• Title, Summary, Keyword: cognitive deficit

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Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Functions in Childen and Adolescents : A Review (유산소 운동이 소아 및 청소년의 인지기능에 미치는 영향 : 문헌고찰)

  • Kang, Kyoung Doo;Cho, Jung Hwan;Han, Doug Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this review was to investigate the relationship between aerobic exercise and cognitive function as well as synthesize the effect of aerobic exercise intervention studies centered on psychiatric symptoms associated with general cognitive deficit. Prospective studies on aerobic exercise and improvement of cognitive function were reviewed and synthesized. In addition, this literature review provides significant positive results on the relationship between aerobic exercise and general cognitive deficit associated with psychiatric symptoms. Review of this literature suggests that there is a positive relationship between participation in aerobic exercise and cognitive function. In this text, there are at least three general pathways by which aerobic exercise may facilitate executive function in children : 1) cognitive demands inherent in engaging in physical activity, 2) cognitive demands inherent in cooperation of complex motor tasks, and 3) physiological changes resulting from aerobic exercise. Another main finding of this review is that physical activity has a stronger influence on cognitive deficit, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and anxiety. Development of cognitive function is the most important factor for children and youth. Therefore, future research should prove relationship between physical activity and cognitive function using a more scientific and quantitative approach design.

Association of Tardive Dyskinesia with Cognitive Deficit in Schizophrenia (정신분열병에서 지연성 운동장애와 인지결함의 연관성)

  • Jang, Tae-Seob;Oh, Byoung-Hoon;Cheon, Jin-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 1999
  • To understand a mechanism of underlying cognitive deficit in schizophrenia, the risk factors, cognitive function, blood dopamine concentrations and glutamate dehydrogenase activities of male schizophrenics with tardive dyskinesia(N=30) were compared with those of schizophrenics without tardive dyskinesia(N=30). The results were as following ; 1) The age, duration of illness and duration of medication were significantly more in schizophrenics with tardive dyskinesia than schizophrenics without tardive dyskinesia(respectively p<0.005, p<0.0001, p<0.0001). 2) The scores of MMSE, TIQ, VIQ and PIQ were significantly lower in schizophrenics with tardive dyskinesia than schizophrenics without tardive dyskinesia (rspectively p<0.0001). 3) Plasma dopamine concentrations were tended to be higher, and serum glutamate dehydrogenase activities were tended to be lower in schiz-ophrenics with tardive dyskinesia than schizophrenics without tardive dyskinesia. 4) The cognitive deficit seemed to be negatively correlated with duration of illness and duration of medication(respectively ${\gamma}$=-0.496, ${\gamma}$=-0.615).

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Effects of the Cognitive Intervention Program on the Inattentive and Impulsive Behaviors of Children with ADHD (주의력결핍 과잉행동 아동의 부주의와 충동성 감소를 위한 인지중재 집단프로그램의 효과)

  • Lee, Myung Hee;Kang, Moon Hee
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.87-103
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention program for decreasing inattentive and impulsive behaviors of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) by combining cognitive training and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Subjects were 22 children who were classified as ADHD. Eleven children among the 22 were placed randomly in the experimental group; the remaining 11 children were placed in the control group. The effectiveness of the program was analyzed by ANCOVA after controlling for effects of pre-tests on criterion variables. Results of the present study showed that the cognitive intervention program was significantly effective for improving attention span and decreasing impulsivity of children with ADHD.

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A Study on Post Stroke Cognitive Deficit by CERAD-K Test (CERAD-K를 이용한 한방병원 입원환자의 뇌졸중후 인지기능 저하에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Jae-Kyu;Min, Sung-Soon;Lee, Sang-Hee;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Hyo-Jin;Heo, Tae-Yool;Kwon, O-Sun;Kim, Young-Kyun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.838-849
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    • 2007
  • Backgrounds & Objectives : The aim of study was to evaluate post stroke cognitive deficit. We applied CERAD-K for post-stroke cognitive deficit, and revalued after treatment for 4 weeks. Methods : We applied CERAD-K test to 25 patients with post stroke cognitive deficit and compared with previous literature. After acupuncture treatment, moxa treatment, herb medicines, physical and occupational therapy for 4 weeks, we revalued changes by CERAD-K to 13 people that received treatment. Results : The stroke group's points were lower than the normal group in general cognition. Verbal fluency, MMSE-KC, and constructional praxis scores was lower than the AD group. Boston Naming Test, word list immediate recall, word list delayed recall, wordlist recognition, and praxis delayed recall scores were higher than the AD group. Verbal fluency (p=0.017), MMSE-KC (p=0.026), and word list immediate recall (p=0.005) scores of 13 patients participating in this study showed a statistically significant increase after treatment. Conculsions : Acupuncture treatment, moxa treatment, herb medicines, physical and occupational therapy are effective for improvement of post-stroke cognitive deficit, but this study could not demonstrate whether some treatments influenced cognition and there was a limitation in lacking a control group.

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Biflorin Ameliorates Memory Impairments Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

  • Jeon, Se Jin;Kim, Boseong;Ryu, Byeol;Kim, Eunji;Lee, Sunhee;Jang, Dae Sik;Ryu, Jong Hoon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.249-258
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    • 2017
  • To examine the effect of biflorin, a component of Syzygium aromaticum, on memory deficit, we introduced a scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mouse model. A single administration of biflorin increased latency time in the passive avoidance task, ameliorated alternation behavior in the Y-maze, and increased exploration time in the Morris water maze task, indicating the improvement of cognitive behaviors against cholinergic dysfunction. The biflorin-induced reverse of latency in the scopolamine-treated group was attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Biflorin also enhanced cognitive function in a naïve mouse model. To understand the mechanism of biflorin for memory amelioration, we performed Western blot. Biflorin increased the activation of protein kinase C-${\zeta}$ and its downstream signaling molecules in the hippocampus. These results suggest that biflorin ameliorates drug-induced memory impairment by modulation of protein kinase C-${\zeta}$ signaling in mice, implying that biflorin could function as a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive problems.

Relationship Between Cognitive Function and Arterial Blood Gases in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (만성 폐쇄성 폐질환 환자의 인지기능과 동맥혈가스와의 상관 관계)

  • Kim, Young-Kyoon;Kwon, Soon-Seog;Kim, Kwan-Hyoung;Han, Ki-Don;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Song, Jeong-Sup;Park, Sung-Hak
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 1992
  • Background: Cognitive deficit by hypoxia and/or hypercapnia is one of neuropsychological impairments frequently observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The degree of cognitive deficit is variable among patients with similar level of hypoxia and/or hypercapnia, although a cause of this individual difference is well not known. COPD can be divided into two characteristic clinical entities including predominant emphysema and predominant bronchitis. This study was designed to evaluate the individual difference in cognitive deficit respond to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia in patients with COPD. Method: Sixteen patients with COPD (9 emphysema-dominant and 7 bronchitis-dominant) participated in this study. On admission arterial blood gas analysis and trail-making B (TMB) test for the evaluation of cognitive function were done in all patients. Mean TMB scores and the correlations between TMB scores and arterial blood gases were compared between two clinical groups. Results: 1) Mean TMB scores and arterial blood gases between two clinical groups were not different. 2) There was a tendency to be higher TMB score in hypoxemia, acidemia, and hypercapnia. However these findings were not statistically significant. 3) In emphysema-dominant group, $PaCO_2$ was mostly well correlated with TMB score (r=0.693). 4) In bronchitis-dominant group, arterial pH was mostly well correlated with TMB score (r=-0.526). Conclusion: Our data suggest that the individual difference in cognitive deficit respond to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia in patients with COPD may be dependent on their clinical entities, and arterial blood gases mostly well correlated with cognitive function that may be different according to their clinical entities.

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Effect of herbal medicine on Poststroke cognitive deficit (뇌졸중후 인지기능저하의 한약치료에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Kim, Jae-Kyu;Heo, Jeong-Eun;Son, Yeon-Hui;Jeong, Hyun-Yun;Sin, Cheol-Kyung;Min, Sung-Soon;Kwon, Jung-Nam;Kim, Young-Kyun
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2008
  • Objectives The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of Herbal medicine on post stroke cognitive deficit. Methods All groups were treated with acupunture treatment, moxa treatment, herbal medicines, physical and occupational therapy for 4 weeks, additionally cardiotonic pills(CP) were taken in the cardiotonic pills group. The effect of treatment was assessed using Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test. Statistical significance was achived if the probability was less than 5%(p,0.05). Results Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test scores increased in both group. MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test scores were significantly increased in the CP group. Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test scores were significantly increased in the control group. In the Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test of the CP group more increased compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between two groups. In the CP group, the scores of the infarction group more increased compared to the hemorrhage group. Conclusions According to the these results, herbal medicines are effective to improve post stroke cognitive-deficit. Futher studies are needed to know cardiotonic pills in the ischemic stroke.

Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School-aged Children in Korea: A Meta-Analysis (한국 학령기 ADHD 아동을 위한 인지행동중재의 효과 연구: 메타분석)

  • Park, Wan-Ju;Park, Shin-Jeong;Hwang, Sung-Dong
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.169-182
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study was a meta-analysis designed to identify effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions in alleviating main symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among school-aged children in Korea. Methods: Examination of several databases including Research Information Sharing Service, Korean Studies Information Service System, Data Base Periodical Information Academic and hand-searched article references, resulted in identification of 1,298 studies done between 2000 and 2013 of which 21 met the inclusion criteria. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2.0 was used to analyze effect sizes, explore possible causes of heterogeneity, and check publication bias with a funnel plot and its trim-and-fill analysis. Results: Overall effect size of CBT intervention was large (g=1.08) along with each outcome of self-control (g=1.26), lack of attention (g=1.02), social skills (g=0.92), and hyperactivity (g=0.92). For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed, but no significant differences were found between the RCT (Randomized Controlled Trials) group and the NRCT (Non RCT) group. Also, meta-regression was performed using sample size, number of sessions, and length of session as predictors, but no statistically significant moderators were found. Finally, a funnel plot along with trim-and-fill analysis was produced to check for publication bias, but no significant bias was detected. Conclusion: Based on these findings, there is clear evidence that CBT intervention has significant positive effects on the main symptoms of school-aged children suffering ADHD. Further research is needed to target diverse age groups with ADHD along with more RCT studies to improve the effectiveness of the CBT intervention.

Cognitive and other neuropsychological profiles in children with newly diagnosed benign rolandic epilepsy

  • Kwon, Soonhak;Seo, Hye-Eun;Hwang, Su Kyeong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.55 no.10
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    • pp.383-387
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Although benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) is a benign condition, it may be associated with a spectrum of behavioral, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders. This study aimed to assess the cognitive and other neuropsychological profiles of children with BRE. Methods: In total, 23 children with BRE were consecutively recruited. All children underwent sleep electroencephalography (EEG) and were assessed on a battery of comprehensive neuropsychological tests including the Korean versions of the Wechsler intelligence scale for children III, frontal executive neuropsychological test, rey complex figure test, Wisconsin card sorting test, attention deficit diagnostic scale, and child behavior checklist scale. Results: The study subjects included 13 boys and 10 girls aged $9.0{\pm}1.6$ years. Our subjects showed an average monthly seizure frequency of $0.9{\pm}0.7$, and a majority of them had focal seizures (70%). The spike index (frequency/min) was $4.1{\pm}5.3$ (right) and $13.1{\pm}15.9$ (left). Of the 23 subjects, 9 showed frequent spikes (>10/min) on the EEG. The subjects had normal cognitive and frontal executive functions, memory, and other neuropsychological sub-domain scores, even though 8 children (35%) showed some evidence of learning difficulties, attention deficits, and aggressive behavior. Conclusion: Our data have limited predictive value; however, these data demonstrate that although BRE appears to be benign at the onset, children with BRE might develop cognitive, behavioral, and other psychiatric disorders during the active phase of epilepsy, and these problems may even outlast the BRE. Therefore, we recommend scrupulous follow-up for children with BRE.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (주의력결핍 과잉행동장애)

  • Eun, So-Hee;Eun, Baik-Lin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.9
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    • pp.935-943
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    • 2008
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity, as well as forgetfulness, poor impulse control or impulsivity, and distractibility. The recommended evaluation includes documenting the type and severity of ADHD symptoms, verifying the presence of normal vision and hearing, screening for comorbid psychological conditions, reviewing the child's developmental history and school performance, and applying objective measures of cognitive function. Prevailing opinion characterizes ADHD as a disorder of executive function attributable to abnormal dopamine transmission in the frontal lobes and frontostriatal circuitry. A clearly defined etiology remains unknown, but studies suggest a strong genetic link. The aim of treatment is to decrease symptoms, enhance functionality, and improve well-being for the child and his or her close contacts. Stimulants remain the pharmacological agents of first choice for the management of ADHD, and psychosocial, behavioral and educational strategies that enhance specific behaviors may improve educational and social functioning in children with ADHD.