• Title, Summary, Keyword: cohort analysis

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Multidimensional Poverty Analysis of Elderly Households by Cohort (노인가구의 코호트별 다차원빈곤 분석)

  • Kim, Soon-Mi;Cho, Kyung-Jin
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.51-71
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed the poverty rate by poverty dimension, correlation between multidimensional poverty, variables that affected the number of poverty dimension and the probability of the poor or not. The sample consisted of 6,361 elderly households (1,561 baby boom birth cohort, 1,793 post-liberation birth cohort, 3,007 Japanese colonial period birth cohort) taken from the $12^{th}$ Korean Welfare Panel Study. First, the highest poverty rate among the baby boom birth cohort was 62.8% of employment poverty. The highest rate among the post-liberation birth cohort and Japanese colonial period birth cohort, was 82.5%, 92.3% of health poverty, respectively. Second, the highest coefficient in the baby boom birth cohort was .354 for asset poverty and relation poverty. In the remaining two cohorts, the coefficient for asset poverty and relation poverty was the highest at .268, .284, respectively. Third, the average number of poverty dimensions was 2.318 of the baby boom birth cohort, 2.921 of the post-liberation birth cohort, 3.564 of the poverty in the Japanese colonial period birth cohort. Also, the poverty rate for each cohort was 20.179%, 28.779%, and 50.083%, respectively. Fourth, the significant variables in all cohorts were gender, education, marital status, residence, and equalized ordinary income for the multiple regression analysis on the number of poverty dimensions. Additionally, age of the post-liberation birth cohort was significant, age and family numbers of the Japanese colonial period birth cohort were significant. Significant variables in logistic analysis on the probability of poverty or not were the same as those of regression analysis.

Age-period-cohort Analysis of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Japan, 1995-2018

  • Okui, Tasuku
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.198-204
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the mortality of heart disease (HD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) through an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Methods: We used data on mortality due to cardiovascular disease from 1995 to 2018 in Japan, as determined by Vital Statistics. Age groups from 0 years to 99 years were defined by 5-year increments, and cohorts were defined for each age group of each year with a 1-year shift. We used Bayesian APC analysis to decompose the changes in the diseases' mortality rates into age, period, and cohort effects. Results: The period effects for all diseases decreased during the analyzed periods for both men and women. The cohort effects for men increased substantially in cohorts born from around 1940 to the 1970s for all types of cardiovascular diseases. The cohort effects of HD decreased in the cohorts born in the 1970s or later for both men and women. Regarding IHD and CeVD, either a non-increase or decrease of cohort effects was confirmed for cohorts born in the 1970s or later for men, but the effects for women showed a continuously increasing trend in the cohorts born in the 1960s or later. Conclusions: The cohort effects for IHD and CeVD showed increasing trends in younger generations of women. This suggests that preventive approaches against cardiovascular diseases are needed, particularly for women.

Recent Decrease in Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rate is Affected by Birth Cohort in Korea

  • Jee, Yonho;Oh, Chang-Mo;Shin, Aesun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3951-3955
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer mortality has started to decrease in several developed countries in Asia. The current study aimed to present the long-term trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Korea using joinpoint analysis and age-period-cohort modeling. Materials and Methods: The number of colorectal cancer deaths and the population for each 5-year age group were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013 for adults 30 years and older. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to determine changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates, and age-period-cohort analysis was performed to describe trends in colorectal cancer mortality using the intrinsic estimator method. Results: In men, the age-standardized mortality rate for colorectal cancer increased from 1984 to 2003, and the mortality rates stabilized thereafter, whereas the mortality rate of colorectal cancer in women has decreased since 2004. The age-specific mortality rate of colorectal cancer increased in both men and women over time, whereas decreases in the age-specific mortality rate in younger cohorts were observed. In the age-period-cohort analysis, old age and recent period were associated with higher mortality for both men and women. The birth cohort born after 1919 showed reduced colorectal cancer mortality in both men and women. Conclusions: Our study showed a recent decreasing trend in colorectal cancer mortality in women and a stable trend in men after 2003-2004. These changes in colorectal cancer mortality may be attributed to birth cohort effects.

A Cohort Analysis on Sodium and Sodium-calorie Intake with the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (국민건강영양조사를 활용한 나트륨 섭취량과 열량 대비 나트륨 섭취량에 대한 코호트 분석)

  • Yang, Sung-Bum
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze a cohort, age, and time effects on sodium and sodium-calorie intake using the 2007~2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For analysis, we have constructed cohort panel data that combine KNHANES data in a time series. The age effect gradually increased from age 45~49 and then decreased afterwards. The time effect showed an increase in average sodium intake until 2010 followed by a subsequent decrease. The cohort effect showed that the sodium intake was the highest for the War of Liberation 1946~1953, and that the younger the latter, the lower the sodium intake. According to a cohort analysis, the younger the generation, the lower the sodium intake compared to the calorie intake, according to the baby boomers. Based on the results of this study, efforts should be made to educate and promote the dieting and providing low-salt meals to reduce sodium intake by generation. An analysis of the health hazards including sodium by generation and age is thought to enable the establishment relevant policies.

The Effect of Population Ageing on Healthcare Expenditure in Korea: From the Perspective of 'Healthy Ageing' Using Age-Period-Cohort Analysis (인구고령화가 의료비 지출에 미치는 영향: Age-Period-Cohort 분석을 이용한 '건강한 고령화'의 관점)

  • Cho, Jae Young;Jeong, Hyoung-Sun
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.378-391
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    • 2018
  • Background: People who were born in different years, that is, different birth cohorts, grow in varying socio-historical and dynamic contexts, which result in differences in social dispositions and physical abilities. Methods: This study used age-period-cohort analysis method to establish explanatory models on healthcare expenditure in Korea reflecting birth cohort factor using intrinsic estimator. Based on these models, we tried to investigate the effects of ageing population on future healthcare expenditure through simulation by scenarios. Results: Coefficient of cohort effect was not as high as that of age effect, but greater than that of period effect. The cohort effect can be interpreted to show 'healthy ageing' phenomenon. Healthy ageing effect shows annual average decrease of -1.74% to 1.57% in healthcare expenditure. Controlling age, period, and birth cohort effects, pure demographic effect of population ageing due to increase in life expectancy shows annual average increase of 1.61%-1.80% in healthcare expenditure. Conclusion: First, since the influence of population factor itself on healthcare expenditure increase is not as big as expected. Second, 'healthy ageing effect' suggests that there is a need of paradigm shift to prevention centered-healthcare services. Third, forecasting of health expenditure needs to reflect social change factors by considering birth cohort effect.

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Liver Cancer Mortality in Korea

  • Park, Jihwan;Jee, Yon Ho
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8589-8594
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    • 2016
  • Background: Liver cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world. In Korea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for liver cancer but infection rates have been declining since the implementation of the national vaccination program. In this study, we examined the secular trends in liver cancer mortality to distinguish the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. Materials and Methods: Data for the annual number of liver cancer deaths in Korean adults (30 years and older) were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service for the period from 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to study the shapes of and to detect the changes in mortality trends. Also, an age-period-cohort model was designed to study the effect of each age, period, and birth cohort on liver cancer mortality. Results: For both men and women, the age-standardized mortality rate for liver cancer increased from 1984 to 1993 and decreased thereafter. The highest liver cancer mortality rate has shifted to an older age group in recent years. Within the same birth cohort group, the mortality rate of older age groups has been higher than in the younger age groups. Age-period-cohort analysis showed an association with a high mortality rate in the older age group and in recent years, whereas a decreasing mortality rate were observed in the younger birth cohort. Conclusions: This study confirmed a decreasing trend in liver cancer mortality among Korean men and women after 1993. The trends in mortality rate may be mainly attributed to cohort effects.

Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality in Korea, 1985-2009: An Age-period-cohort Analysis

  • Lee, Hye-Ah;Park, Hye-Sook
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.323-328
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Economic growth and development of medical technology help to improve the average life expectancy, but the western diet and rapid conversions to poor lifestyles lead an increasing risk of major chronic diseases. Coronary heart disease mortality in Korea has been on the increase, while showing a steady decline in the other industrialized countries. An age-period-cohort analysis can help understand the trends in mortality and predict the near future. Methods: We analyzed the time trends of ischemic heart disease mortality, which is on the increase, from 1985 to 2009 using an age-period-cohort model to characterize the effects of ischemic heart disease on changes in the mortality rate over time. Results: All three effects on total ischemic heart disease mortality were statistically significant. Regarding the period effect, the mortality rate was decreased slightly in 2000 to 2004, after it had continuously increased since the late 1980s that trend was similar in both sexes. The expected age effect was noticeable, starting from the mid-60's. In addition, the age effect in women was more remarkable than that in men. Women born from the early 1900s to 1925 observed an increase in ischemic heart mortality. That cohort effect showed significance only in women. Conclusions: The future cohort effect might have a lasting impact on the risk of ischemic heart disease in women with the increasing elderly population, and a national prevention policy is need to establish management of high risk by considering the age-period-cohort effect.

Statistical Issues in Genomic Cohort Studies (유전체 코호트 연구의 주요 통계학적 과제)

  • Park, So-Hee
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.108-113
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    • 2007
  • When conducting large-scale cohort studies, numerous statistical issues arise from the range of study design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. In genomic cohort studies, these statistical problems become more complicated, which need to be carefully dealt with. Rapid technical advances in genomic studies produce enormous amount of data to be analyzed and traditional statistical methods are no longer sufficient to handle these data. In this paper, we reviewed several important statistical issues that occur frequently in large-scale genomic cohort studies, including measurement error and its relevant correction methods, cost-efficient design strategy for main cohort and validation studies, inflated Type I error, gene-gene and gene-environment interaction and time-varying hazard ratios. It is very important to employ appropriate statistical methods in order to make the best use of valuable cohort data and produce valid and reliable study results.

Cohort Analysis of Incidence/Mortality of Liver Cancer in Japan through Logistic Curve Fitting

  • Okamoto, Etsuji
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5891-5893
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    • 2013
  • Incidence/mortality of liver cancer follow logistic curves because there is a limit reflecting the prevalence of hepatitis virus carriers in the cohort. The author fitted logistic curves to incidence/mortality data covering the nine five-year cohorts born in 1911-1955 of both sexes. Goodness-of-fit of logistic curves was sufficiently precise to be used for future predictions. Younger cohorts born in 1936 or later were predicted to show constant decline in incidence/mortality in the future. The male cohort born in 1931-35 showed an elevated incidence/mortality of liver cancer early in their lives supporting the previous claim that this particular cohort had suffered massive HCV infection due to nation-wide drug abuse in the 1950s. Declining case-fatality observed in younger cohorts suggested improved treatment of liver cancer. This study demonstrated that incidence/mortality of liver cancer follow logistic curves and fitted logistic formulae can be used for future prediction. Given the predicted decline of incidence/mortality in younger cohorts, liver cancer is likely to be lost to history in the not-so-distant future.

Review on Cohort Projects in Domestic and Overseas and Establishment of Cohort on Korean Medicine (국내외 코호트 사업 고찰 및 한의학 코호트 구축)

  • Kim, Jiyoung;Baek, Younghwa;Lee, Siwoo;Ko, Kwang Pil;Yoo, Jonghyang
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : In this study, we investigated the trends of cohort project in domestic and overseas, and suggested the necessity of cohort on korean medicine and the direction of research. Methods : The papers which include cohort in the title and published by 2015 were searched using PubMed. In order to study the history of cohort in domestic and overseas, research trend was investigated based on the websites of each cohort projects and traditional medicine searching engine named OASIS. Results : Using PubMed, 42,802 papers were searched. Most of the studies over 50 % of total articles, however, were conducted in these 6 years. Nevertheless, cohort studies are being actively proceed, the korean medicine based on cohort studies are nonexistent. Therefore, further discussion about cohort study on korean medicine is necessary to gather physiological index and clinical index of korean medicine consistently. Conclusions : Systematically constructed cohort on korean medicine would be the foundation which collects information, such as gene information, bio information, dietary habit, life style, and Pattern identification (辨證), and integrates them. The analysis of massive clinical materials could suggest the basis of Prevention and treatment of korean medicine considering the difference between personal.