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Analysis of Energy Savings and CO2 Emission Reductions via Application of Smart Grid System (지능형 전력망(스마트 그리드) 적용을 통한 에너지 절감 및 CO2 감축 효과 분석)

  • Park, Soo-Hwan;Han, Sang-Jun;Wee, Jung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.356-370
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    • 2017
  • The energy savings and $CO_2$ emission reductions obtainable from the situation that the Smart Grid system (SGs) is assumed to be applied in Korea up to 2030 is quantitatively analyzed with many reported data. For calculation, SGs is divided into five sectors such as Smart Transmission and Distribution (ST&D), Smart Consumer (SC), Smart Electricity Service (SES), Smart Renewable Energy (SRE) and Smart Transportation (ST). Total annual energy savings in 2030 is estimated to be approximately 103,121 GWh and this is 13.1% of total electricity consumption outlook. Based on this value, total amount of reducible $CO_2$ emissions is calculated to 55.38 million $tCO_2$, which is 17.6% of total nation's GHG reduction target. Although the contribution of energy saving due to SGs to total electricity consumption increases as years go by, that of $CO_2$ emission reduction gradually decreases. This might be because that coal fired based power generation is planned to be sharply increased and the rate of $CO_2$ emission reduction scheduled by nation is very fast. The contributable portion of five each sector to total $CO_2$ emission reductions in 2030 is estimated to be 44.37% for SC, 29.16% for SRE, 20.12% for SES, 5.11% for ST&D, and 1.24% for ST.

Comparison of Direct and Indirect $CO_2$ Emission in Provincial and Metropolitan City Governments in Korea: Focused on Energy Consumption (우리나라 광역지방자치단체의 직접 및 간접 $CO_2$ 배출량의 비교 연구: 에너지 부문을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Jun-Beum;Chung, Jin-Wook;Suh, Sang-Won;Kim, Sang-Hyoun;Park, Hung-Suck
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.874-885
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    • 2011
  • In this study, the urban $CO_2$ emission based on energy consumption (Coal, Petroleum, Electricity, and City Gas) in 16 provincial and metropolitan city governments in South Korea was evaluated. For calculation of the urban $CO_2$ emission, direct and indirect emissions were considered. Direct emissions refer to generation of greenhouse gas (GHG) on-site from the energy consumption. Indirect emissions refer to the use of resources or goods that discharge GHG emissions during energy production. The total GHG emission was 497,083 thousand ton $CO_2eq.$ in 2007. In the indirect GHG emission, about 240,388 thousand ton $CO_2eq.$ was occurred, as 48% of total GHG emission. About 256,694 thousand ton $CO_2eq.$ (52% of total GHG emissions) was produced in the direct GHG emission. This amount shows 13% difference with 439,698 thousand ton $CO_2eq.$ which is total national GHG emission data using current calculation method. Local metropolitan governments have to try to get accuracy and reliability for quantifying their GHG emission. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and use Korean emission factors than using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) emission factors. The method considering indirect and direct GHG emission, which is suggested in this study, should be considered and compared with previous studies.

Characteristics of Biodegradation of Geosmin using BAC Attached Bacteria in Batch Bioreactor (정수처리용 생물활성탄(BAC) 부착 박테리아를 이용한 회분식 반응기에서의 Geosmin 생분해 특성)

  • Son, Hee-Jong;Jung, Chul-Woo;Choi, Young-Ik;Jang, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.699-705
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    • 2010
  • In this study, three different biological activated carbons (BACs) were prepared from activated carbons made of each coal (F400, Calgon), coconut (Samchully) and wood(Pica, Picabiol) which were run for two and half years in the pilot plant. The attached bio-film microorganisms in and on the BACs were isolated and identified. The results showed that nine different bacteria species (Chryseomonas luteola, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Spingomonas paucimobilis, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Spirillum spp., and Pasteurella haemolytica) were isolated and identified, the dominant species was Pseudomonas sp. that had occupied 56.5%. More specifically, it was observed that the populations of the microorganisms deceased in the order: Pasteurella haemolytica (18.9%) > Chryseomonas luteola (4.0%) > Agrobacterium radiobacter (3.5%) > Aeromonas hydrophila (2.0%) in and on the BACs. After isolating of 9 species of biofilm microorganisms, the growth curve for the biomass was investigated. During 24~96 hours, the biomass has the highest concentration, and activity of the biomass was the best to uptake geosmin as carbon resources. The operation temperatures for investigating the biodegradation of geosmin were set at $4^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$. Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Agrobacterium radiobacter and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia played a maior role in removing the target compound as geosmin. However, geosmin was not biodegraded well by Chryseomonas luteola, Spingomonas paucimobilis, and Spirillum spp.. It is also interesting to evaluate kinetics of biodegradability of geosmin. The first-order rate constants for biodegradability of geosmin at $4^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$ were $0.00006{\sim}0.0002\;hr^{-1}$ and $0.0043{\sim}0.0046\;hr^{-1}$ respectively. Higher water temperature produced better geosmin removal rates. When concentrations of geosmin increased from 10 to 10,000 ng/L, the rate constants for biodegradability of geosmin increased from 0.0003 to $0.0882\;hr^{-1}$. As described earlier, higher geosmin concentration in the reactor produced higher rate constant.

Quality Improvement of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete due to Early Strength Gain Admixture (조강형 혼화제에 의한 플라이애시 다량 치환 콘크리트의 품질 향상)

  • Han, Cheon-Goo;Park, Jong-Ho;Lee, Joung-Ah
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of the study was to improve quality of high volume fly ash concrete. The study evaluated on the possibility of early quality improvement of high volume fly ash concrete with early strength gain admixture ('GA' below) developed by the preceding research. The study regarded applying naphthalene admixture ('NA' below) to mix proportion substituting FA 15 % to be plain. In the event of substituting FA 20, 25 and 30 %, the study compared engineering properties of concrete with plain by applying GA. Because of features of fresh concrete, fluidity falls down when GA is applied. Therefore, its use amount shall be increased. Only, in W/B 60 %, it was beneficial since slump loss was reduced about 35~70 mm than plain. The study could see that AE use should be increased proportionally since air content was reduced by coming from AE absorption operation of unburned coal content included in FA according to an increase in the amount of FA use. Reduction effect of bleeding could be anticipated since the amount of bleeding appeared at least in FA 20 %. Because of hardened concrete, time of setting appeared in the same level as plain when GA was applied. Therefore, it is judged that delay of setting can be reduced. In compressive strength, the study could check the same strength development as plain when GA was applied, having nothing to do with W/B and curing temperature. However, it is thought that we shall pay attention to GA use in the event of FA 30 % substitution. Freezing and melting resistance had less early value than plain. However, it is judged that there will be no problem of frost resistance since there is no a large difference between freezing and melting resistance and plain in overall. In accelerated neutralization, it was analyzed that a problem of weakening in neutralization appointed as a demerit when FA was applied in mass in proportion with GA use could be settled to some extent.

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The Results of Drilling in Weondong Mine Area, the Taebaegsan Mineralized District, Republic of Korea (강원도 태백산지역 원동광산 시추탐사연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Ho
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2011
  • The Taebaegsan Mineralized District is the most prospective region for the useful mineral commodities such as a coal, non-metallic, metallic mineral in South Korea. From a general point of view, Cambro- Ordovician limestone formations, Myobong slate and Pungchon (Daegi) limestone, are the most fertilizable formations in the Taebaegsan Mineralized District. The geology around Weondong mine area consists mainly of Carboniferous-Triassic formations and Cambro-Ordovician formations intruded by rhyolite/quartz porphyry. The great overthrusted fault of N40~$50^{\circ}E$ direction, so called Weondong overthrust fault, is observed in the central part of the mine area and the NS fault system cuts the overthrusted fault. By postulating from the favorable geological and structural condition around Weondong area, the possibility of deep seated hidden ore bodies is expected. In 2010, on the basis of the results of LOTEM and CSAMT survey, the cross-hole survey was performed for the investigation of the hidden polymetallic ore body in the deep parts of the Weondong mine area and the grade of the newly-discovered orebody is as follows; (1) The cut-off grade for lead-zinc 3%; an weighted average grade 5.50% (2.7 m), (2) The cutoff grade for copper 0.1%; an weighted average grade 0.91% (14.65 m), (3) The cut-off grade for iron 30%; an weighted average grade 38.18% (3.3 m), (4) $WO_3$ for each cut-off grade(0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%); an weighted average grade 0.29 wt. % (8.8 m), 1.15 wt. % (2.1 m), 1.97 wt. % (1.2 m), (5) $MoS_2$ for each cut-off grade(0.01%, 0.1%); an weighted average grade 0.15 wt. % (6.3S m), 0.28 wt. % (3.15 m), (6) $Ta_2O_5$ for each cut-off grade (0.01%, 0.1%); an weighted average grade 0.13% (19.S m), 1.11% (1.8 m), (7) $Nb_2O_5$ for each cut-offgrade (0.01%, 0.1%); an weighted average grade 0.06% 11.5 m), 0.15% (3.0 m).

Effect of Fly Ash Application on the Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils with Different Soil Texture (석탄회(Fly ash) 처리가 토성(土性)이 다른 토양의 포화수리전도도(飽和水理傳導度)에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jai-Joung;Hong, Soon-Dal
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 1999
  • Fly ash is the fine ash particles that are flying out of chimney of the thermoelectric power plant where coals are used as fuel. There are two kinds of fly ashes from anthracite and bituminous coal. By scanning electron microscope(SEM) morphological feature of fly ash was confirmed to the exact spherical particles with the diameter variation from the fine to the largest about $50{\mu}m$(mainly silty particle). Surface of anthracite ash particle was very smooth but that of bituminous was somewhat coarse. To find the utilization of fly ash for improving soil permeability, soils of 4 kinds of different texture, clay, clay loam, sandy clay loam and sand mere applied with 7 levels of fly ash: 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%(w/w) and their saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks) were determined at each application by constant head method. In clay soil with low water permeability, Ks value was increased about 10 times from $10^{-8}$ to $10^{-7}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of 10% fly ash and it was slightly increased with increasing fly ash application from 40 to 80%. In clay loam Ks value was about $10^{-7}m\;s^{-1}$ level and its value was not influenced by the fly ash application. In sandy clay loam with relatively high permeability, Ks value was decreased about 10 times from $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-6}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of 10% fly ash and also decreased about 50 times from $10^{-5}$ to $5.0{\times}10^{-7}m\;s^{-1}$ with application of more than 20% fly ash. In sand with very high permeability, Ks value was decreased about 10 times from $10^{-4}$ to $10^{-5}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of 10% fly ash and also decreased about 100 times from $10^{-4}$ to $10^{-6}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of 20% fly ash and continuously decreased about 500 times from $10^{-4}$ to $5.0{\times}10^{-7}m\;s^{-1}$ level with application of more than 40% fly ash. In conclusion by fly ash application saturated hydraulic conductivity was increased in clay soil, on the contrary it was decreased in sandy soils. Fly ash may be used as a material for amelioration of soil permeability.

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Synthesis of Artificial Zeolite from Fly Ash for Preparing Nursery Bed Soils and the Effects on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage (석탄회(石炭灰)를 이용한 육묘(育苗) 상토용(床土用) 인공(人工) 제올라이트의 제조와 배추 생육에 미치는 효과(效果))

  • Kim, Yong-Woong;Lee, Hyun-Hee;Yoon, Chung-Han;Shin, Bang-Sup;Kim, Kwang-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.95-106
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    • 1998
  • To reduce the environmental contamination and to utilize fly ash massively produced from the coal power plant every year, we synthesized the artificial zeolite using fly ash treated with alkaline, and then analyzed the mineralogical and morphological properties by X-ray, IR, and SEM. The amount of $NH_4{^+}$, $K^+$, and $H_2PO_4{^-}$ adsorbed by the fly ash and the artificial zeolite were determined with reaction time, amount of adsorbate used, ion concentrations. The results obtained from the pot experiments packed with the top soil, amended with granulated artificial zeolite which was made by treatment of 4% polyvinylalcohol, showed that CEC of the artificial zeolite was $257.7cmol^+kg^{-1}$, that was almost 36 times greater than that of fly ash. The ratio of $SiO_2/Al_2O_3$ decreased but the amount of Na increased. The physico-chemical properties analyzed by X-ray, IT, and SEM represented that the artificial zeolite synthesized had a similar morphological structure to that of the natural zeolite. The structures of the artificial zeolite had a significantly enlarged surface having a lot of pores, while the fly ash looked like spherical smooth shape with having not pores on the surface. Thus, the artificial zeolite was successfully synthesized. The results of adsorption isotherms of fly ash and artificial zeolite showed that the amount of $NH_4{^+}$, $K^+$, and $H_2PO_4{^-}$ adsorbed increased as the equilibrium concentration increased, while $NH_4{^+}$ was strongly adsorbed on the surface of fly ash and artificial zeolite than that of $K^+$. The most distinctive growth of Chinese cabbage was found from the top soil(NPK + soils + 20% of granulated artificial zeolite + 5% of compost). Therefore, we concluded that one of the most effective methods to effectively recycle a fly ash was to make the artificial zeolite as we did in this experiment.

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Geochemistry of Geothermal Waters in Korea: Environmental Isotope and Hydrochemical Characteristics II. Jungwon and Munkyeong Areas (한반도 지열수의 지화학적 연구: 환경동위원소 및 수문화학적 특성 II. 중원 및 문경 지역)

  • Yun, Seong-Taek;Koh, Yong-Kwon;Choi, Hyen-Su;Youm, Seung-Jun;So, Chil-Sup
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.201-213
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    • 1998
  • From the Jungwon and Munkyeong areas which are among the famous producers of the carbonate-type groundwaters in Korea, various kinds of natural waters (deep groundwater, shallow groundwater and surface water) were collected between 1996 and 1997 and were studied for hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope (${\delta}^{34}S_{so4}$, ${\delta}^{18}O$, ${\delta}D$)systematics. Two types of deep groundwaters (carbonate type and alkali type) occur together in the two areas, and each shows distinct hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope characteristics. The carbonate type waters show the hydrochemical feature of the 'calcium(-sodium)-bicarbonate(-sulfate) type', whereas the alkali type water of the 'sodium-bicarbonate type'. The former type waters are characterized by lower pH, higher Eh, and higher amounts of dissolved ions (especialJy, $Ca^{2+}$, $Na^{+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $HCO_3{^-}$ and $SO_4{^{2-}}$). Two types of deep groundwaters are all saturated or supersaturated with respect to calcite. Two types of deep groundwaters were both derived from pre-thermonuclear (about more than 40 years old) meteoric waters (with lighter 0 and H isotope data than younger waters, i.e., shallow cold groundwaters and surface waters) which evolved through prolonged water-rock interaction. Based on the geologic setting, water chemistry, and environmental isotope data, however, each of these two different types of deep groundwaters represents distinct hydrologic and hydrogeochemical evolution at depths. The carbonate type groundwaters were formed through mixing with acidic waters that were derived from dissolution of pyrites in hydrothermal vein ores (for the Jungwon area water) or in anthracite coal beds (for the Munkyeong area water). If the deeply percolating meteoric waters did not meet pyrites during the circulation, only the alkali type groundwaters would form. This hydrologic and hydrogeochemical model may be successfully applied to the other carbonate type groundwaters in Korea.

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A Study on the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Liver Dysfunction among the Workers in Chemical Factories (화학공장 근로자들의 간기능 이상 유병률 및 위험인자에 관한 연구)

  • Cheong, Hae-Kwan;Kim, Joung-Soon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.103-128
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    • 1997
  • The object of this study is to evaluate the possibility of chemical-induced liver disorder among workers exposed to various chemicals and to classify the the liver function abnormalities by causes and to analyse the risk factors for each liver disorders. A cross-sectional study including questionnaire survey, physical examination, laboratory tests and ultrasonography of liver was conducted on 1,126 workers, 459 workers in a coal chemical plant(company A) and 667 workers in an insulation material manufacturing factory(company B). An industrial hygienist reviewed the chemicals used in both companies and evaluated the work environments to classify the workers by chemical exposure semiquantitatively. The results are as follows: 1. Of 459 workers in company A, 83 workers(18.1%) are classified as nonexposed, group 163(35,5%) as short-term exposure group, 155(33.8%) as intermediately exposed group and 58(12.6%) as long-term exposed group bared on the mean daily exposure to hepatotoxic chemicals evaluated by an industrial hygienist. Of 667 workers in company B, 484(72.6%) workers were classified as nonexposed and 183(35.5%) as exposed group. 2. Workers with SGOT level higher than 40 IU/l were (10.0%) in company A and 77(11.5%) in company 3, and those with SGPT level higher than 35 IU/l were 118(25.7%) in company A and 198(29.7%) in company B. The differences were not significant between companies and between exposure groups(p>0.05). Workers with $\gamma-GT$ level higher than 62 IU/l were 29(6.3%) in company A and 77(11.5%) in company B (p<0.01). The difference between exposure groups was not significant(p>0.05) within companies. Workers with liver function abnormalities(defined as SGOT higher than 40 IU/l or SGPT higher than 35 IU/l) were 338(30.0%) among 1,126 workers. Of 338 workers with live. function abnormalities 139(12.3%) had fatty liver by ultrasonography, 79(7.0%) had alcoholic liver(defined as workers with liver function abnormalities with weekly alcohol consumption greater than 280 g for more than 5 years), 54(4.8%) had hepatitis B, 12(1.1%) had hepatitis C and the other 114(33.7%) was not otherwise classified. Prevalences of alcoholic liver and fatty liver were significantly lower in company A(prevalence ratio 0.24 for alcoholic liver, p<0.001, prevalence ratio 0.76 for fatty liver, p<0.05) but prevalences of liver disorders between exposure groups within companies were not significant(p>0.05). 3. Summary prevalence ratios(SPR) of live. function abnormalities, fatty live. and other liver disorders, adjusted by age and company were not significantly higher in exposed group in any chemicals(p>0.05) but in some chemicals, SPRs were significantly lower. 4. On simple analysis of risk factors for liver function abnormalities, prevalence odds ratio(POR) of those with age between 30 and 39 was 1.54(p<0.01) and those with age ever 40 was 1.51(p<0.01). POR of those with histories of liver disorders and general anesthesia was 1.77(p<0.001) and 4.02 for those with overweight and 6.23 for those with obesity, defined by body mass index(p<0.001). 5. On logistic regression analysis, risk factors of liver function abnormality were fatty liver(POR 2.92 for grade 1, 12.15 for grade 2), presence of hepatitis B surface antigen(POR 3.62) and obesity(POR 5.38 for overweight and 16.52 for obesity). Presence of hepatitis B surface antigen(POR 0.18) was the only preventive facto. of fatty live. Company(POR 0.30) and obesity(POR 2.49 for overweight, 4.52 for obesity) were related to the alcoholic live. Obesity(POR 2.94 for overweight) was the only significant risk factor of hepatitis B and there was no significant risk factor for liver function abnormality not otherwise classified. It is concluded that the evidence of liver disorder related with chemical exposure is not evident in these factories. It is also postulated that fatty liver and alcoholic liver is most common causes of liver function abnormalities among workers and effort for weight control and improvement of life style should be done.

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Sandstone Diagenesis of the Lower Permian Jangseong Formation, Jangseong Area, Samcheog Coalfield (삼척탄전 장성일대에 분포하는 하부페름기 장성층 사암의 속성작용)

  • 박현미;유인창;김형식
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.132-145
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    • 1998
  • The coal-bearing siliciclastic rocks of the Lower Permian Jangseong Formation, Samcheog coalfield, represent a megacyclothem which shows cyclic repetitions of sandstone, shale, coaly shale, and coals. Petrographic, geochemical, and SEM studies for sandstone samples, and XRD analysis for clay minerals were carried out to understand diagenesis in the sandstones of the Jangseong Formation. The Jangseong sandstones are composed of 60% quartz (mainly monocrystalline quartz) and 36% clay matrix and cement with minor amounts of feldspar, lithic fragments and accessory minerals (less than 4%). Jangseong sandstones are classified mostly as quartzwackes and partly as lithic graywackes according to the scheme of Dott(1964). The textural relationships between authigenic minerals and cements in thin sections and SEM photomicrographs suggest the paragenetic sequence as follows; (1) mechanical compaction, (2) cementation by quartz overgrowth, (3) formation of authigenic clay minerals (illite, kaolinite), (4) dissolution of framework grains and development of secondary porosity, and (5) later-stage pore-filling by pyrophyllite. We propose that these diagenetic processes might be due to organic-inorganic interaction between the dominant framework grains and the formation water. The Al, Si ions and organic acid, derived from dewatering of interbedded organic-rich shale and coals, were transported into the Jangseong sandstones. This caused changes in the chemistry of the formation water of the sandstones, and resulted in overgrowth of quartz and precipitation of authigenic clay minerals of kaolinite and illite. The secondary pores, produced during dissolution of clay and framework grains by organic acid and $CO_2$ gas, were conduit for silica-rich solution into the Jangseong sandstones and the influx of silica-rich solution produced the late-stage pyrophyllite after the expanse of kaolinite. The origin of the solution that formed pyrophyllite is not likely to be the organic-rich formation water based on the observation of fracture-filling pyrophyllite in the Jangseong sandstones, but the process of pyrophyllite pore-filling was indirectly related to organic-inorganic interaction.

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