• Title, Summary, Keyword: cohort analysis

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Relevance of Serum Vitamin D and Indices Related To Cardiovascular Disease Among Korean Adults (한국 성인의 혈청 비타민 D 수준과 심혈관 질환 관련 지표와의 관련성)

  • Kim, Han-Soo;Ryu, So-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.365-374
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    • 2018
  • This study investigated the relationship between Vitamin D levels and indices related to cardiovascular disease in Korean adults aged ${\geq}19years$. The data for analysis were obtained from the sixth Korea National Health Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that the incidence of Vitamin D deficiency was 73.1% among Korean adults and that indices related to cardiovascular disease showed an increasing trend (55.6% of Korean adults). The relationship between Vitamin D levels and indices related to cardiovascular disease with controlled physical activity status was also studied. The odds ratios (ORs) for age were 1.72 for the 4-62 years age group (95% CI, 1.53-1.93) and 2.05 for the ${\geq}65years$ age group (95% CI, 1.71-2.45). For blood pressure, the OR for pre-hypertension was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and that for hypertension was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.11-1.54). For body mass index (BMI), the OR was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.66) and that for waist circumference (WC) was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.66). For fasting blood sugar (FBS), the OR for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.21-1.55) and that for diabetes mellitus (DM) was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.05-1.65). The OR for total cholesterol (TC) was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.11-1.52) and that for triglycerides (TG) was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.04-1.37) in Korean adults. There was a significant relationship between Vitamin D and indices related to cardiovascular disease in Korean adults with respect to age, blood pressure, FBS, BMI, TC and TG. Confirmation of a causal relationship between Vitamin D and indices related to cardiovascular disease may require further research consisting of more systematic cohort studies.

Evaluation of the Congenital Hypothyroidism for Newborn Screening Program in Korea: A 14-year Retrospective Cohort Study (한국인 선천성 갑상선기능저하증에 대한 신생아선별검사의 14년간의 후향적 연구; 발생빈도와 유효성)

  • Yoon, Hye-Ran;Ahn, Sunhyun;Lee, Hyangja
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common congenital endocrine disorder. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of CH in South Korea during the period from January 1991 to March 2004. Methods: Central data from each city branch of SCL (Seoul Clinical Reference Laboratories) in Yongin, South Korea, was gathered and collectively analyzed. Newborn screening (NBS) for CH was based on measuring the levels of neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 (a cut-off of 20 mIU/L and less than 0.8 ng/dL, respectively). Results: During the study period, 671,805 live births were screened for CH based on TSH and free T4 ELISA assays. A total of 159 newborns were deemed positive for CH out of 671,805, with a corresponding incidence of 1 in 4,225. When a cut-off of 20 mIU/L was used in TSH assays, the associated sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values (PPV) were 100.0%, 99.7%, and 10.8%, respectively. When a cut-off of 0.8 ng/dL in free T4 assays was used, the associated sensitivity, specificity, and PPV were 100.0%, 98.5%, and 3.9%, respectively. Conclusion: CH incidence in South Korea as evidenced by the results of NBS was compared with its incidence and comparable to the other countries prior to 2004.

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Predictors of breast-feeding discontinuation in some followed-up hospital-delivered mothers (추적조사된 대구시내 일부 병원분만 산모에서 모유수유중단 예측변수)

  • Lee, Choong-Won;Lee, Moo-Sik;Park, Jong-Won;Lee, Mi-Young;Kang, Mi-Joung;Shin, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Se-Youp
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.845-862
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    • 1995
  • We followed prospectively some hospital-delivered mothers to identify characteristics of those not initiated breast-feeding and predictors of breast-feeding discontinuation in monthly telephone interviews. Recruits were composed of 482 mothers who delivered their babies at one university hospital and one OB/GYN clinic in September to November 1991. Breast-feeding discontinuation was defined as switch to 100% formula lasting more than one week regardless of solid foods. Average age of the study subjects was 27.3 years of age(standard deviation 3.2). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated native place, occupation, method of delivery and method of feeding considered to be better for maternal health were statistically significant(p<0.1) between initiators and non-initiators of breast feeding. In starting cohort(N=242) of those initiated breast-feeding, that median of breast-feeding discontinuation were 5 months and 25th and 75th percentiles were 3 and 9 months respectively. In Cox's proportional hazard model, mothers with $10\sim13$ years of education were 2.63 times (95% confidence interval, CI $1.50\sim4.60$) more likely to discontinue than those with less than 9 years of education and those with more than 13 years of education were 3.55 time (95% CI $1.99\sim6.33$). Compared with house wife, mothers with part-time jobs were 1.99 times (95% CI $0.86\sim4.57$) more likely to discontinue and those with employed full-time were 1.55 times (95% CI $0.96\sim2.51$). These results suggest that the predictors of initiation and discontinuation of breast-feeding may be different and different target populations should be selected to promote initiation and to prevent discontinuation of breast-feeding according to the period after birth.

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Relevance of Vitamin D and Dyslipidemia Among Korean Adults - Using Data from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013~2014 (한국 성인의 비타민 D 수준과 이상지질혈증과의 관련성 - 제 6기(2013년, 2014년) 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • kim, han-soo;Han, Yeo-Jung;Kim, Byung-Cheol;Ryu, So-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.647-656
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between vitamin D level and dyslipidemia in Korean adults aged 19 years and older. The data for analysis were obtained from the sixth Korea National Health Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 and 2014. Result: This study showed that 74.4% of the specified adult population had vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was found to be 39.6% in the same population. Dyslipidemia differed significantly according to gender (p<0.001), age (p<0.001), smoking status (p<0.001), subjective health status (p<0.001), BMI (p<0.001), blood pressure (p<0.001), FBS (p<0.001), physical activity (p<0.001), and vitamin D level (p<0.001). When vitamin D deficiency was less than 20.0 ng/mL, there was a significant risk of dyslipidemia with an odds ratio of 1.29 (95% Cl, 1.11-1.51). The relationship between vitamin D level and a diagnosis index of dyslipidemia with controlled status of physical activity was statistically significant; in Korean adults, the odds ratio for total cholesterol was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.04-1.81) and for triglyceride was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.66). Conclusion: Our results showed the relationship between vitamin D level and dyslipidemia was significant in Korean adults, and total cholesterol and triglycerides, which are indicators of dyslipidemia, was significant. Future studies, such as a more systematic cohort study investigating the relationship between vitamin D level and dyslipidemia may be helpful in confirming the causal relationship between vitamin D and dyslipidemia.

Efficacy of Nutritional Therapy in Children with Crohn Disease (소아 크론병에서 영양 치료의 효과)

  • Suh, Hyun Ah;Kim, Sung Eun;Jang, Joo Young;Kim, Bong Jin;Kim, Joon Sung;Lee, Sun Youn;Chang, Soo Hee;Kim, Kyung Mo
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Crohn disease (CD) in children is frequently complicated by malnutrition and growth retardation. Conventional treatment with corticosteroid may also affect the growth of children, which may be alleviated by nutritional therapy. Therefore, we performed this study to evaluate the role of nutritional therapy in the treatment of CD in children. Methods: The study cohort consisted of thirty children under the age of 17 years, admitted to the Asan Medical Center from 2001 to 2005. While 11 children received nutritional therapy (NT) with an elemental diet, 19 received conventional corticosteroid therapy (ST). Comparative analysis was performed for the rate of the induction of remission, recurrence, disease activity index of pre and post-treatment, and changes of the growth using mean standard deviation score for weight (zW) and height (zH). Results: Ten of 11 children with NT and 18 of 19 children with ST completed the therapy. Two of them were lost to follow-up during the treatment. All 10 children with NT and 15 of 18 children with ST achieved remission. While there was no recurrence in children with NT, 7 with ST showed recurrence within 1 year. Pre- and post treatment Pediatric Crohn disease Activity Index (PCDAI) did not show a difference between the two groups. There were no differences in zW and zH between the two groups after 1 year of follow-up. Conclusion: This study showed that nutritional therapy could be considered instead of steroid therapy for treatment of children with CD. However, a long-term study will be needed to determine the long-term efficacy.

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Intake of Antioxidant Nutrients and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome according to Degree of Stress in Rural Korean Women (한국 농촌 여성의 스트레스 정도에 따른 항산화 영양소 섭취와 대사증후군 위험도)

  • Yoon, Jungwon;Shin, Yoonjin;Kang, Bori;Byeon, Suji;Kim, Soo A;Kim, Yangha
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.7
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    • pp.868-875
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    • 2017
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant nutrient intake and risk of metabolic syndrome based on stress level in rural Korean women. Subject were participants from the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study, which was a part of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. According to scores of the Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short-Form, a total of 10,111 subjects were classified into 'low stress group (n=8,015)' from 0 to 26 points and 'high stress group (n=2,096)' above 27 points. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemical analysis. Dietary nutrient consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. High stress group showed lower intake of antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, zinc, and carotene compared to the low stress group. Intake of fruits and vegetable was lower in the high stress group compared to the low stress group. Subjects with high stress showed higher risk of hypertension [odd ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.226 (1.112~1.351)] and hypertriglyceridemia [OR, 95% CI=1.227 (1.110~1.356)] than subjects with low stress. High stress group had a significantly greater odds ratio for metabolic syndrome compared with the low stress group [OR, 95% CI=1.216 (1.101~1.342]). Thus, the present study suggests that high stress might be associated with low intake of antioxidant nutrients and high risk of metabolic syndrome in rural Korean women.

Relationship between Intake of Milk and Milk Products and Bone Health by Sex and Age-Group in Koreans - Using Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008~2011 (성별, 연령별에 따른 우유·유제품 섭취와 골 건강과의 관련성 - 2008~2011 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Baek, Sang Woo;Lee, Heon Ok;Kim, Hyun Ja;Won, Eun Sook;Ha, Young Sik;Shin, Yong Kook;Om, Ae Son
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.513-522
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to examine the relationships between milk and milk product intake and bone health. The data from the 2008~2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used for data analysis. Subjects included 4,626 men and 6,144 women aged 19 to 64 years. Daily intake frequency of milk and milk products was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and divided into two categories: less than one serving per day and more than one serving per day. Bone mineral density (BMD) values of total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were compared based on daily intake frequency, and relationships between milk and milk product daily intake frequency and osteoporosis risk were evaluated based on logistic regression. In men aged 30~39, BMDs of total femur and femoral neck were significantly higher in the group that consumed milk more than one serving per day (P<0.05). Intake frequency of milk and milk products was also significantly related to both BMDs of total femur and femoral neck. The odds ratio (OR) for milk intake frequency (more than one serving per day) compared to intake frequency less than one serving per day was 0.36 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21~0.62], and the OR for milk and milk products intake frequency (more than one serving per day) was 0.49 (95% CI 0.28~0.86) in women aged 50~64. These results indicate that increased consumption of milk and its products is associated with reduced risk of bone health disease, and adequate intakes of milk and milk products might play an important role in maintaining optimum bone health. Further research on the causal relationship and dose-response association between milk intake and bone heath using prospective cohort data is required prior to applying the observed results to programs that prevent bone health problems.

Effects on cooperative spirit of a cohort by instruction types of Taekwondo (태권도 지도자의 지도유형이 집단응집력에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Chan-Sam
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.13
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    • pp.471-485
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    • 2007
  • This study is performed to find out what type instructions are produced to players by coaches and what effects are resulted in cooperative spirit of the concerned group. Furthermore the study has its aims at advancing instructors' skills by using finding of it. The study used 'SPSS 11.0 FOR WINDOW - Statistical Package' to analyze the collected samples and dealt with data of 174 individuals. Statistical analysis of the research for hypothesis verification was about frequency, trust level, mutual relationship, variables, and T-verification. The meaningful level for any result was ranged within 95%(p< .05), 99%(p<.01). The finding are as follows. Effects on pleasure, one of elements of team spirits taken by instructor's training style are analyzed as follows. It was proved to be meaningful in relation with a series of activities like training, democratic, social, compensatory aspects and showed also considerable relation with power based behaviors. That says, players are found to enjoy high pleasure when social and bureaucratic behaviors of instructors are very energetic. In addition to that, training, democratic, and compensatory activities didn't show any meaningful effect. Team spirit was found to play a main role between instructor's behaviors and training, democratic, social rewarding activities. Democratic and social acts influence on team spirit. Looking into the detailed aspects, team spirit was resulted very high in the individuals with low democratic mind and was shown high group spirit by groups with high sociable activities. Teamworks was found to be affected by relation between instructor's acts and training, democratic, social and compensatory aspects and it showed meaningful relations with training, social, bureaucratic behaviors. Low degree of training and bureaucratic activities are found to prefer for power team spirit, and high social activities led a strong teamworks. Group binding spirit was influenced by training, democratic, social compensatory, bureaucratic behaviors and it showed to give effects on democratic, social, and bureaucratic activities of instructors. Low degree of democratic and bureaucratic behaviors are found to produce strong team spirit. In contrast with that, strong social activities was found to be motive of powerful team spirit. Value of team spirit was found to play a main role between instructor's behaviors and training, democratic, social, rewarding activities. It didn't show any meaningful effect on behavior of instructors.

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The prevalences of asthma and allergic diseases in Korean children (한국 소아알레르기 질환의 유병률)

  • Hong, Soo-Jong;Ahn, Kang-Mo;Lee, Soo-Young;Kim, Kyu-Earn
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2008
  • Asthma and allergic diseases are one of the most common disorders in children. Due to its increased prevalence, as well as the increased morbidity and mortality from these diseases, asthma and allergic diseases have come to be recognized as a major worldwide public health issue. In addition, socioeconomic burden of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in Korea also. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) investigated the worldwide prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases using simple standardized methods because of the comparison of asthma and allergic diseases between the countries. In Korea, several epidemiologic studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of asthma in children. Although these studies showed increased prevalence of asthma among Korean children (from 3.4% in 1964 to 10.1% in 1989), these findings were based on data from small numbers of subjects. The first Nationwide Study of Asthma and Allergies in Korean Children, which utilized the Korean version of ISAAC written and video questionnaire, was conducted in 1995 and the second Nationwide Study of Asthma and Allergies in Korean Children was conducted in 2000, directed by the Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Diseases. We report here the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in Korean children and adolescents, and show the changes that occurred over this 5 year period. We also describe the risk factors for development of these diseases in Korean children. We developed Korean versions of the ISAAC written (WQ) and video (AVQ) questionnaires for allergic diseases. In 1995, the enrolled population consisted of 25,117 children selected from 34 elementary school and 14,946 children selected from 34 middle school across the nation, the response rate was 94.8%. In 2000, 27,831 children selected from 34 elementary school and 15,214 children selected from 34 middle school, and the response rate was 96.4%. From these studies, we can confirm that increase of the prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in Korea, except the prevalence of food allergy. Especially, the video questionnaire showed increases in the lifetime and 12 month prevalence rates of wheeze at rest, exercise-induced wheeze, nocturnal wheeze, nocturnal cough, and severe wheeze over this period of time in middle school children. In addition, the increase of prevalences of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis was noted significantly. Risk factor analysis showed that body mass index (BMI), passive smoking and living with a dog or cat were associated with higher risk of wheeze. Also the occurrence of fever during infancy and the frequent use of antibiotics were associated with the risk of wheeze. In conclusion, during the 5 year period from 1995 to 2000, the prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis has increased in Korean children. BMI, passive smoking, living with a dog or cat, the fever episodes in infancy, and the frequent use of antibiotics in infancy are important risk factors to development of asthma and atopic dermatitis. In the near future, the birth cohort study will be needed to investigate the causes of this increase and the natural course of allergic diseases, then we develop the methods to control asthma and allergic diseases.

The Role of Immunohistochemical Biomarkers as Prognostic Factors by the Use of a Tissue Microarray in Breast Cancer Patients Under 45-years-old (45세 이하의 유방암환자에서 조직미세배열법을 이용한 면역조직화학적 생체표지자의 역할)

  • Kim, Eun-Seog;Choi, Doo-Ho;Jin, So-Young;Lee, Dong-Wha;Park, Hee-Sook;Lee, Min-Hyuk;Won, Jong-Ho;Kim, Yong-Ho;Lee, Kyu-Taek;Kim, Sung-Yong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study evaluates the association of estrogen receptor(ER), progesterone receptor(PR), Her-2, COX-2, and survivin with the clinicopathological features and outcomes in young Korean women with breast cancer using recently developed tissue microarray(TMA) technology. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 212 young patients with breast cancer diagnosed at the age of 45 years or younger from March 1994 to August 2005, were enrolled in this study. The age range of patients was $23{\sim}45$ years(median age, 39 years). The minimum and median follow-up periods were 24 months and 60 months, respectively. Serial sections of primary tumors were processed by the use of a TMA for immunohistochemical staining for five biomarkers. The correlation of these five biomarkers and the clinicopathological features and outcomes were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: The majority of the patients were stage T1(90 patients) or T2(101 patients), and 105 patients(49.5%) had an axillary node metastasis. The 5-year overall and relapse free survival rates for all of the patients were 90.4% and 82.3%, respectively, and 36 patients had a locoregional or distant metastasis as a first event. Positive expression of ER, PR, Her-2, COX-2, and survivin was determined in 38.2%, 45.3%, 25.9%, 41.5%, and 43.4%, of the tumor samples, respectively. Tumor stage, nodal status, age, as well as expression of ER, PR, and HER-2 status were significantly associated with the disease free survival rate. Tumor stage, nodal status, as well as expression of ER, PR, and HER-2 were significantly related with the overall survival rate. Expression of COX-2 and survivin were not single independent prognostic factors for the disease free and overall survival rate although co-expression of HER-2 and COX-2 had a tendency as a poor prognostic factor. By multivariate analysis, only T stage and lymph node status were significant prognostic factors, and ER status was a marginally significant prognostic factor(p=0.075). Conclusion: Expression of ER, PR and HER-2 were significant prognostic factors for the relapse free and overall survival rate. Expression of COX-2 and survivin were not prognostic factors for young women with breast cancer.