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Suggestion of Additional Criteria for Site Categorization in Korea by Quantifying Regional Specific Characteristics on Seismic Response (지역고유 지진응답 특성 정량화를 통한 국내 부지 분류 기준의 추가 반영 제안)

  • Sun, Chang-Guk
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.203-218
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    • 2010
  • The site categorization and corresponding site amplification factors in the current Korean seismic design guideline are based on provisions for the western United States (US), although the site effects resulting in the amplification of earthquake ground motions are directly dependent on the regional and local site characteristic conditions. In these seismic codes, two amplification factors called site coefficients, $F_a$ and $F_v$, for the short-period band and midperiod band, respectively, are listed according to a criterion, mean shear wave velocity ($V_S$) to a depth of 30 m, into five classes composed of A to E. To suggest a site classification system reflecting Korean site conditions, in this study, systematic site characterization was carried out at four regional areas, Gyeongju, Hongsung, Haemi and Sacheon, to obtain the $V_S$ profiles from surface to bedrock in field and the non-linear soil properties in laboratory. The soil deposits in Korea, which were shallower and stiffer than those in the western US, were examined, and thus the site period in Korea was distributed in the low and narrow band comparing with those in western US. Based on the geotechnical characteristic properties obtained in the field and laboratory, various site-specific seismic response analyses were conducted for total 75 sites by adopting both equivalent-linear and non-linear methods. The analysis results showed that the site coefficients specified in the current Korean provision underestimate the ground motion in the short-period range and overestimate in the mid-period range. These differences can be explained by the differences in the local site characteristics including the depth to bedrock between Korea and western US. Based on the analysis results in this study and the prior research results for the Korean peninsula, new site classification system was developed by introducing the site period as representative criterion and the mean $V_S$ to a depth of shallower than 30 m as additional criterion, to reliably determine the ground motions and the corresponding design spectra taking into account the regional site characteristics in Korea.

Seismic Design of Columns in Inverted V-braced Steel Frames Considering Brace Buckling (가새좌굴을 고려한 역 V형 가새골조의 기둥부재 내진설계법)

  • Cho, Chun-Hee;Kim, Jung-Jae;Lee, Cheol-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2010
  • According to the capacity design concept which forms the basis of the current steel seismic codes, the braces in concentrically braced frames (CBFs) should dissipate seismic energy through cyclic tension yielding and cyclic compression buckling while the beams and the columns should remain elastic. Brace buckling in inverted V-braced frames induces unbalanced vertical forces which, in turn, impose the additional beam moments and column axial forces. However, due to difficulty in predicting the location of buckling stories, the most conservative approach implied in the design code is to estimate the column axial forces by adding all the unbalanced vertical forces in the upper stories. One alternative approach, less conservative and recommended by the current code, is to estimate the column axial forces based on the amplified seismic load expected at the mechanism-level response. Both are either too conservative or lacking technical foundation. In this paper, three combination rules for a rational estimation of the column axial forces were proposed. The idea central to the three methods is to detect the stories of high buckling potential based on pushover analysis and dynamic behavior. The unbalanced vertical forces in the stories detected as high buckling potential are summed in a linear manner while those in other stories are combined by following the SRSS(square root of sum of squares) rule. The accuracy and design advantage of the three methods were validated by comparing extensive inelastic dynamic analysis results. The mode-shape based method(MSBM), which is both simple and accurate, is recommended as the method of choice for practicing engineers among the three.

Optimization of Antimicrobial Activity Against Food-borne Pathogens in Grapefruit Seed Extract and a Lactic Acid Mixture (식품위해미생물에 대한 자몽종자 추출물과 젖산 혼합물의 항균효과 최적화)

  • Kim, Hae-Seop;Park, Jeong-Wook;Park, In-Bae;Lee, Young-Jae;Kim, Jeong-Mok;Jo, Yeong-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.472-481
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    • 2009
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) is frequently used for optimization studies. In the present work, RSM was used to determine the antimicrobial activitiesof grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) and a lactic acid mixture (LA) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of independent variables on dependent parameters. One set of antimicrobial preparations included mixtures of 1% (w/w) GFSE and 10% (w/w) LA, in which the relative proportions of component antimicrobials varied between 0 and 100%. In further experiments, the relative proportions were between 20% and 100%. Antimicrobial effects against various microorganisms were mathematically encoded for analysis. The codes are given in parentheses after the bacterial names, and were S. aureus ($Y_1$), B. cereus ($Y_2$), E. coli ($Y_3$), S. typhimurium ($Y_4$), P. fluorescens ($Y_5$), and V. parahaemolyticus ($Y_6$). The optimum antimicrobial activity of the 1% (w/w) GFSE:10% (w/w) LA mixture against each microorganism was obtained by superimposing contour plots ofantimicrobial activities on measures of response obtained under various conditions. The optimum rangesfor maximum antimicrobial activity of a mixture with a ratio of 1:10 (by weight) GFSE and LA were 35.73:64.27 and 56.58:43.42 (v/v), and the optimum mixture ratio was 51.70-100%. Under the tested conditions (a ratio of 1% [w/w] GFSE to 10% [w/w] LA of 40:60, and a concentration of 1% [w/w] GFSE and 10% [w/w] LA, 70% of the highest value tested), and within optimum antimicrobial activity ranges, the antimicrobial activities of the 1% (w/w) GFSE:10% (w/w) LA mixture against S. aureus ($Y_1$), B. cereus ($Y_2$), E. coli ($Y_3$), S. typhimurium ($Y_4$), P. fluorescens ($Y_5$), and V. parahaemolyticus ($Y_6$) were 24.55, 25.22, 20.20, 22.49, 23.89, and 28.04 mm, respectively. The predicted values at optimum conditions were similar to experimental values.

Tributyltin Chloride (TBTCl) Toxicity on the Growth and Mantle Structure of the Equilateral Venus, Gomphina veneriformis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) (대복, Gomphina veneriformis의 성장과 외투막 구조에 미치는 TBTCl의 독성)

  • Park, Jung-Jun;Lee, Jung-Sick
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.229-241
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    • 2008
  • Changes of growth and histopathological feature in the mantle structure of the equilateral venus, Gomphina veneriformis exposed to tribultyltin chloride (TBTCl) for 36 weeks were observed. Concentrations of TBTCl were 0, 0.4, 0.6, and $0.8{\mu}g/L$. A regression analysis by power function of SPSS was shown that the growth of experimental groups was significantly decreased after 12 weeks of exposure. For histological analysis, mantle tissues were characterized using H-E stain, AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction and Masson's trichrome stain, and epidermal layer thickness and mucous cell distribution were analysed using the image analyser. The mantle had 4-folds (inner-inner, inner-outer, middle, and outer) and its epidermal layer consisted of simple epithlia. A periostracum was observed in the periostracal groove between middle and outer fold. Inner epidermal layer consisted of simple ciliated columnar epithelia, but the outer epidermal layer consisted of simple non-ciliated columnar epithelia. Alcian blue positive mucous cells showed blue color (7462c, 653c) in the inner fold, violet color (2583c) in the middle fold, and blue color (647c, 7455c) in inner epidermal layer (numbers in the parenthesis are codes of Pantone process coated color). Hemolymph sinus in the mantle was extended, and mucous cells in inner plica of the middle fold were stained as blue (7455c) and violet (2587c), after 12 weeks of TBTCI exposure. Cilia and striated border were disappeared, and number of mucous cells in the inner epidermal layer was reduced. Serious histopathological changes in middle and outer fold near the periostracum were observed after 36 weeks. Moreover, epidermal layer thickness and mucous cell distribution were showed decreasing tendency as exposure time to TBTCI was increased. Results of this study suggested that TBTCl induced growth disorder with histopathological changes.

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Evaluation of the Minimum Shear Reinforcement Ratio of Reinforced Concrete Members (철근콘크리트 부재의 최소전단보강근비의 평가)

  • Lee Jung-Yoon;Yoon Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 2004
  • The current Korean Concrete Design Code(KCI Code) requires the minimum and maximum content of shear s in order to prevent brittle and noneconomic design. However, the required content of the steel reinforcement In KCI Code is quite different to those of the other design codes such as fib-code, Canadian Code, and Japanese Code. Furthermore, since the evaluation equations of the minimum and maximum shear reinforcement for the current KCI Code were based on the experimental results, the equations can not be used for the RC members beyond the experimental application limits. The concrete tensile strength, shear stress, crack inclination, strain perpendicular to the crack, and shear span ratio are strongly related to the lower and upper limits of shear reinforcement. In this research, an evaluation equation for the minimum content of shear reinforcement is theoretical proposed from the Wavier's three principals of the mechanics of materials.

Reliability Verification of FLUKA Transport Code for Double Layered X-ray Protective Sheet Design (이중 구조의 X선 차폐시트 설계를 위한 FLUKA 수송코드의 신뢰성 검증)

  • Kang, Sang Sik;Heo, Seung Wook;Choi, Il Hong;Jun, Jae Hoon;Yang, Sung Woo;Kim, Kyo Tae;Heo, Ye Ji;Park, Ji Koon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.547-553
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    • 2017
  • In the current medical field, lead is widely used as a radiation shield. However, the lead weight is very heavy, so wearing protective clothing such as apron is difficult to wear for long periods of time and there is a problem with the danger of lethal toxicity in humans. Recently, many studies have been conducted to develop substitute materials of lead to resolve these problems. As a substitute materials for lead, barium(Ba) and iodine(I) have excellent shielding ability. But, It has characteristics emitting characteristic X-rays from the energy area near 30 keV. For patients or radiation workers, shielding materials is often made into contact with the human body. Therefore, the characteristic X-rays generated by the shielding material are directly exposured in the human body, which increases the risk of increasing radiation absorbed dose. In this study, we have developed the FLUKA transport code, one of the most suitable elements of radiation transport codes, to remove the characteristic X-rays generated by barium or iodine. We have verified the reliability of the shielding fraction of the structure of the structure shielding by comparing with the MCPDX simulations conducted as a prior study. Using the MCNPX and FLUKA, the double layer shielding structures with the various thickness combination consisting of barium sulphate ($BaSO_4$) and bismuth oxide($Bi_2O_3$) are designed. The accuracy of the type shown in IEC 61331-1 was geometrically identical to the simulation. In addition, the transmission spectrum and absorbed dose of the shielding material for the successive x-rays of 120 kVp spectra were compared with lead. In results, $0.3mm-BaSO_4/0.3mm-Bi_2O_3$ and $0.1mm-BaSO_4/0.5mm-Bi_2O_3$ structures have been absorbed in both 33 keV and 37 keV characteristic X-rays. In addition, for high-energy X-rays greater than 90 keV, the shielding efficiency was shown close to lead. Also, the transport code of the FLUKA's photon transport code was showed cut-off on low-energy X-rays(below 33keV) and is limited to computerized X-rays of the low-energy X-rays. But, In high-energy areas above 40 keV, the relative error with MCNPX was found to be highly reliable within 6 %.

기호학적 분석을 통한 영상애니메이션 연구

  • Lee Jong-Han
    • Broadcasting and Media Magazine
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.85-98
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    • 2005
  • About the phenomenon of being imaged of everything, the scholars of the humanities who had studied on the simple reason structure in a text have been in a big agony how accept it. Especially, semiologists have studied about this for a long time and the points at issues of Saussure, Peirce as well as Umbeto Eco are more outstanding. Being based upon his philosophic interesting from medieval esthetics to modern semiotics, Eco was very concerned about the field of general esthetics and poputar arts like television and cartoons. He connected the mutual open-relations between 'signifier' and 'signified' debated in Semiotics with the open and vague modern arts and regarding it as a deviation from the custom, intensively studied the film-media. Saussure is a representative figure of semiotics and explained Sign and the character of semiotics as the division into two parts such as signifier/ signified, form/ substance, langue/ parole, synchrony/ diachrony. The triadic semiotics (the theory that Sign is composed of the triadic structure like sign, referent and interpretant) of Peirce put the new item- 'interpretant' in sign and referent to connect them and open the possibility to introduce time in to the Sign. In this paper, I try to analyze a cartoon film in the semiotic structure with the systemic, reasonable and logical approach and analysis as as possible. While the images shown through a film were depended on the romantic and impressional judge in the past, due to semiotics, it' s quite possible to correlate the procedure of symbolization to social coherence so that we analyze the incredible power of images to suck audiences with the systemetic Sign. I accept all ot film-images including a cartoon film as not the simple esthetic arts but a social custom and system, want to serve as a aid to properly understand world and humanbeings and prevent the film-image from being mystic. A cartoon and a cartoon film which were begun with the link of a text and an illustration give shape to all of images such as materials, places and even thoughts with a cartoon icon existed in only a cartoon. A cartoon and a cartoon film simply and exquistely conceptualize the complex and vague attribute of an organic creature and extend them infinetly beyond language. However, it can be exploited as a mysticism to temptate the general public and a faking material. In addition to that, it can distort our world-knowledge engaging a political power and the massive power of mass media. In this paper, being based on semiotics to approach a cartoon film in a scientific and organic system, I conclude that a non-linguistic cartoon expression is entangled with the manifold signs and implies the supplementary meanings just like a regular linguistic expression. It remarks that the iconic images of a cartoon film are composed of the social codes and can be analyzed on grounds of a linguistic system.

Experiment of Flexural Behavior of Prestressed Concrete Beams with External Tendons according to Tendon Area and Tendon Force (강선량 및 긴장력에 따른 외부 강선을 가진 PSC 보의 휨거동 실험)

  • Yoo, Sung-Won;Yang, In-Hwan;Suh, Jeong-In
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.513-521
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    • 2009
  • Recently, the externally prestressed unbonded concrete structures are increasingly being built. The mechanical behavior of prestressed concrete beams with external unbonded tendon is different from that of normal bonded PSC beams in that the slip of tendons at deviators and the change of tendon eccentricity occurs as external loads are applied in external unbonded PSC beams. The purpose of the present paper is therefore to evaluate the flexural behavior by performing static flexural test according to tendon area and tendon force. From experimental results, before flexural cracking, there was no difference between external members and bonded members. However, after cracking, yielding load of reinforcement, ultimate load, and the tendon stress of external members was lower than that of bonded members. For the relationship of load-tendon stress, the increasing of tendon strain was inversely proportional to the initial tendon force. However, even if the initial tendon force was large, the tendon strain with small effective stress was smaller than that with large effective stress. The concrete compressive strain was proportional to the effective stress of external tendon. From the comparison between test results and codes, the ACI-318 could not consider the effect of tendon force or effective stress, and especially the results of ACI-318 were very small, so it was very conservative. And the AASHTO 1994 could be influenced on the tendon area, initial force and effective stress, but as it was made on the basis of internal unbonded tendon, its results were much larger than the test results. For this reason, the new correct predict equation of external tendon stress will be needed.

A Study on the Multi-Layer of Religious Inertia Represented in Sense of Place and Cultural Remains at Mt. Bak-wha (장소성과 문화경관으로 해석한 태안 백화산의 다층적 종교 관성)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Park, Joo-Sung;Goh, Yeo-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.36-48
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study are to research and analyze the positioning of Mt. Back Hwa(白華山) and the characteristics of its neighboring cultural scenery based on the Two Seated Buddah Temple, a small Buddhist temple of Taeul in Taean and to view both landscape geographic codes and religious attractions over Mt. Back Hwa by discussing its expression and meaning for the scenery scattered or nested over this districts. The panoramic view of west shows the character of Mt. Back Hwa as a magnanimity of Buddhist Goddess of Mercy which is viewed as a view point field no less than its location as a landscape target and its singularity as a rocky mountain. The ancient castle, signal beacon post and the small Buddhist temple of Taeul to be read importantly in the old map and SinjeungDongkukyeojiseungram(新增東國輿地勝覽) form the core of place identity, and a number of carve(engrave) letters such as Eopungdae(御風臺), Youngsadae(永思臺), etc. show the prospect of this mountain and monumentality derived from place characteristics. In addition removing of Taeiljeon, a portrait scroll of Dangun, national ancestor makes possible to guess the national status hold by Mt. Back Hwa in advance and to know that it has symbiotic relationship with indigenous religion and shares with the universal locality which have been continued for a long time through a portrait scroll of Dangun enshrined in Samsunggak. More than anything else, however the Rock-carved Buddha Triad in Taean, Giant Buddha of Baekjae era enshrined in the small Buddhist temple of Taeul is not only why Mt. Back Hwa, magnanimity of Buddhist Goddess of Mercy exists but also a signifier. In spite of such a placity, the union ideas of confucianism, buddhism and doctrinism of buddhism prevailed in the Late Joseon Dynasty allows the cultural phenomenon of taoism to be read in the same weight through Ilsogae(一笑溪) and Gammodae(感慕臺) which are mountain stream and pond area respectively centered in the carve letter, 'Taeeuldongcheon(太乙洞天)' constructed in front of the small Buddhist temple of Taeul, the Baduk board type of rock carvings engraved over them and a number of traces of carve letters made by confucian scholars since the Middle of Joseon Dynasty. The reason such various cultural sceneries are mixed in Mt. Back Hwa is in the results of inheritance of religious places and fusion of sprit of the times, and the various type of cultural scenery elements scattered in Mt. Back Hwa are deemed as unique geographic code to understand the multi-layered placity and the characteristics of scenery of Mt. Back Hwa in Taean.

Le théâtre de torture chez Chae yoon-il - à travers la rencontre avec Lee hyun-hwa- (채윤일의 고문연극 -이현화와의 만남을 중심으로-)

  • LEE, Sunhyung
    • Journal of Korean Theatre Studies Association
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    • no.48
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    • pp.333-368
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    • 2012
  • Dans l'histoire du $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ $cor{\acute{e}}en$, la position de Chae yoon-il est $tr{\grave{e}}s$ $particuli{\grave{e}}re$. Il a $consacr{\acute{e}}$, dans ses $carri{\grave{e}}res$ de la mise en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$, toute son ${\acute{e}}nergie$ au $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ sans jamais $fl{\acute{e}}chir$ contre le pouvoir dictatorial. Un critique a dit que son $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ est semblable au $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de la $cruaut{\acute{e}}$. Pourtant, dans la mesure $o{\grave{u}}$ il respecte le texte dramatique, et que son $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ a des tendances de la politique et qu'il oriente l'engagement du spectateur, il est certain que son $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ est loin du $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de la $cruaut{\acute{e}}$. Ses $proc{\acute{e}}d{\acute{e}}s$ de la mise en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ sont $tr{\grave{e}}s$ divers et il n'y a pas de $coh{\acute{e}}rences$ au niveau des styles dramatiques. $Malgr{\acute{e}}$ cela, nous pouvons trouver son $originalit{\acute{e}}$ de la mise en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ dans la rencontre avec Lee hyun-wha. Le metteur en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ ${\acute{e}}tablit$ son $esth{\acute{e}}tique$ $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}trale$ en montant sur $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ de cinq $pi{\grave{e}}ces$ de Lee hyun-wha. Alors, en effet qu'est-ce que $l^{\prime}esth{\acute{e}}tique$ de la mise en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ de Chae yoon-il produite par les ${\oe}uvres$ $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}trales$ de Lee hyun-wha? Dans les $pi{\grave{e}}ces$ de Lee hyun-wha, il y a beaucoup de codes symboliques de la violence sexuelle comme le sadisme et le masochisme. L'implusion sexuelle $cach{\acute{e}}e$ dans le subconscient des personnages s'entrecroise avec le $m{\acute{e}}canisme$ du pouvoir politique. Alors, les abus sexuels et les mauvais traitements sur le corps deviennent une sorte de torture. L'expression cruelle des langages $sc{\acute{e}}niques$ n'est autre que la $r{\acute{e}}volte$ contre la $r{\acute{e}}alit{\acute{e}}$ actuelle de la politique. Son $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de torture est donc une sorte de $m{\acute{e}}canisme$ de la catharsis pour dissiper le cauchemar et l'inconscient noir. La fantasie sexuelle construite par le monde inconscient de l'auteur dramatique $s^{\prime}{\acute{e}}panouit$ dans le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de Chae yoon-il qui $r{\hat{e}}ve$ toujours l'esprit de la $libert{\acute{e}}$. Une des convictions dramatiques du metteur en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$, c'est que le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ tout d'abord doit ${\hat{e}}tre$ choquant. Il dit : "l'art doit ${\hat{e}}tre$ ${\grave{a}}$ la fois ${\acute{e}}mouvant$ et bouleversant. Cependant, dans la mesure $o{\grave{u}}$ le film ou la $t{\acute{e}}l{\acute{e}}vivion$ fait aujourd'hui une vive impression aux spectateurs, la part $donn{\acute{e}}e$ au $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ est le choc." Pour donner le choc aux spectateurs, le style de la torture est $tr{\grave{e}}s$ utile. $L^{\prime}esth{\acute{e}}tique$ $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tral$ du metteur en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ respecte essentiellement l'intention de l'auteur. $N{\acute{e}}anmois$, le respect sur l'original ne se $d{\acute{e}}range$ pas $l^{\prime}interpr{\acute{e}}tation$ de son propre $id{\acute{e}}e$. Dans l'insistance de la torture, l'analyse rituelle sous la base du choc, il projecte le symbole $arch{\acute{e}}typal$ sur $sc{\grave{e}}ne$. Bien $s{\hat{u}}r$, il renforce le $caract{\grave{e}}re$ de la politique dans le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de torture pour inviter des spectateurs de l'engagement. D'ailleurs, il y a l'aspect d'absurde dans le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$ de torture qui insiste des violences ${\grave{a}}$ travers les langages $sc{\acute{e}}niques$ comme le $m{\acute{e}}tal$ froid, parce que le metteur en $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ $consid{\grave{e}}re$ que $l^{\prime}{\hat{e}}tre$ humain vit dans l'absurde.