• Title, Summary, Keyword: cohort analysis

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Characteristic and Pattern of Food and Cultural Background - Focused on Cohort Effect - (한국인의 식생활 문화 특성과 인식유형 - 세대별 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • Chung, Young-Sook;Park, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.435-445
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern and perception of food consumption, mass restaurant use, drinking style, and food purchasing factors by cohort groups i. e., World Cup(W) generation, baby boom, and silent generation. Data were collected from 412 respondents including three generations by questionnaire method in April through May 2002. Analysis of variance and chi-square results indicate that there were significant differences among three generation groups for the pattern and perception of food consumption, the use of mass restaurant, preferred drinking style, and influencing factors for food purchasing. W generation are more likely to be influenced by sensibility factor than baby boom and silent generation. Considering food preference pattern, baby boom as well as silent generation prefer green vegetables than meats, and they must have Kimche when having meals. Similarities and differences in perceptional pattern types are discussed, and future implications for food and nutrition specialists and food marketers are provided.

Prediction Approaches of Personal Exposure from Ambient Air Pollution Using Spatial Analysis: A Pilot Study Using Ulsan Cohort Data (공간분석 기법을 이용한 대기오염 개인노출추정 방안 소개 및 적용의 사례)

  • Son, Ji-Young;Kim, Yoon-Shin;Cho, Yong-Sung;Lee, Jong-Tae
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.339-346
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    • 2009
  • The objectives of this study were to introduce spatial interpolation methods which have been applied in recent papers, to apply three methods (nearest monitor, inverse distance weighting, kriging) to domestic data (Ulsan cohort) as an example of estimating the personal exposure levels. We predicted the personal exposure estimates of 2,102 participants in Ulsan cohort using spatial interpolation methods based on information of their residential address. We found that there was a similar tendency among the estimates of each method. The correlation coefficients between predictions from pairs of interpolation methods (except for the correlation coefficient between nearest montitor and kriging of CO and $SO_2$) were generally high (r=0.84 to 0.96). Even if there are some limitations such as location and density of monitoring station, spatial interpolation methods can reflect spatial aspects of air pollutant and spatial heterogeneity in individual level so that they provide more accurate estimates than monitor data alone. But they may still result in misclassification of exposure. To minimize misclassification for better estimates, we need to consider individual characteristics such as daily activity pattern.

Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies (2000-2011)

  • Yusof, Afzaninawati Suria;Isa, Zaleha Md.;Shah, Shamsul Azhar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4713-4717
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: This systematic review of cohort studies aimed to identify any association between specific dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Dietary patterns involve complex interactions of food and nutrients summarizing the total diet or key aspects of the diet for a population under study. Methods and materials: This review involves 6 cohort studies of dietary patterns and their association with colorectal cancer. An exploratory or a posteriori approach and a hypothesis-oriented or a priori approach were employed to identify dietary patterns. Results: The dietary pattern identified to be protective against CRC was healthy, prudent, fruits and vegetables, fat reduced/diet foods, vegetables/fish/poultry, fruit/wholegrain/dairy, healthy eating index 2005, alternate healthy eating index, Mediterranean score and recommended food score. An elevated risk of CRC was associated with Western diet, pork processed meat, potatoes, traditional meat eating, and refined grain pattern. Conclusion: The Western dietary pattern which mainly consists of red and processed meat and refined grains is associated with an elevated risk of development of CRC. Protective factors against CRC include a healthy or prudent diet, consisting of vegetables, fruits, fish and poultry.

Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty in Korea (한국에서의 빈곤의 세대간 이전)

  • Lee, Sang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.53-76
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    • 2008
  • This study analyze the intergenerational transmission of poverty in Korea, using the first wave of Korea Welfare Panel Study. For this analysis, I produced poverty transition tables across generation and estimated logistic models to explore the effects of parent's poverty on the children's adulthood poverty. As the results, I found that parent's poverty reduced children's education level and then the low education level increased the likelihood that children experience poverty in their adulthood. In other words, parent's poverty might increase children's adulthood poverty through the mediating effects of education level. This mediating effects were also identified in the analyses by group and cohort. From the analyses by group, daughters rather than sons, those from urban rather than rural area, and the older cohort rather than younger cohort showed greater intergenerational transmission of poverty.

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A Study of Urban Household Demand for Clothing Items by Income (소득차이에 따른 도시가계의 의류품목수요에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kisung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.33-45
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    • 2014
  • This study investigates urban household consumption patterns for clothing items in different income cohorts through the analysis of an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model. Korea quarterly time-series statistics data for urban household expenditures from 1990 to 2013 analyzed household demand. The price and total consumption expenditure elasticities of 4 clothing items (outer wear, shoes, clothing related services and other miscellaneous clothing) for 7 income cohorts were estimated to investigate the clothing consumption patterns of different income cohorts. The study results show that the different household income cohorts have different consumption patterns for clothing items. The elastic demand of total consumption expenditures in the lowest household income cohort suggests that they consume clothing items as luxuries while other households mostly consume them as necessities. The price elasticity for all household income cohorts and clothing items (except the highest household income cohort and outer wear) was found to be elastic. The highest household income cohort had an inelastic price demand for all clothing items that implied a less sensitive clothing consumption change for the clothing price change than other households.

Breast Cancer in Lopburi, a Province in Central Thailand: Analysis of 2001-2010 Incidence and Future Trends

  • Sangkittipaiboon, Somphob;Leklob, Atit;Sriplung, Hutcha;Bilheem, Surichai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8359-8364
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    • 2016
  • Background: Thailand has come to an epidemiologic transition with decreasing infectious diseases and increasing burden of chronic conditions, including cancer. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rates among females throughout Thailand. This study aimed to identify the current burden and the future trends of breast cancer of Lopburi, a province in the Central Thailand. Materials and Methods: We used cancer incidence data from the Lopburi Cancer Registry to characterize and analyze the incidence of breast cancer in Central Thailand. With joinpoint and age-period-cohort analyses, the incidence of breast cancer in the province from 2001 to 2010 and project future trends from 2011 to 2030 was investigated. Results: Age-adjusted incidence rates of breast cancer in Lopburi increased from 23.4 to 34.3 cases per 100,000 female population during the period, equivalent to an annual percentage change of 4.3% per year. Both period and cohort effects played a role in shaping the increase in incidence. Joinpoint projection suggested that incidence rates would continue to increase in the future with incidence for women ages 50 years and above increasing at a higher rate than for women below the age of 50. Conclusions: The current situation where early detection measures are being promoted could increase detection rates of the disease. Preparation of sufficient budget for treatment facilities and human resources, both in surgical and medical oncology, is essential for future medical care.

Night Shift Work and Risk of Depression: Meta-analysis of Observational Studies

  • Lee, Aeyoung;Myung, Seung-Kwon;Cho, Jung Jin;Jung, Yu-Jin;Yoon, Jong Lull;Kim, Mee Young
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.1091-1096
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to assess whether night shift work is associated with the risk of depression by using a meta-analysis of observational studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE in August, 2016 to locate eligible studies and investigated the association between night shift work and the risk of depression, reporting outcome measures with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the meta-analysis of a total of 11 observational studies with 9 cross-sectional study, 1 longitudinal study, and 1 cohort study, night shift work was significantly associated with an increased risk of depression (OR/RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.64; $I^2=78.0%$). Also, subgroup meta-analyses by gender, night shift work duration, type of occupation, continent, and type of publication showed that night shift work was consistently associated with the increased risk of depression. The current meta-analysis suggests that night shift work is associated with the increased risk of depression. However, further large prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this association.

The Risk of Colorectal Cancer After Cholecystectomy or Appendectomy: A Population-based Cohort Study in Korea

  • Lee, Joonki;Choe, Sunho;Park, Ji Won;Jeong, Seung-Yong;Shin, Aesun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.281-288
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: We investigated the association between cholecystectomy or appendectomy and the subsequent risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Korean population. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort of Korea; this sample was followed up from January 1, 2002, until the date of CRC incidence, loss to follow-up, or December 31, 2015. The exposure status of cholecystectomy and appendectomy was treated as a time-varying covariate. The calculated risk of CRC was stratified by follow-up period, and the association between these surgical procedures and CRC was investigated by a Cox regression model applying appropriate lag periods. Results: A total of 707 663 individuals were identified for analysis. The study population was followed up for an average of 13.66 years, and 4324 CRC cases were identified. The hazard ratio (HR) of CRC was elevated in the first year after cholecystectomy (HR, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 2.89) and in the first year and 2-3 years after appendectomy (HR, 4.22; 95% CI, 2.87 to 6.20; HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.36 to 4.03, respectively). The HRs of CRC after applying 1 year of lag after cholecystectomy and 3 years of lag after appendectomy were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.57 to 1.13) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.51 to 1.16), respectively. Conclusions: The risk of CRC increased in the first year after cholecystectomy and appendectomy, implying the possibility of bias. When appropriate lag periods after surgery were applied, no association was found between cholecystectomy or appendectomy and CRC.

Correlation between Physical Activity and Lung Function in Dusty Areas: Results from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Dusty Areas (CODA) Cohort

  • Han, Yuri;Heo, Yeonjeong;Hong, Yoonki;Kwon, Sung Ok;Kim, Woo Jin
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.82 no.4
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    • pp.311-318
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    • 2019
  • Background: Although physical activity is known to be beneficial to lung function, few studies have been conducted to investigate the correlation between physical activity and lung function in dusty areas. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between physical activity and lung function in a Korean cohort including normal and COPD-diagnosed participants. Methods: Data obtained from the COPD in dusty areas (CODA) cohort was analyzed for the following factors: lung function, symptoms, and information about physical activity. Information on physical activity was valuated using questionnaires, and participants were categorized into two groups: active and inactive. The evaluation of the mean lung function, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea grade scores, and COPD assessment test scores was done based on the participant physical activity using a general linear model after adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, pack-years, height, and weight. In addition, a stratification analysis was performed based on the smoking status and COPD. Results: Physical activity had a correlation with high forced expiratory volume in 1 second ($FEV_1$) among CODA cohort (p=0.03). While the active group exhibited significantly higher $FEV_1$ compared to one exhibited by the inactive group among past smokers (p=0.02), no such correlation existed among current smokers. There was no significant difference observed in lung function after it was stratified by COPD. Conclusion: This study established a positive correlation between regular physical activity in dusty areas and lung function in participants.

Cancer Risks among Welders and Occasional Welders in a National Population-Based Cohort Study: Canadian Census Health and Environmental Cohort

  • MacLeod, Jill S.;Harris, M. Anne;Tjepkema, Michael;Peters, Paul A.;Demers, Paul A.
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.258-266
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    • 2017
  • Background: Welders are exposed to many known and suspected carcinogens. An excess lung cancer risk among welders is well established, but whether this is attributable to welding fumes is unclear. Excess risks of other cancers have been suggested, but not established. We investigated welding cancer risks in the population-based Canadian Census Health and Environmental Cohort. Methods: Among 1.1 million male workers, 12,845 welders were identified using Standard Occupational Classification codes and followed through retrospective linkage of 1991 Canadian Long Form Census and Canadian Cancer Registry (1992-2010) records. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models based on estimated risks of lung cancer, mesothelioma, and nasal, brain, stomach, kidney, and bladder cancers, and ocular melanoma. Lung cancer histological subtypes and risks by industry group and for occasional welders were examined. Some analyses restricted comparisons to blue-collar workers to minimize effects of potential confounders. Results: Among welders, elevated risks were observed for lung cancer [HR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31], mesothelioma (HR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.01-3.18), bladder cancer (HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15-1.70), and kidney cancer (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01-1.67). When restricted to blue-collar workers, lung cancer and mesothelioma risks were attenuated, while bladder and kidney cancer risks increased. Conclusion: Excess risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma may be partly attributable to factors including smoking and asbestos. Welding-specific exposures may increase bladder and kidney cancer risks, and particular sources of exposure should be investigated. Studies that are able to disentangle welding effects from smoking and asbestos exposure are needed.