• Title, Summary, Keyword: coal

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Specification of Chemical Properties of Feed Coal and Bottom Ash Collected at a Coal-fired Power Plant

  • Ma, Chang-Jin;Kim, Jong-Ho;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Tohno, Susumu;Kasahara, Mikio
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.80-88
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    • 2010
  • In order to offer a better understanding of air pollution of China as well as East Asia we attempted to characterize the chemical properties of the raw coal materials mined in China and their combusted bottom ashes generated from coal fired power plant. To this end, we measured the chemical characteristics of individual bottom ashes and feed coal fragments collected at a coal fired power generator which was operated with the raw coal dug at a coal mine in China. The chemical properties of these two sample types were determined by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) microprobe method. Through an application of such technique, it was possible to draw the 2D elemental maps in and/or on raw coal fragments and fired bottom ashes. The pulverized fine pieces of feed coal mainly consisted of mineral components such as Fe, Ca, Ti, Ca, and Si, while Fe was detected as overwhelming majority. The elemental mass of combusted bottom ash shows strong enrichment of many elements that exist naturally in coal. There were significant variations in chemical properties of ash-to-ash and fragment-to-fragment. Although we were not able to clearly distinguish As and Pb peaks because of the folding in their X-ray energies, these two elements can be used as tracers of coal fire origin.

The experimental study of 1 ton/day coal gasifier using Adaro coal (1 ton/day 석탄가스화기를 이용한 Adaro 탄의 가스화 특성 실험)

  • Park, Seik;Jung, Jaehwa;Seo, Hai-Kyung;Lee, Joongwon;Ju, Ji-Sun;Ji, Junhwa;Kim, Miyoung;Kim, Kitae
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.105.1-105.1
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    • 2010
  • Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) has developed a compact coal-gasification system to accumulate our experiment skills. The combustion furnace for residual oil was modified as a small size coal gasifier. Recently, coal feeding system was also upgraded to control coal feed rate more accurately. Our research group has conducted several experiments to find out the effect of $O_2$/coal ratio on the cold gas efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of $N_2$/coal ratio on the transport characteristics was also studied. According to the calculation of heat and mass balance, the cold gas efficiency was estimated to the maximum at $O_2$/coal ratio of around 0.73. But small size gasifier such as ours required higher value of $O_2$/coal ratio than that of the theoretical estimation. On the optimal $N_2$/coal ratio, we noticed that the coal feed rate was intimately related with the transporting gas pressure and the pipe diameter.

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Impact of Globalization on Coal Consumption in Vietnam: An Empirical Analysis

  • NGUYEN, Thi Cam Van;LE, Quoc Hoi
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.185-195
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    • 2020
  • The study investigates the impact of globalization on coal consumption in Vietnam. This study employs an autoregressed distributed lag approach on time series data for the period of 1990 to 2017. The study tests the stationary, cointegration of time series data and utilizes autoregressed distributed lag modeling technique to determine the short-run and long-run relationship among coal consumption, globalization, income, population, and CO2 emissions. The results show that globalization increases coal consumption in Vietnam in the long run. The results also show that rapid economic growth promotes more coal consumption in the short run as well as in the long run. Moreover, higher population reduces coal consumption, and CO2 emissions decrease coal consumption both in the short run and the long run. The findings of the study suggest that globalization increases coal consumption in Vietnam in the long run. This result suggests that the increase in globalization level in Vietnam increases coal consumption. An interesting finding is that higher population reduces coal consumption, and population is an important factor towards the lessening in coal consumption. The findings confirm that environmental pollution decreases coal consumption in the short run and the long run. This implies that coal consumption may be green consumption in Vietnam.

Coalbed methane potential for Korean anthracite and possibility of its utilization (국내무연탄층에 함유된 메탄자원의 잠재력과 그 이용가능성)

  • 박석환
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 1999
  • Coal is both source rock and reservoir rock for the coalbed gas. Coalbed gas. Coalbed gas is predominantly methane and has a heating value of approximatly 1000 BTU/$ft^3$. Most of methane is stored in the coal as a monomolecular layer adsorbed on the internal surface of the coal matrix. The amount of methane stored in coal is related to the rank and the depth of the coal. THe higher the coal rank and the deeper the coal seam is presently buried, the greater its capacity to hold gas. Most of Korean Coal is anthracite or metaanthracite, Ro. 3.5~5.5%, and total reserves are 1.6 billion metric tons. The domestic demand for coal was drastically decreased and the rationalization policy carried out from 1987 on coal industry. Now that a large number of coal mines was closed only a few mines continued to produce not more than 5 million tons for year. It is therefore recommended to formulate a strategy to explore and exploit the resources of coalbed methane in Korea.

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Respirable Cool Dust Exposure Concentration at Work Sites of Underground Coal Mines in Taebaek Area (태백지역 석탄광산의 작업부서별 호흡성 분진 폭로농도)

  • Yoon, Young No;Chung, Ho Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 1991
  • Exposure level of respirable coal dust of underground coal mines in Taebaek area was evaluated. Personal air samplers with 10-mm nylone cyclones were attached to the coal workers including drillers, coal cutters, their assistants, haulers, and separators. Log-normality of respirable dust exposure concentration were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test. Differences of means of respirable dust exposure concentration between work sites were tested by one-way ANOVA test and multiple comparison(Scheffe) test. And differences of respirable dust exposure concentration of principal and assistant workers in drilling sites and in coal faces were tested by paired t-test. Relation of respirable dust exposure concentration for the principal workers and their assistants in drilling sites and in coal faces were tested by regression analysis. The results were as follows : 1. All of the respirable dust concentration were log-normally distributed. 2. There were not only significantly different means of exposure concentration between drillers and coal cutters but between coal cutters and haulers. 3. Means of exposure concentration of drillers and drilling assistants were not significantly different. And means of exposure concentration of coal cutters and coal cutting assistants were not different.

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Evaluation of the Coal-Degrading Ability of Rhizobium and Chelatococcus Strains Isolated from the Formation Water of an Indian Coal Bed

  • Singh, Durgesh Narain;Tripathi, Anil Kumar
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1101-1108
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    • 2011
  • The rise in global energy demand has prompted researches on developing strategies for transforming coal into a cleaner fuel. This requires isolation of microbes with the capability to degrade complex coal into simpler substrates to support methanogenesis in the coal beds. In this study, aerobic bacteria were isolated from an Indian coal bed that can solubilize and utilize coal as the sole source of carbon. The six bacterial isolates capable of growing on coal agar medium were identified on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, which clustered into two groups; Group I isolates belonged to the genus Rhizobium, whereas Group II isolates were identified as Chelatococcus species. Out of the 4 methods of whole genome fingerprinting (ERIC-PCR, REP-PCR, BOX-PCR, and RAPD), REP-PCR showed maximum differentiation among strains within each group. Only Chelatococcus strains showed the ability to solubilize and utilize coal as the sole source of carbon. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and the ability to utilize different carbon sources, the Chelatococcus strains showed maximum similarity to C. daeguensis. This is the first report showing occurrence of Rhizobium and Chelatococcus strains in an Indian coal bed, and the ability of Chelatococcus isolates to solubilize and utilize coal as a sole source of carbon for their growth.

Numerical simulation of pressure relief in hard coal seam by water jet cutting

  • Song, Dazhao;Wang, Enyuan;Xu, Jiankun;Liu, Xiaofei;Shen, Rongxi;Xu, Wenquan
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.495-510
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    • 2015
  • The applications of water jet cutting (WJC) in coal mine have progressed slowly. In this paper, we analyzed the possibility and reasonableness of WJC application to pressure relief in hard coal seam, simulated the distributive characteristics of stress and energy fields suffered by hard coal roadway wallrock and the internal relationships of the fields to the instability due to WJC (including horizontal radial slot and vertical annular slot) on roadway wallrock. The results showed that: (1) WJC can unload hard coal seam effectively by inducing stress release and energy dissipation in coal mass near its slots; its annular slots also can block or weaken stress and energy transfer in coal mass; (2) the two slots may cause "the beam structure" and "the small pillar skeleton", and "the layered energy reservoir structure", respectively, which lead to the increase in stress concentration and energy accumulation in coal element mass near the slots; (3) the reasonable design and optimization of slots' positions and their combination not only can significantly reduce the scope of stress concentration and energy accumulation, but also destroy coal mass structure on a larger scale to force stress to transfer deeper coal mass.

Investigation on energy dissipation and its mechanism of coal under dynamic loads

  • Feng, Junjun;Wang, Enyuan;Shen, Rongxi;Chen, Liang;Li, Xuelong;Xu, Zhaoyong
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.657-670
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    • 2016
  • The energy dissipation of coal under dynamic loads is a major issue in geomechanics and arising extensive concerns recently. In this study, dynamic loading tests of coal were conducted using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system, the characteristics of dynamic behavior and energy dissipation of coal were analyzed, and the mechanism of energy dissipation was discussed based on the fracture processes of coal under dynamic loads. Experimental results indicate that the energy dissipation of coal under dynamic loads has a positive linear correlation with both incident energy and dynamic compressive strength, and the correlation coefficients between incident energy, dynamic compressive strength and the energy dissipation rate are 0.74 and 0.98, respectively. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that higher level of stress leads to greater energy released during unstable crack propagation, thus resulting in larger energy dissipation rate of coal under dynamic loads. At last, a semi-empirical energy dissipation model is proposed for describing the positive relationship between dissipated energy and stress.

Coal particle distribution inside fuel droplets of high loading CWM (고부하도 CWM 연료방울안에 존재하는 미분탄 분포)

  • 김성준;유영길
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.618-629
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    • 1991
  • The purpose of this experiment is to understand the distribution of coal particles inside CWM droplet which is believed to be a very important factor controlling the flame stability. CWM slurry is atomized by an air assisted twin fluid nozzle. An experimental rig is designed and fabricated. The mean size of coal particle distribution in CWM slurry, atomizing air pressure, coal particle loading in slurry and sampling position inside spray are main experimental variables. The atomized CWM droplets are sampled on the thin white layer of magnesium oxide by the emergency sampling shutter. The sampled coal particles on magnesium oxide layers are collected into test tubes and dispersed completely by Ultra-Sonicator. The size distribution of coal particles inside droplets are measured by Coulter Counter. The presence of coal particle inside the impressions of droplets on magnesium oxide layer are investigated by photo technique. There are quite many droplets which do not have any coal particles. Those are just water droplets, not CWM droplets. The population ratio of droplets without coal particles to toal number of droplets is strongly affected by the mean size of coal particle distribution in slurry and this ration becomes bigger number as the mean size of coal particles be larger. The size distribution of coal particles inside CWM droplets is not even and depends on the size of droplet. Experimental results show that the larger CWM droplets has droplets has bigger mean value of particle size distribution. This trend becomes more evident as the atomizing air pressure is raised and the mean size of coal particles in CWM slurry is bigger. That is, the distribution of coal particles inside CWM dropolets is very much affected by the atomizing air pressure and the mean size of pulverized coal particles in CWM slurry.

Preparation of Coal Tar Pitch as Carbon Fibers Precursor from Coal Tar (콜타르로부터 탄소섬유 제조를 위한 프리커서용 석탄계 핏치의 제조)

  • Ko, Hyo Joon;Park, Chang Uk;Cho, Hyo Hang;Yoo, Mi Jung;Kim, Myung-Soo;Lim, Yun-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.276-280
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    • 2013
  • Coal tar is the primary feedstock of premium graphitizable carbon precursor. Coal tars are residues formed as byproducts of thermal treatments of coal. Coal tar pitches were prepared through two different heat treatment schedules and their properties were characterized. One was prepared with argon and oxidation treatment with oxygen; the other was prepared with oxygen treatment at low temperature and then argon treatment at high temperature; both used coal tar to prepare coal tar pitches. To modulate the properties, different heat treatment temperatures ($300{\sim}400^{\circ}C$) were used for the coal tar pitches. The prepared coal tar pitches were investigated to determine several properties, such as softening point, C/H ratio, coke yield, and aromaticity index. The coal tar pitches were subject to considerable changes in chemical composition that arose due to polymerization after heat treatment. Coal tar pitch showed considerable increases in softening point, C/H ratio, coke yields, and aromaticity index compared to those characteristics for coal tar. The contents of gamma resin, which consists of low molecular weight compounds in the pitches and is insoluble in toluene, showed that the degree of polymerization in the pitches was proportional to C/H ratio. Using an oxidizing atmosphere like air to prepare the pitches from coal tar was an effective way to increase the aromaticity index at relatively low temperature.