the changes in the diseases' mortality rates into age, period, and cohort effects. Results: The period effects for all diseases decreased during the analyzed periods for both men and women. The cohort effects for men increased substantially in cohorts born from around 1940 to the 1970s for all types of cardiovascular diseases. The cohort effects of HD decreased in the cohorts born in the 1970s or later for both men and women. Regarding IHD and CeVD, either a non-increase or decrease of cohort effects was confirmed for cohorts born in the 1970s or later for men, but the effects for women showed a continuously increasing trend in the cohorts born in the 1960s or later. Conclusions: The cohort effects for IHD and CeVD showed increasing trends in younger generations of women. This suggests that preventive approaches against cardiovascular diseases are needed, particularly for women.

Cancer Incidence in Asbestos-Exposed Workers: An Update on Four Finnish Cohorts

  • Nynas, Pia;Pukkala, Eero;Vainio, Harri;Oksa, Panu
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2017
  • Background: We assessed the cancer risks of four different Finnish asbestos-exposed cohorts. We also explored if the cohorts with varying profiles of asbestos exposure exhibited varying relative risks of cancer. Methods: The incident cancer cases for the asbestos-exposed worker cohorts were updated to the end of 2012 using the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry. The previously formed cohorts consisted of asbestos mine workers, asbestosis patients, asbestos sprayers, and workers who had taken part in a screening study based on asbestos exposure at work. Results: The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for mesothelioma varied from about threefold to > 100-fold in the different cohorts. In the screening cohort the SIR for mesothelioma was highest in 2003-2007, In other cohorts it was more constant in 5-year period inspection. The SIR for lung cancer was about twofold to tenfold in all except the screening cohort. Asbestos sprayers were at the highest risk of mesothelioma and lung cancer. Conclusion: The SIR for mesothelioma is high in all of the cohorts that represent different kinds of asbestos exposure. The smaller SIR for mesothelioma in the screening cohort with lowest level of asbestos exposure might suggest dose-responsiveness between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma. It does seem that the highest risk of lung cancer in these cohorts except in the youngest of the cohorts, the screening cohort, is over. The highest SIR for lung cancer of the asbestosis patient and sprayers cohort is explained by their heavy asbestos exposure.