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The Study on the Relations of Coffee and MMPI (커피와 MMPI와의 관련성)

  • Seo Eun-Mi
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.94-107
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    • 1991
  • This clinical study was done to investigate how the perticular elements of coffee reflects a person using MMPI (Minesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) as a guide. This study was done based on the sample groups of 29 coffee-drinking-studensts and 21 non-coffee-drinking students. The results were as follows ; 1. The mean T-scores on all the scales were within normal range in coffee-drinking-group. 2. The personal traits of coffee-drinking-group showed elevated scales of Hs, D, Hy and Pt and showed 3, 1, 2 profile type. 3. Comparing non-coffee-drinking-group with coffee-drinking-group, scales of Hs, D, Hy, Mf, Pt, Ma were significantly higher in the latter. 4. According to pattern analysis, Psycho-neurotic trait was recognized in 62.07% of non-coffee-drinking-group, 76.19% of coffee-drinking-group. As a result, aboves support the exiting hypothesis that coffee give rise to Blood-asthenia(血虛) and Spleen-Lack of transports(脾不運化) and have an influence on neurosis, psychosis and sleep disturbance.

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The Analysis toward Consumption State, Import and Export in the World Coffee Market - The Case of Korea, U.S.A., Japan Market - (세계 커피시장의 소비실태 및 수출입 동향 비교 분석 고찰 - 한국.미국.일본 시장을 중심으로 -)

  • 강석우;나영선
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.65-82
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    • 2004
  • This research is to make an attempt the analysis award consumption state, import and export in the world coffee market. This research results were as follows. First, The result of the analysis of Korea coffee market, imports of green bean were 1,316,000 bags from export countries in 2000. Re-exports of processed coffee were 71,000 bags in 2000. Main suppliers were Brazil, Viet Nam, Honduras, Colombia, Indonesia. Second, The result of the analysis of United State coffee market, imports of all forms of coffee were 19.29 million bags. Main suppliers were Brazil(15%), Viet Nam(15%), Colombia(17%) etc. Third, The result of the analysis of Japan market, imports of green beans were 6.37million bags in 2001. Re-exports of processed coffee were 166.000million bags. Consumption per head in 2001 was about 3.5 kg and Japanese coffee consumer now drink on average 11.0 cups per week.

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Effects of the repetitive tasting of different blending types of coffee on teeth stain during home bleaching (자가 미백 처치 기간 중 커피 종류별 적용이 치아 착색에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Hee;Lee, Dong-Hyun;Oh, Hye-Seung
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.955-963
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to examine effect of the application of different types of coffee on teeth stain during home bleaching. Methods : Twenty five premolars that were extracted within the past month and healthy without any signs of dental caries or restorations were collected and divided into five groups. The teeth of a control group were bleached everyday for two weeks, and the teeth of four experimental groups were bleached everyday for two weeks and then deposited respectively in four different types of coffee solution: brewed coffee, black coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sugar and cream. Afterwards, the color of the teeth of the four experimental groups was checked by a shade pilot. Results : As a result, there were significant differences in the change of lightness and color according to the blending type with the lapse of time during home bleaching. Concerning changes in lightness and hue, there were the largest differences in the control group and the experimental group deposited in coffee with sugar and cream, followed by coffee with sugar, black coffee and brewed coffee. When the extent of change in lightness and hue was investigated after home bleaching, the experimental group deposited in coffee with sugar and cream was stained the least, and the experimental group deposited in brewed coffee was stained the most. Conclusions : In conclusion, the intake of coffee that is the cause of stain should be reduced during bleaching, and in case of having a cup of coffee, it's advisable to have coffee with cream.

Quality Characteristics of Instant Coffee with Probiotics and Microground Coffee (Probiotics와 미세분쇄 원두커피가 첨가된 인스턴트 커피의 품질적 특성)

  • Ko, Bong Soo;Lim, Sang Ho;Han, Sung Hee
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.153-162
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    • 2017
  • Bacillus coagulans was added as probiotics in instant coffee with microground roasted coffee which is recently rising premium coffee and the instant coffee (ProBio coffee) was compared with 3 commercial instant coffees with microground roasted coffee in quality characteristics to understand the competitiveness of ProBio coffee. In sensory evaluation, ProBio coffee had inferior aroma intensity and overall acceptance compared with control group (brewed coffee) (p<0.05) but it had equal quality or more compared with 3 commercials. Total polyphenol content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and caffeine content were $110.72{\pm}1.99mg/g$, $2,700{\pm}20mg/g$, $146.22{\pm}3.62TEAC\;mg/g$, $28.1{\pm}3.2ppm$ respectively. In general quality characteristics, water content, solubility, particle size and particle strength of ProBio coffee were similar to general instant coffee but had darker color than it. In safety assessment, acrylamide content was $502{\pm}10ppb$, and residual pesticides and ochratoxin A were not detected. Over 70% of B. coagulans were maintained in 4 months of storage and 16 months of shelf life was predicted in ProBio coffee by $Q_{10}$ model. Therefore, ProBio coffee was confirmed to have a sufficient product competiveness compared with 3 commercials.

Consumer's Sensory Evaluation in Relation to the Coffee Grade among College Students (대학생을 대상으로 한 커피 등급에 따른 관능평가)

  • Kwon, Dae-Joong;Lee, Min-June;Park, Ok-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2013
  • This study aims to understand college students customer's preference and the difference of coffee grade by comparing the result of Q-grader, who was trained professionally and received certification for a sensory evaluation of coffee grade. The results of the chemical analysis of raw coffee and coffee berry show that those of specialty grade had slightly higher, but not significant, water content. Further, the pH of specialty grade coffee was high in coffee beans and after roasting, the commercial grade became high. There was no significant difference between the specialty degree and commercial degree in color before and after roasting. In this study, the panels for the sensory evaluation included 24 university students. The preference of evaluation items of sensory evaluation consist of aroma, acidity, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste, and overall satisfaction. Items for the strength evaluation consist of aroma, acidity and bitterness. The sensory evaluation was expressed by applying a 5 point Likert scale (1: extremely low~5: extremely high). In the sensory evaluation, it was evaluated that specialty grade coffee had strong acidity and commercial grade coffee was strongly bitter. The result of the sensory evaluation shows that female students are sensitive to coffee taste. In the analysis of frequent visit to coffee shop, the not-frequently-use-group rated that specialty grade coffee with higher overall satisfaction than commercial grade coffee in factors such as aroma and acidity. The group which did not prefer Americano coffee rated that specialty grade was higher than commercial grade in all factors except aroma, of which the result is similar to the cupping test.

Segmentation of Coffee Shop Customers based on Organic Coffee Choice Motives (유기농 커피 선택 동기요인을 통한 커피전문점 고객 시장세분화에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Meehee;Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.915-923
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated organic coffee choice motives from a coffee shop market segmentation perspective in order to understand the potential importance they may have upon attitudes and behavioral intentions to buy organic coffee. A factor-cluster segmentation approach was used for this study. An exploratory factor analysis identified five organic coffee choice motives: 'Sensory', 'Environment', 'Trust', 'Health' and 'Price'. Based upon these five choice motives, cluster analyses classified all respondents into three homogeneous subgroups: 'Highly motivated', 'Moderately motivated' and 'Unmotivated'. Analysis of variance tests indicated that attitudes and intentions to purchase organic coffee were significantly different among the three clusters. In particular, two cluster groups representing 'Highly motivated' and 'Moderately motivated' were found to offer the most utility for further organic coffee market segmentation research. Especially, due to perceptions about high price premium of organic coffee, the 'Moderately motivated' group had higher positive attitudes, although, their intentions to buy organic coffee were not higher than those of the 'Unmotivated' cluster. Findings support previous research propositions that high price could be the strongest barrier for people to purchase organic products including the organic coffee business context. This will assist to market and promote pricing strategies for caf$\acute{e}$s and restaurants to optimize organic coffee sales revenue. Implications for all cluster groups regarding unique socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral intentions are discussed. Organic coffee marketers can apply these findings towards the development of effective target market strategies.

Evaluation of Nutrient Intake and Bone Status of Female College Students according to the Calorie Consumption from Coffee Containing Beverage (중부 지역 여대생의 커피 음료를 통한 열량 섭취 수준에 따른 영양 섭취 상태와 골밀도 평가)

  • Yeon, Jee-Young;Bae, Yun-Jung;Kim, Myung-Hee;Jo, Hye-Kyung;Kim, Eun-Young;Lee, Ji-Sun;Kim, Mi-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.430-442
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    • 2009
  • This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the dietary intake according to calorie intake from a coffee containing beverage and the bone health status of 189 female collegians. The study was conducted through questionnaires, anthropometric checkup, 3-days food records and ultrasound measurement of calcaneus bone mineral density. Subjects were divided into three groups: students not drinking coffee(non-coffee group, N=56), students consuming <100 kcal daily from coffee(low-calorie coffee group, N=84), and students consuming $\geq100$ kcal of their total daily calories from coffee(high- calorie coffee group, N=49). There were no significant differences in weight, height, body mass index, body fat and calcaneus bone mineral density among the three groups. The low-calorie coffee group usually drank black coffee or instant coffee mix, and the high-calorie coffee group habitually drank coffee with milk or sugar syrup. There were no significant differences in the mean daily energy and food intake among the three groups. However, vitamin $B_2$(p<0.05) and calcium (p<0.01) intake in the high-calorie coffee group were higher than in the non-coffee group. Also, mean intake of sugars, fish and shellfishes, milks and beverages in the high-calorie coffee group were also significantly higher than in non coffee group(p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the Korean Dietary Diversity Score(KDDS) among the three groups. The main calcium source was milk in all three groups, and milk intake(total and included with coffee) was highest in the high-calorie coffee group. Although no significant difference was apparent between the high-calorie and non-coffee groups concerning anthropometric factors and calcaneus bone mineral density, consumption of coffee may have influenced food and nutrient intake. The results suggest that consumption of milk-supplemented coffee may be of nutritional benefit.

Studies on the Composition of Green and Roast Coffee bean (커피생두(生豆)(Green Coffee)와 볶은 커피두(豆)(Roast Coffee)의 성분(成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Min-Kang;Lee, Yong-Ock;Ko, Young-Su
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 1978
  • A Comparison of the analysis of the green and roast coffee of Arabica and Robusta compositions and regular instant coffee has been investigated by chromatography. The coffee oil were obtained by extracting the green and roast coffee with ethyl ether by soxhlet methood. Instant coffee samples were accurately weighted into 100ml beaker (ca. 0.5g regular coffee and 1.5g decaffeinated coffee) and add ca. 50ml water, heat and boil, remove from heat, and mechanically stried ca. 15min. and filtered of one sample and another sample were without filtrated and proceed with liquid chromatographic separation. The fatty acid compositions of green and roast coffee were compared by gas liquid chromatography and general chemical compositions of sample were analysed. Some similarities between green and roast coffee fatty acids were found in the case of green and roast coffee of both kinds acid methyl esters. They contained stearic, oleic, linoleic, and unknown fatty acid, and palmitic ana linoleic acid were rich.

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Cell Proliferation and Antioxidative Effects of Ultrasonic Coffee Extracts

  • Jin, Hyunwoo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2017
  • Recently, coffee is the most popular beverage for modern people. A great number of substances are found in coffee beans and have been studied for many years such as aliphatic and aromatic compounds. However, studies on the physiological activity of coffee extracts are insufficient. This study was performed to determine the contents of caffeine and chlorogenic acid in coffee extracts according to the solvent and to investigate the physiological activity of coffee extracts. Coffee extracts were extracted by ultrasonication method with various types of solvents including distilled water, ethanol, and other organic solvents under $50^{\circ}C$ and $80^{\circ}C$. The contents of caffeine and chlorogenic acid in coffee extracts were determined by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). Also, cytotoxic and antioxidative effects of coffee extracts were evaluated with MTT and DPPH assays to analyze the physiological activity. As a result, it was confirmed that caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents were extracted in distilled water with the highest rate. Antioxidative activity was observed below 10-fold dilute of coffee extracts, however cytotoxicity was not observed. In conclusion, distilled water was the best solvent for extracting caffeine and chlorogenic acids from coffee bean with ultrasonication and these coffee extracts are less cytotoxic in human skin cell lines and have antioxidant effect.

A Review on the Hazards of Flavoring Chemicals in Coffee Roasting Proces (커피 로스팅 공정에서 발생되는 향기물질의 유해성 고찰 및 노동자 건강보호 방안)

  • Rim, Kyung-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.119-140
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study was based on the occurrence of a coffee roasting process-related disorder(bronchiolitis obliterans; published by NIOSH in the US) among workers exposed to chemicals called diacetyl in a coffee processing facility. Flavorings added to coffee contain diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, all of which are subject to exposure in a number of food manufacturing processes, including coffee roasting, grinding, and packaging. Therefore, this study aims to review the toxicity to workers related to food processing and food additive manufacturing to prevent occupational diseases. Methods: We surveyed the related literature, domestic and international references, and the status of relevant domestic and foreign professional organizations. The present situation of workers was investigated by reviewing literature on the safety and health of workers in the coffee roasting process using domestic and foreign literature and presentations. Expert advisory opinions were reflected, and experts were consulted by participating in domestic and overseas academic conferences. Results: Most of the fragrance materials for coffee were harmful and hazardous substances according to the GHS classification, and research was carried out through a second external consultation. A literature review on the measurement of air pollutant emissions from coffee roasters and the estimation of air pollutant emissions during coffee roasting examined the characteristics of pollutants emitted during coffee roasting. Conclusions: Two chemicals identified as causing bronchiolitis obliterans in the coffee roasting process are believed to explain why the disease is difficult to treat. This information can be used effectively in the future prevention of this disease. Future studies should clearly identify the potential for toxicity of alpha-diketones and the bases of OELs in relation to the occurrence of obstructive bronchiolitis, including measurement of various organic compounds and alpha-diketones from ground coffee, as well as various coffee grinds and coffee bean varieties. In particular, it is necessary to clarify the current understanding of the dose-response relationship between alpha-diketone and lung disease in workers involved in coffee roasting.