• 제목, 요약, 키워드: coal

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Relationship of fractures in coal with lithotype and thickness of coal lithotype

  • Pan, Jienan;Wang, Haichao;Wang, Kai;Niu, Qinghe
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.613-624
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    • 2014
  • The fractures in coal are the main migration and output channels of coalbed methane, directly influencing the permeability of the coal seams. It is of great significance to study the effect of fracture distribution in coals on the permeability of coal seam. The development rules of endogenetic and exogenetic fractures are different among various coal lithotypes. There is also difference in the fracture density for the same lithotype with different thicknesses. Through the observation and description of the macroscopic fractures in coal and the origin of fractures in coal, the effect of the coal lithotype and its thickness on fracture development in coal was discussed. It was found through the study that the density of fractures in vitrain band was the maximum for the same coal rank and thickness, followed by clarain band. There were few fractures developed in the durain band. However, the changes of fracture density in three types of bands presented different declining trends for low, medium and high coal rank. There were no fractures developed in the fusain. There were three variation patterns for the fracture densities at the same coal rank and coal lithotype: linear decrease, nonlinear decrease, and first decrease then remaining unchanged. However, the overall trend was that the fracture density decreased with the increase of thickness of coal band for the same coal rank and coal lithotype.

저등급 석탄으로부터 초청정석탄 제조 기술 (Technology for the Preparation of Ash-free Coal from Low Rank Coal(LRC))

  • 이시훈;김상도
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.443-450
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    • 2008
  • 고유가 대응방안으로 저등급 석탄의 효과적인 활용기술에 대해 고찰하였다. 현재 산업체에서 사용하는 석탄 중에 갈탄과 아역청탄이 저등급 석탄에 속하며 매장량이 풍부하고 세계적으로 고르게 분포되어 있지만 높은 수분 함량과 자연발화 가능성으로 인해 활용이 많이 되지 않고 있다. 본 논문에서는 저등급 석탄으로부터 화학적 정제기술을 이용하여 초청정석탄을 제조하는 기술에 대하여 고찰하였다. 회분 제거기술인 UCC 공정과 가연성분 추출기술인 Hyper Coal 공정을 비교하였다. 회분 제거기술인 UCC(Ultra Clean Coal) 공정은 Hyper Coal 공정에 비해 단순하다는 장점이 있지만 생성물의 회분 농도가 0.1% 이상으로 높다. 가연성분 추출 기술인 Hyper Coal 공정은 용매추출과 이온제거공정 등 구성은 복잡하지만 회분이 200ppm 이하로 생성된다. 초청정석탄은 오일과 동일 등급의 초 청정연료로써 산업용 석유를 대체하고 장기적으로는 IGCC와 IGFC, 그리고 차세대 고도연소기술의 연료로 활용될 수 있을 것이다.

석탄 노즐내 미분탄 분리장치의 입자 분리 효과에 관한 실험적 연구 (An Experimental Study on the Separating Effect of Pulverized Coal at Coal Nozzle with Coal Separator)

  • 김혁제;송시홍;이건명;김상현;이익형
    • 대한기계학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.764-769
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    • 2001
  • Recently, according to increase in the requirement of electric power, a thermoelectric power plant equipped with pulverized coal combustion system is highly valued, because coal has abundant deposits and a low price compared with others. For efficient use of coal fuel, most of plant makers are studying to improve combustion performance and flame stability, and reduce pollutant emission. One of these studies is how to control the profile of particle injection and velocity dependant on coal nozzle. Basically, a mixed flow of gas and particle in coal nozzle is required to have appropriate injection and concentration distribution at exit to achieve flame stability and low pollutant, but it is very difficult to obtain that without help of a coal separating device within nozzle. In this study, each distribution of air and coal flow rate is measured for the coal nozzle with coal separator developed by us. The coal concentration at exit is various according to inlet swirl values and positions of coal separator. Also pressure drop is measured for various operating conditions of this nozzle. From these results, we can find the separation characteristic of new developed coal separator, and select proper operation range of coal nozzle. When this coal nozzle is applied to actual plant, these investigations will be very useful to confirm the shape of coal separator to have efficient particle injection.

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A Numerical Study on Coal Devolatilization of Bituminous Coal Using CPD Model

  • 김량균;이병화;전창환;장용준;송주헌
    • 대한기계학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.2898-2903
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    • 2008
  • The coal considerably is the energy resource which is important with the new remarking energy resource. The coal conversion has two processes which are coal devolatilization and char oxidation. Coal devolatilization is important because it describes up to 70% weight loss and has been shown that nitrogen contribute 60 to 80% of the total NOx produced. The chemical percolation devolatilization(CPD) model is used here to describe coal devolatilization. The model was developed to describe coal devolatilization behavior of rapidly heated coal based on characteristics of the chemical structure of the parent coal. This paper describes CPD model in detail and makes an analysis of Shenhua coal(bituminous) which is used calculated 13-C NMR(carbon-nuclear magnetic resonance).

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Stabilization Characteristics of Upgraded Coal using Palm Acid Oil

  • Rifella, Archi;Chun, Dong Hyuk;Kim, Sang Do;Lee, Sihyun;Rhee, Youngwoo
    • 청정기술
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.299-307
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    • 2016
  • These days, coal is one of the most important energy resources used for transportation, industry, and electricity. There are two types of coal: high-rank and low-rank. Low-rank coal has a low calorific value and contains large amounts of useless moisture. The quality of low-rank coal can be increased by simple drying technology and it needs to be stabilized by hydrocarbons (e.g. palm acid oil, PAO) to prevent spontaneous combustion and moisture re-adsorption. Spontaneous combustion becomes a major problem during coal mining, storage, and transportation. It can involve the loss of life, property, and economic value; reduce the quality of the coal; and increase greenhouse gas emissions. Besides spontaneous combustion, moisture re-adsorption also leads to a decrease in quality of the coal due to its lower heating value. In this work, PAO was used for additive to stabilize the upgraded coal. The objectives of the experiments were to determine the stabilization characteristic of coal by analyzing the behavior of upgraded coal by drying and PAO addition regarding crossing-point temperature of coal, the moisture behavior of briquette coal, and thermal decomposition behavior of coal.

Influence of interaction between coal and rock on the stability of strip coal pillar

  • Gao, W.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2018
  • The constrained conditions of roof and floor for the coal pillar affect the strength of coal pillar very seriously. To analyze the influence of rock mass for the roof and floor on the stability of coal pillar comprehensively, one method based on the mechanical method for the composite rock mass was proposed. In this method, the three rock layers of roof, floor and coal pillar are taken as the bedded composite rock mass. And the influence of rock mass for the roof and floor on the elastic core of coal pillar has been analyzed. This method can obtain not only the derived stress by the cohesive constraining forces for the coal pillar, but also the derived stress for the rock mass of the roof and floor. Moreover, the effect of different mechanical parameters for the roof and floor on the stability of coal pillar have been analyzed systematically. This method can not only analyze the stability of strip coal pillar, but also analyze the stability of other mining pillars whose stress distribution is similar with that of the strip coal pillar.

Performance of bricks and brick masonry prism made using coal fly ash and coal bottom ash

  • Verma, Surender K.;Ashish, Deepankar K.;Singh, Joginder
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.231-242
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    • 2016
  • The major problem of a coal combustion-based power plant is that it creates large quantity of solid wastes. So, to achieve the gainful use of waste materials and to avoid other environmental problems, this study was undertaken. The quantity of coal ash by-products, particularly coal fly ash and coal bottom ash has been increasing from the coal power plants around the world. The other objective of this study was to explore the possibility of utilization of coal ash in the production of ash bricks. In 15 different mixes, Mix Designation M-1 to M-15, the varying percentages of lime and gypsum were used and sand was replaced with coal bottom ash. Further, it has been noticed that the water absorption and compressive strength of mix M-15 is 13.36% and 7.85 MPa which is better than the conventional bricks. The test results of this investigation show that the prism strength of coal ash masonry prisms was more than that of the conventional bricks.

직·간접 석탄액화 기술 동향 (Trends of Direct/Indirect Coal Liquefaction Technologies)

  • 박주원;박철환;김학주;정헌;한춘
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.248-257
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    • 2008
  • 1920년대 독일에서 최초로 시도되어진 석탄액화(coal liquefaction, coal-to-liquid, CTL)는 액화 방법에 따라 직접석탄액화(direct coal liquefaction, DCL)와 간접석탄액화(indirect coal liquefaction, ICL)로 나누어진다. 석탄액화 기술은 1970년대부터 2000년대까지 다양한 연구개발을 통해 원유를 대체할 수 있는 자원으로 개발되고 최적화 되어왔다. 특히 최근에는 국제유가의 상승 및 원유수급의 불안정으로 인해 안정적이고 매장량이 풍부한 석탄에 대한 관심이 더욱 높아지고 있으며 여러 국가에서 석탄액화 프로젝트가 진행 중에 있다. 본고의 취지는 석탄액화기술의 기술개발 현황 및 동향을 검토하는데 있다. 따라서 직 간접 석탄액화공정 비교와 함께 각국의 석탄액화 사업 현황 및 동향을 소개하였다. 석탄액화 사업은 대규모의 국책사업으로 추진되어야 하며 정부의 지원하에 해외 선진기술습득의 길을 모색하여야 할 것이다.

New approaches to testing and evaluating the impact capability of coal seam with hard roof and/or floor in coal mines

  • Tan, Y.L.;Liu, X.S.;Shen, B.;Ning, J.G.;Gu, Q.H.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.367-376
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    • 2018
  • Samples composed of coal and rock show different mechanical properties of the pure coal or rock mass. For the same coal seam with different surrounding rocks, the frequency and intensity of rock burst can be significantly different in. First, a method of measuring the strain variation of coal in the coal-rock combined sample was proposed. Second, laboratory tests have been conducted to investigate the influences of rock lithologies, combined forms and coal-rock height ratios on the deformation and failure characteristics of the coal section using this method. Third, a new bursting liability index named combined coal-rock impact energy speed index (CRIES) was proposed. This index considers not only the time effect of energy, but also the influence of surrounding rocks. At last, a new approach considering the influences of roof and/or floor was proposed to evaluate the impact capability of coal seam. Results show that the strength and elastic modulus of coal section increase significantly with the coal-rock height ratio decreasing. In addition, the values of bursting liability indexes of the same coal seam vary greatly when using the new approach. This study not only provides a new approach to measuring the strain of the coal section in coal-rock combined sample, but also improves the evaluation system for evaluating the impact capability of coal.

국내탄의 석탄암석학적 특성 (Coal Petrological Characteristics of Korean Coal)

  • 박홍수;박석환
    • 자원환경지질
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.141-150
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    • 1989
  • In order to make economic and geological evaluation of coal in Korea, proximate and ultimate analyses were carried out as well as coal petrological studies such as maceral analyses, vitrinite reflectance and sporinite fluorescence measurement. The coeffcient of correlation between each factor of both conventional utilization and coal petrological parameters were studied as in Table 5 and 6. Their conclusions were as follow: (1) for anthracite, the good parameters of coal rank are mean vitrinite reflectance, carbon content, hydrogen content and H/C atomic ratio: (2) for brown coal and sub-bituminous coal, the good parameters of coal rank are carbon content, calorific value, moisture content, hydrogen content, oxygen content and O/C atomic ratio as well as vitrinite reflectance and sporinite fluorescence. An attempt is made to infer the coalforming environment by utilization of coal petrological analyses and to make comparison of coal analyses with proximate and ultimate analyses throughout the island arc region including Japan, Philippine and Indonesia and continental region including USA, Canada and Australia. As a result, meceral composition of Paleozoic and Mesozoic anthracite are similar to that of the Paleozoic continental coals, which were formed under dry conditions or low water table, but the coalification degree suddenly increased during Daebo orogeny (middle Jurassic to lower Cretaceous). The Tertiary coal resembles those of Tertiary island arc region coal characterized by higher calorific value, volatile matter content and H/C atomic ratio and by the formation of coal under wet conditions or higher water table.

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