• Title, Summary, Keyword: coffee

Search Result 1,048, Processing Time 0.054 seconds

Dietary total sugar intake of Koreans: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011 (한국인의 총 당류 섭취실태 평가: 2008~2011년 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Lee, Haeng-Shin;Kwon, Sung-Ok;Yon, Miyong;Kim, Dohee;Lee, Jee-Yeon;Nam, Jiwoon;Park, Seung-Joo;Yeon, Jee-Young;Lee, Soon-Kyu;Lee, Hye-Young;Kwon, Oh-Sang;Kim, Cho-Il
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.47 no.4
    • /
    • pp.268-276
    • /
    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study is to estimate total sugar intake and identify major food sources of total sugar intake in the diet of the Korean population. Methods: Dietary intake data of 33,745 subjects aged one year and over from the KNHANES 2008-2011 were used in the analysis. Information on dietary intake was obtained by one day 24-hour recall method in KNHANES. A database for total sugar content of foods reported in the KNHANES was established using Release 25 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, a total sugar database from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, and information from nutrition labeling of processed foods. With this database, total sugar intake of each subject was estimated from dietary intake data using SAS. Results: Mean total sugar intake of Koreans was 61.4 g/person/day, corresponding to 12.8% of total daily energy intake. More than half of this amount (35.0 g/day, 7.1% of daily energy intake) was from processed foods. The top five processed food sources of total sugar intake for Koreans were granulated sugar, carbonated beverages, coffee, breads, and fruit and vegetable drinks. Compared to other age groups, total sugar intake of adolescents and young adults was much higher (12 to 18 yrs, 69.6 g/day and 19 to 29 yrs, 68.4 g/day) with higher beverage intake that beverage-driven sugar amounted up to 25% of total sugar intake. Conclusion: This study revealed that more elaborated and customized measures are needed for control of sugar intake of different subpopulation groups, even though current total sugar intake of Koreans was within the range (10-20% of daily energy intake) recommended by Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. In addition, development of a more reliable database on total sugar and added sugar content of foods commonly consumed by Koreans is warranted.

Roasting Conditions for Optimization of Citri Unshii Pericarpium Antioxidant Activity Using Response Surface Methodology (반응표면분석을 이용한 진피의 항산화 활성 최적화를 위한 로스팅 조건 확립)

  • Hwang, Hyun Jung;Park, Jeong Ah;Choi, Jeong In;Kim, Hee Soo;Cho, Mi Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.45 no.2
    • /
    • pp.261-268
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to establish roasting conditions for optimization of Citri Unshii Pericarpium antioxidant activity using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of two independent variables, namely roasting temperature ($40{\sim}100^{\circ}C$; $X_1$) and roasting time ($5{\sim}15min$; $X_2$), on responses such as electron donating ability ($Y_1$), total phenolic content ($Y_2$), total flavonoid content ($Y_3$), and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity ($Y_4$). The maximum electron donating ability was 72.38% at a roasting temperature of $71.12^{\circ}C$ and roasting time of 9.39 min. The maximum total phenolic content was 10.76 mg tannic acid equivalents/g at a roasting temperature of $69.71^{\circ}C$ and roasting time of 8.39 min. The maximum total flavonoid content was 105.99 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g at $72.54^{\circ}C$ and 8.64 min. The maximum hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was 60.33% at $68.97^{\circ}C$ and 9.84 min. Based on the superimposition of three dimensional RSM with respect to electron donating ability, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity under various conditions, optimum conditions were established as follows: roasting temperature of $70.90^{\circ}C$ and roasting time of 9.03 min.

Color stability of three dimensional-printed denture teeth exposed to various colorants (다양한 색소에 대한 3D 프린팅 인공치의 색 안정성)

  • Koh, Eun-Sol;Cha, Hyun-Suk;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Ahn, Jin-Soo;Lee, Joo-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
    • /
    • v.58 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-6
    • /
    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study evaluated color stability of Dentca 3D-printed denture teeth, in comparison to color stabilities of four conventional types of denture teeth, upon being immersed in various colorants. Materials and methods: Four types of conventional prefabricated denture teeth (Surpass, GC, Artic 6, Heraeus Kulzer, Premium 6, Heraeus Kulzer, Preference, Candulor), 3D-printed denture teeth (Dentca); and Z250 (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were prepared for testing. The samples were immersed in erythrosine 3%, coffee, cola, and distilled water (DW) at 37℃. Color change (ΔE) was measured by spectrophotometer before immersion and at 7, 14, and 21 days after immersion. One-way analysis of variance was performed along with Tukey's honestly significant difference multiple comparisons test (P<.05). Results: No great difference was observed between the color change of Dentca denture teeth and that of conventional denture teeth in most cases (P>.05). The color change of Dentca denture teeth immersed in erythrosine 3% was greater than that of Surpass (ΔE = 0.67 ± 0.25) after 1 week; Artic 6 (ΔE = 1.44 ± 0.38) and Premium 6 (ΔE = 1.69 ± 0.35) after 2 weeks; and Surpass (ΔE = 1.79 ± 0.49), Artic 6 (ΔE = 2.07 ± 0.21), Premium 6 (ΔE = 2.03 ± 0.75), and Preference (ΔE = 2.01 ± 0.75) after 3 weeks (P<.05). Conclusion: A color change was observed in Dentca denture teeth when immersed in some colorants; however, the maximum value of ΔE for Dentca denture teeth was within the clinically acceptable range.

Color Stability of Self-Cured Temporary Crown Resin according to Different Surface Treatments (자가중합 임시치관용 레진의 표면 처리에 따른 색 안정성)

  • Park, Ji-Won;Bae, Sung-Suk
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.150-156
    • /
    • 2016
  • In this study, the surface treatment of a self-cured temporary crown was polished using a denture bur, silicone bur, or pumice. The color stability of the temporary crown resin specimen was evaluated by immersing it in coffee, and cola, wine, beer, red pepper paste, or soybean paste. Two-hundred eighty-five identical resin specimens with six types of staining solution and three types of surface treatment were placed in a shaking incubator at $37^{\circ}C$. The degree of discoloration was observed using a time-lapse recording of days 1, 5, and 7. $L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$ were measured using a spectrophotometer, which shows the quantitative value of discoloration, and statistically processed after calculating ${\Delta}E^*$. The results show that as time passed, all the specimens showed a color change (p<0.001). The amount of color change was the greatest in in crowns with denture bur polishing on the day 1, 5, and 7. As the precipitation time increased, the ${\Delta}E^*$ value was also increased. Of the specimens immersed on day 1, the greatest color change in crowns polished with denture bur was observed in those immersed in red pepper paste, while the smallest color change was observed in those immersed in cola. On days 5 and 7, the greatest color change in crowns polished with denture bur was observed in those immersed in red wine. Crowns polished with silicone bur and immersed in soybean paste exhibited the smallest color change. Based on the results, compared to pumice polishing, silicone bur polishing results in better color stability, saves time and money, and is recommended for patients with temporary crowns.

The Monitoring on Plasticizers and Heavy Metals in Teabags (침출용 티백 포장재의 안전성에 관한 연구)

  • Eom, Mi-Ok;Kwak, In-Shin;Kang, Kil-Jin;Jeon, Dae-Hoon;Kim, Hyung-Il;Sung, Jun-Hyun;Choi, Hee-Jung;Lee, Young-Ja
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.231-237
    • /
    • 2006
  • Nowadays the teabag is worldwide used for various products including green tea, tea, coffee, etc. since it is convenient for use. In case of outer packaging printed, however, there is a possibility that the plasticizers which is used for improvement in adhesiveness of printing ink may shift to inner tea bag. In this study, in order to monitor residual levels of plasticizers in teabags, we have established the simultaneous analysis method of 9 phthalates and 7 adipates plasticizers using gas chromatography (GC). These compounds were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MSD). The recoveries of plasticizers analyzed by GC ranged from 82.7% to 104.6% with coefficient of variation of $0.6\sim2.7%$ and the correlation coefficients of each plasticizer was $0.9991\sim0.9999$. Therefore this simultaneous analysis method was showed excellent reproducibility and linearity. And limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) on individual plasticizer were $0.1\sim3.5\;ppm\;and\;0.3\sim11.5\;ppm$ respectively. When 143 commercial products of teabag were monitored, no plasticizers analysed were detected in filter of teabag products. The migration into $95^{\circ}C$ water as food was also examined and the 16 plasticizers are not detected. In addition we carried out analysis of heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and aluminum (Al) in teabag filters using ICP/AES. $Trace\sim23{\mu}g$ Pb per teabag and $0.6\sim1718{\mu}g$ Al per teabag were detected in materials of samples and Cd and As are detected less than LOQ (0.05 ppm). The migration levels of Pb and Al from teabag filter to $95^{\circ}C$ water were upto $11.5{\mu}g\;and\;20.8{\mu}g$ per teabag, respectively and Cd and As were not detected in exudate water of all samples. Collectively, these results suggest that there is no safety concern from using teabag filter.

Vitamin $B_{12}$ Contents in Some Korean Fermented Foods and Edible Seaweeds (한국의 장류, 김치 및 식용 해조류를 중심으로 하는 일부 상용 식품의 비타민 $B_{12}$ 함량 분석 연구)

  • Kwak, Chung-Shil;Hwang, Jin-Yong;Watanabe, Fumio;Park, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.41 no.5
    • /
    • pp.439-447
    • /
    • 2008
  • There is a limitation to estimate vitamin $B_{12}$ intake due to lack of data on vitamin $B_{12}$ content in many Korean foods. In this study, vitamin $B_{12}$ content was determined in some soybean or vegetable-fermented foods, edible seaweeds and other frequently consumed foods in Korea by microbioassay using Lactobacillus delbruecki ATCC 7830. The traditional type of Doenjang and Chungkookjang contained 1.85 ${\mu}g/100$ g and 0.69 ${\mu}g/100$ g of vitamin $B_{12}$, respectively, while the factory-type of Doenjang and Chungkookjang contained 0.04-0.86 ${\mu}g/100$ g and 0.06-0.15 ${\mu}g/100$ g. Vitamin $B_{12}$ was not detected in steamed soybeans and Tofu which is a not-fermented soybean product, indicating that vitamin $B_{12}$ in Doenjang and Chungkookjang might be produced during the fermentation process. The Korean-style soy sauce contained 0.04 ${\mu}g$ vitamin $B_{12}$/100 mL, but vitamin $B_{12}$ was not detected in Japanese-style soy sauce and white miso. Commercial Kimchi, a representative Korean vegetable- fermented food, made of Korean cabbage, Yeolmu, or Mustard leaves contained 0.013-0.03 ${\mu}g$ vitamin $B_{12}$/100 g, while Kimchi without red pepper and fermented fish sauce (White Kimchi) did not. Vitamin $B_{12}$ content was very high in some edible seaweeds such as laver (66.76 ${\mu}g/100$ g dry weight) and sea lettuce (84.74 ${\mu}g/100$ g dry weight), and it was 17.12 ${\mu}g/100$ g of dried small anchovy, 1.07 ${\mu}g/100$ g of whole egg, and 0.02 ${\mu}g/100$ g of coffee mix. From these results, it is assumed that Koreans take substantial amount of vitamin $B_{12}$ from plant-origin foods. And, with these data, we will be able to calculate dietary vitamin $B_{12}$ content more correctly than before. In conclusion, soybean-fermented foods, Kimchi, laver and sea lettuce are recommendable as good sources of vitamin $B_{12}$ for vegetarians or Korean elderly on grain and vegetable based diet.

A study on dietary habits, nutrient intakes and dietary quality in adults of a health screening and promotion center according to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (건강증진센터 고객의 비알콜성 지방간 유무에 따른 식습관 및 영양섭취, 식사의 질에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Ji Ho;Lee, Hye Seung;Kang, Eun Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.47 no.5
    • /
    • pp.330-341
    • /
    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary habits, food intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet quality of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a health screening and promotion center. Methods: The total number of study subjects was 10,111 adults, where 3087 subjects (30.5%) were diagnosed as NAFLD. The dietary intakes were obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. They were then compared with the dietary reference intakes could be used in the future for development of diet and nutrition guidelines s (KDRIs). Results: Mean age of subjects in the normal group was $52.9{\pm}10.3yrs$ and body mass index (BMI) was $22.4{\pm}2.6kg/m^2$, and those of the NAFLD group were $55.1{\pm}9.2yrs$ and $25.4{\pm}2.9kg/m^2$. BMI, blood pressure of the NAFLD group were significantly higher than those of the normal group. The rates of skipping breakfast, overeating, and eating out were significantly could be used in the future for development of diet and nutrition guidelines er in the NAFLD group (p < 0.05, p < 0.000, p < 0.000 respectively). The speed of eating was fast in the NAFLD group (p < 0.000). The NAFLD group consumed significantly higher amounts of grains, meats, fish, seaweeds, kimchies, sugars, sweets, coffee, teas, and oils compared to the normal group (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, intakes of starch products, fruits, milk, and milk products were significantly lower in the NAFLD group compared with those of the normal group (p < 0.05). Riboflavin, calcium, and dietary fiber nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) of the NAFLD group were significantly lower than those of the normal group. The Korean's dietary diversity score (KDDS) of the NAFLD group was lower than that of the normal group. Conclusion: In conclusion, we suggest that diet guidelines, such as increasing the intake of calcium and dietary fiber, reducing the intake of energy, fat, and simple carbohydrates, are necessary to improvement of NAFLD. The results could be used in the future for development of diet and nutrition guidelines for NAFLD.

Satisfaction and Preference of School Milk Program of Elementary School in Ulsan (울산시 초등학교 우유급식 만족도 및 기호도 분석)

  • Kim, Kyung-A;Kim, Hyun-Ah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.41 no.3
    • /
    • pp.408-417
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study examined the satisfaction of a school milk program as well as the preference of school milk and flavored milk. The subjects of this study were $4^{th}$ , $5^{th}$ and $6^{th}$ grade students in 4 different elementary schools, who were attending the school milk program in Ulsan. The survey was conducted from April 10, 2009 to April 30, 2009. Of the 403 questionnaires distributed, 347 responded and analyzed (usage rate: 86%). The results were as follows. Of the 347 respondents, 53.9% were boys and 46.1% were girls. 34%, 31.1% and 34.9% of the students were $4^{th}$, $5^{th}$ and $6^{th}$ graders, respectively. Second, 80.1% of the students reported 'have milk everyday', and 89.9% of the students reported 'have milk as it is'. Third, the overall satisfaction with the school milk program was 3.32 based on a 5-point likert scale, the 'guidance of nutrition teachers and class teacher' was 3.21 and 'taste of school milk' was 3.37. There were significant positive correlations between the school milk satisfaction variables and overall satisfaction (p<0.01). Fourth, the preference for school milk was 3.33. The preference for flavored-milk were 3.63 (coffee milk), 4.44 (chocolate milk), 4.16 (strawberry milk), 4.26 (banana milk) and 3.53 (black bean milk). Fifth, to improve the school milk program, 85.9% of students wanted a provision for flavored milk. In conclusion, schools need to find a way to increase the satisfaction of the school milk program and the preference of school milk to increase the milk intake of students. Nutrition education for students and parents should be conducted systematically and choices for various kinds of milk and milk products should be given to the students.