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Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Abdominal Obesity as Defined by Waist Circumference in Korean Women - Based on 2012~2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - (성인 여성에서 커피 섭취와 허리둘레를 기준으로 한 비만과의 관련성 - 2012~2016 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여 -)

  • Yeon, Jee-Young;Bae, Yun-Jung
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2019
  • We investigated coffee consumption in relation to the abdominal obesity as defined by waist circumference in Korean women aged 19~64 years, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012~2016. The participants to the study were classified according to 3-in-1 coffee consumption level (none-coffee, ${\leq}1$ time/day of 3-in-1 coffee, >1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee) by a food frequency questionnaire. The analysis was conducted by the following age groups: <50 years and $50{\leq}$ years. The 3-in-1 coffee consumption group had significantly more smokers and more alcohol consumption frequency as compared to the none-coffee group. The energy intake from the participants in the 3-in-1 coffee consumption of ${\leq}1$ time/day of 3-in-1 coffee group, and >1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee group were 131.2 kcal/day and 123.1 kcal/day. In the 50 years or over age group, >1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee group was at a lower risk of abdominal obesity as defined by waist circumference, compared with the non-coffee group multivariable adjustment (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25~0.77). Our findings suggest that the 3-in-1 coffee consumption may be related to abdominal obesity as defined by waist circumference in Korean females aged 50 years or over.

Effects of Coffee and Aflatoxin B1 on the Pancreatic Exocrine Function and Structure (Coffee와 Aflatoxin B1이 췌장의 외분비 기능 및 조직에 미치는 영향)

  • 안혜선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.268-276
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    • 1993
  • Coffee is known to increase pancreatic secretion of digestive enzymes. The mutagen, aflatoxin B1(AFB1) is contained in fermented foods and known to increase the specific activities of pancreatic chymotrypsin, trypsi, amylase, and lipase. Nowadays, coffee intake is increased among Koreans who have consumed relatively high amount of traditional fermented foods. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the effect of coffee and AFB1 on pancreatic exocrine function and structure. Rats were divided into 10 experimental groups. The first five groups were W(control group), LD(0.2g decaffeinated coffee/Kg B.W), HD(3g decaffeinated coffee/Kg B.W), LC(0.2g coffee/Kg B.W), and HC(3g coffee/Kg B.W). The second five groups were WA, LDA, HDA, LCA, HCA, same as first five groups in caffieine level but treated with AFB1. The result of this experiment showed that the caffeine intake did not influence significantly on the growth and feed efficiency. But water intake was increased by caffeine intake and AFB1 treatment. The weights of pancreas and liver were increased as the caffeine intake was increased. Trypsin activities were tend to increase in concentrated coffee groups(HD, HC). AFB1 treated groups showed the higher trypsin level than the AFB1 untreated groups. Amylase activities were tend to increase in concentrated coffee groups(HD, HC) of AFB1 untreated animals. AFB1 treated did not show the additional effect on the stimulated amylase secretion by coffee. Lipase activities were tend to decrease in concentrated coffee groups(HD, HC) of AFB1 untreated animals. Lipase activities were increased in the order named WA group, coffee groups, decaffeinated coffee groups in AFB1 treated animals. AFB1 treated groups showed the higher lipase level than AFB1 untreated groups. In the histologic observation of pancreas HCA group showed more dense compound tubuloalveolar glands and proliferation of nuclei than normal. The result suggested a development of a atypia which is ongoing phase to a cancer.

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Comparison of Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Commercial Regular Coffee and Instant Coffee with Coffee Creamer (국내 시판 레귤러 커피와 커피 크리머 첨가커피의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화력 비교)

  • Jang, Eun Ho;Nam, Donghun;Na, Ha-Gyoon;Chae, Hee-Sung;Lee, Dong-Ha;Kim, Min-Ju;Kim, Hi-Hun;Lee, Je-Hyuk;Jang, Ki-Hyo
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.540-547
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    • 2017
  • This study examined the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of 22 commercial coffees, including two americano-type regular coffees, seven instant coffee mix coffees and 13 vending machine coffees. The seven instant coffee mixes and 13 vending machine coffees contained sugar and coffee creamer. Coffee samples with sugar and coffee creamer had higher pH values than regular coffee (p<0.05). Additionally, coffees with sugar and coffee creamer were significantly higher in total phenolics (p<0.05), total flavonoids (p<0.05) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (p<0.05). On-line HPLC-ABTS analyses indicated that antioxidant activities of instant coffees with sugar and coffee creamer were clearly different from those of regular coffee.

Interaction of physical trainings and coffee intakes in fuel utilization during exercise in rats

  • Choi, Eun-Young;Cho, Yun-Ok
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.178-184
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    • 2013
  • This study investigates the impact of exercises, coffee intakes, and physical trainings on fuel utilization in rats. Ninety-six rats were fed a control diet with either water (C) or coffee (CF; 0.12 g freeze-dried instant coffee/100 g body weight/d). Additionally, the animals go through physical training (TC and TCF) or no training (NTC and NTCF) for 4 weeks. For physical training, animals have to exercise on treadmills for 30 minutes (5 d per week, $15^{\circ}$ incline, 0.5-0.8 km/h). At the end of week 4, the animals in each group were subdivided into three exercise groups: before exercise (BE), during exercise (DE), and after exercise (AE). The DE rats exercised on treadmills for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, glycogen, protein, triglyceride (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle of the rats were compared accordingly. Organ weights were also measured. Coffee-training interaction had a significant impact on heart weight, visceral fat, hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver glycogen in DE and AE, and liver triglyceride in DE and AE. Exercise (meaning exercised on a treadmill for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed) training interaction was significant in liver glycogen, muscle glycogen in control diet and control diet with coffee, FFA and muscle TG levels at control diet with coffee group. Exercise-coffee interactions significantly influenced the FFA with no training groups. Exercise-coffee-training interaction significantly effects on FFA, Liver TG and Muscle TG. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee can be an effective ergogenic aid during exercise for physically trained rats.

The Effects of Chinese Coffee Shop Customers' Happiness on Continuous Usage Intention (중국 커피 전문점 이용고객의 해피니스가 지속이용의도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • An, Shengnan;Zhang, Jun
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 2019
  • Purpose - With the economic development in China, the lifestyle of Chinese customers has changed dramatically. Chinese customers are more likely to have coffee in a shop with the ability to make them happy than those with high quality coffee in a nice physical environment. Happiness becomes a critical driver of customers' intention to purchase a cup of coffee in a specific coffee shop again and again. As a result, happiness becomes an important factor for managers to make strategies for attracting customers. Although managers and scholars pay more attention to emphasize the importance of happiness in customers' consumption, little research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between happiness and coffee shop's continuous usage intention in the Chinese coffee industry. Research design, data, and methodology - A research model is made to explain the impact of happiness on customer's behavior. To understand the influence of happiness better, we consider two dimensions of happiness which are subjective well-being and psychological well-being. In order to confirm the relationships of the variables in the research model, the online survey is constructed in China. Customers who have experienced the services in a coffee shop are asked to do the questionnaire. With 453 reliable questionnaires, structural equation modeling is used to analyze the causal relationships of the coffee quality, physical environment, subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and continuous usage intention. Results - Results indicate that coffee quality and physical environment are not the direct factors that influence customers' continuous usage intention. However, good coffee quality and physical environment are the significant predictors of Chinese customers' happiness associated with subjective well-being and psychological well-being, which in turn affects customers' continuous usage intention. Conclusions - In this study, it is proposed that coffee quality and physical environment may be the key factors influencing customers' happiness. Happiness, including subjective well-being and psychological well-being matters in decision making process. More importantly, happiness increases the continuous usage intention when the coffee shop can serve customers with higher quality coffee at a good atmospheric place. Managers should consider happiness as an important factor in making marketing strategies to compete in this industry.

A Study on the Present Condition of the Coffee and Vision of 21C in Korea (한국 커피시장 현황과 21세기의 비전)

  • 진양호
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.5-28
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    • 1999
  • The main propose of this study was to present condition of the Coffee and Vision of 21C in Korea. To achieve the propose of this study, Theoretical and empirical approaches were used. In review of theoretical background, basic concepts and characteristics of Coffee. Based on the theoretical studies and previous studies, vision of 21C in Korea. First, we'll have to a national enterprise of coffee. Second, Instant coffee was export to china and east asia in 21C. Third, our Coffee culture was diversity, so wording is more easy. Fourth, coffee meeting will prosper

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Survey on Consumption of Coffee Beverages and Energy Contribution Ratios of Coffee Beverages and Accompanying Snacks by College Students in Daejeon City and Chungnam Province in Korea (대전·충남지역 대학생의 커피음료 섭취 실태 및 커피음료와 동반간식을 통한 열량 섭취 기여 비율 조사)

  • Lim, Young-Hee;Kim, Sun-Hyo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.240-250
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to investigate the consumption of coffee beverages and energy contribution ratios of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks by college students in Deajeon City and Chungnam Province in Korea. Questionnaire survey, dietary survey, and snack survey using food record method during 3-days were carried out. As a result, we found that 86.9% of male students and 75.6% of female students consumed coffee beverages usually, with no differences between the two groups. However, the frequency of coffee beverages consumed by female students out-numbered that of male students by 1 cup a day to 1-2 cups a week (p<0.05). Furthermore, male students most likely consumed coffee beverages at schools or academies, but female students consumed them at coffee shops (p<0.01). The reasons male students gave to consume coffee beverages were for scent, taste, fatigue, and to stay awake. Similarly, the reasons female students gave to consume coffee beverages were for scent, taste, habit, and to stay awake (p<0.01). Fully 58.1% of male students and 80.0% of female students ate snacks along with coffee beverages (p<0.01). Most male students substituted a coffee beverage and accompanying snack for a regular meal once a month. Female students were doing it at most 2-3 times a month (p<0.05). The mean daily dietary energy intake of male students was 1,924 kcal/d, and of female students was 1,518 kcal/d (p<0.001), which both were below the estimated energy requirements. Male students obtained 285.6 kcal/d and female students obtained 289.5 kcal/d from coffee beverages and accompanying snacks. There was a significant different in dietary intake of energy (p<0.05), calcium, and iron (p<0.001) for each ratio of reference intake between male and female students. The students who ate larger amounts of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks consumed less dietary energy, protein, calcium, and iron, respectively (p<0.05). These results show that many students consume coffee beverages regularly and obtain large amounts of energy from coffee beverages and accompanying snacks. It also shows that student's dietary nutrient intake tends to be poorer, as he or she obtains more energy from coffee beverages and accompanying snacks. Therefore, it is critical to monitor the influence of consumption of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks on the dietary nutrient intakes and health of college students, and to provide nutrition education about the proper consumption of coffee beverages and accompanying snacks based on scientific evidence.

Comparison of 24-hour Recalls with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Coffee Consumption: The Health Examinees (HEXA) Study (24시간 회상법과 식품섭취빈도조사법의 커피 섭취 비교: 도시기반 코호트 활용)

  • Kim, An Na;Youn, Jiyoung;Cho, Hyun Jeong;Jin, Taiyue;Shin, Sangah;Lee, Jung Eun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.48-60
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: Most cohort studies used food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to evaluate coffee consumption as it assesses habitual dietary patterns, whereas some studies have used the 24-hour recalls (24HR) as it elicits in-depth description of foods and the amount eaten. The aim of this study was to compare FFQs and 24HR to assess the consumption of various types of coffee. Methods: We included 25,904 participants aged 40 years or older from the Health Examinees (HEXA) Study of the Korean Genome and Epidemiologic Study (KoGES). Each participant completed one FFQ and one-day (n=11,280) or two-day 24HR (n=14,624). We classified coffee types into: black coffee, coffee with sugar and cream, and coffee with sugar alone or cream alone. We compared the proportions of nondrinkers, black coffee, and coffee with sugar and cream through FFQ and 24HR. Results: Among those who completed one FFQ and one-day 24HR, 39.4% of "nondrinkers" on one-day 24HR reported that they did not drink coffee on their FFQs. Whereas among those who complete two-day 24HR, 71.2% of "nondrinkers" on two-day 24HR said that they did not drink coffee on their FFQs. Among those who completed one FFQ and oneday 24HR, 58.3% marked "black coffee" on one-day 24HR said that they drank black coffee on their FFQs. Among those who complete two-day 24HR, 58.8% marked "black coffee" on two-day 24HR said that they drank black coffee on their FFQs. The kappa coefficients and percent agreements were 0.4 and 59.6%, respectively, for the comparison of coffee intake between FFQ and one-day 24HR, and 0.6 and 72.8%, respectively, for the comparison of coffee intake between FFQ and two-day 24HR. Conclusions: We found discrepancies between FFQs and 24HR in the types of coffee consumed. Such limitations should be considered when using the 24HR data to examine the effect of coffee consumption on disease development.

Analyses of Organic Acids and Phenolic Compounds in Columbia Coffee Bean in Roasting Process

  • Park, Jongsun;Kim, Yongsung;Yeon, Jihun;Woo, Jongwook;Seo, Youmi;Mun, Jeong-Yun;Choi, Ji-Soo;Park, Min-Jeong;Im, Jong-Yun;Jang, Tae-Won;Park, Jae-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.88-88
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    • 2018
  • Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world. Roasting process of coffee bean is one of major steps to make coffee, however, there are few studies which analyzed chemical compounds in intermediate state of roasting coffee beans due to technical limitations to get coffee beans with the same roasting condition. We utilized Stronghold S7 pro roasting machine which guarantees the saming roasting conditions repletively with the aid of precise computer to control heat sources to get 20 steps (every 30 seconds) of roasted coffee beans during roasting process (10 min in total). Along with roasting process, phenolic compounds were decreased, which can be explained that roasting process cause phenolic compounds degradation. Caffeine is almost constant during roasting, reflecting that caffeine is not affected in roasting process. These samples presents that organic acids significantly increase along with the roasting process by HPLC analysis. With additional analysis of coffee beans, such as moisture contents, pH, as well as coffee tastes, our analysis will show detailed process of chemical compounds of coffee beans during roasting process.

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A Study on the Trend of Brand Coffee Shop Interior Design applying emotional Design - Focus on the Case studies of Espresso Coffee Shops in Busan and Research Data of their Customers - (감성디자인을 적용한 브랜드 커피전문점의 인테리어다자인 성향에 관한 연구 - 부산 지역 커피전문점의 사례조사와 소비자 리서치를 중심으로 -)

  • Gong, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Chang-No
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.148-155
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    • 2010
  • After the first-ever international espresso coffee shop Starbucks Korea opened its first branch near Ewha University in Korea, positioning of divers foreign cultures among us and changes of life style due to the gross income growth have leaded to the growth of the number of needs for espresso coffee shops and, therefore, international espresso shops have been launching their shops in Korea. While the foreign shops have been holding most of the domestic market share, domestic espresso coffee shops like Hollys and Angel-In-Us have been penetrating the market with differentiated marketing strategies that a espresso coffee shop is no longer considered as just a shop, but a cultural product to Korean. Along with the recent changes, customers have started to laying emphasis on interior and each of the domestic coffee shops has been changing its interior designs by establishing own brand identification. Base on the Starbucks' success case, the domestic coffee shops have been adopting emotional marketing which would stimulate and arouse customers' emotions. The purpose of this study is to present systematic data which would be applied in an espresso coffee shop planning by researching applied emotional design elements of the domestic coffee shops interior designs in depth and finding their characteristics.