• Title, Summary, Keyword: clinical breast-examination

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Imperfect Correlation of Mammographic and Clinical Breast Tissue Density

  • Alipour, Sadaf;Bayani, Leila;Saberi, Azin;Alikhassi, Afsaneh;Hosseini, Ladan;Eslami, Bita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3685-3688
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    • 2013
  • Background: Clinicians determine degree of mammographic density based on tissue firmness on breast examination. The study aimed to compare breast density in mammography and clinical breast examination. Materials and Methods: Six-hundred sixty three women 40 years of age or older were studied. The breast exam density was graded from 1 to 4 by two expert surgeons and the mammographic parenchymal density by two expert radiologists. Then for practical reasons, grades 1 and 2 were considered as low-density and grades 3 and 4 as high-density. Results: High and low densities were detected in 84.5% and 15.5% of clinical breast examinations and 59.7% and 40.3% of mammographies, respectively. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the breast tissue densities in breast examination with those in mammography. Conclusions: A clinically dense breast does not necessarily imply a dense mammographic picture.

Analysis of Factors Affecting Occupational Health Nurses' Early Breast Cancer Screening (산업간호사의 유방암 조기검진행위에 영향을 미치는 요인 분석)

  • Lee, Chang-Hyun;Jung, Hye-Sun;Kim, Ji-Yoon;Kim, Young-Im
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate early breast cancer screening rate of occupational health nurses and to analyze factors affecting their behavior. Method: We reviewed and analyzed the structured questionnaires of III respondents from 230 participants in continuing education of occupational health nurses. Result: Breast self examination was performed in 72.1%, clinical breast examination was received in 30.6% and mammography was received in 40.5% significant factors affecting breast self examination were age and the age of menarche. significant factors affecting clinical breast examinations for breast cancers were age and the place of residence, and factors affecting mammography were age, monthly income, alcohol intake, the age of menarche, and attitude about early screening for breast cancers. Conclusion: Early breast cancer screening rate of occupational health nurses was higher than that of general population of women. But the rate of clinical breast examination and mammogaphy were lower of less than 50% of respondents. Therefore occupational health nurses who are responsible for health management of working women need more education for themselves to promote the motivation and to increase the rate of participation in early breast cancer screening.

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BreastLight Apparatus Performance in Detection of Breast Masses Depends on Mass Size

  • Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa;Kargar, Saeed;Taheri-Nasaj, Hossein;Neamatzadeh, Hossein
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1181-1184
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    • 2015
  • Background: Accurate measurement of breast mass size is fundamental for treatment planning. We evaluated performance of BreastLight apparatus in detection breast of masses with this in mind. Materials and Methods: From July 2011 to September 2013, a total of 500 women referred to mammography unit in Yazd, Iran for screening were recruited to this study. Performance of BreastLight in detection breast masses regard their sizeing, measured with clinical breast examination (CBE), mammography and sonography, was assessed. Sonographic and mammography examinations were performed according to breast density among women in two groups of women younger (n=105) and older (n=395) than 30 years. Size correlations were performed using Spearman rho analysis. Differences between mass size as assessed with the different methods (mammography, sonography, and clinical examination) and the BreastLight detection were analyzed using $X^2$-trend test. Results: Performance of the BreastLight in detection of lesions smaller than or equal to 1 cm assessed by CBE, mammography and sonography was 4.4%,7.7% and 12.5% and for masses larger than 4 cm was 65%, 100% and 57.1%, respectively. The performance of BreastLight in detection was significantly increased with larger masses (p<0.001). Conclusions: We conclude that clinical measurement of breast cancer size is as accurate as that from mammography or ultrasound. Accuracy can be improved by the use of a simple formula of both clinical and mammographic measurements.

Breast Cancer Awareness of Rural Women in Malaysia: is it the Same as in the Cities?

  • Norlaili, Abdul Aziz;Fatihah, Mohd Amin;Daliana, Nik Farid Nik;Maznah, Dahlui
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7161-7164
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    • 2013
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. This study was conducted to compare the awareness of breast cancer and the practice of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening among rural females in Pahang and Perak. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five selected rural districts of Pahang and Perak. Two hundred and fifty households were randomly selected and interviewed face to face using a semi-structured questionnaire. The majority of residents from both states were Malay, aged between 50 and 60 years and had a secondary level of education. Malay women aged 40-49 years and women with a higher level of education were significantly more aware of breast cancer (p<0.05). About half of these women practiced BSE (60.7%) and CBE (56.1%), and 7% had underwent mammography screening. The results of this study suggest that women in Pahang and Perak have good awareness of breast cancer and that more than half practice BSE and CBE. The women's level of education appears to contribute to their level of knowledge and health behaviour. However, more effort is needed to encourage all women in rural areas to acquire further knowledge on breast cancer.

Oncologist Perspectives on Breast Cancer Screening in India-Results from a Qualitative Study in Andhra Pradesh

  • Bodapati, Srikanthi Lakshmi;Babu, Giridhara Rathnaiah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5817-5823
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    • 2013
  • Background: It is important to understand the perceptions of oncologists to understand the comprehensive picture of clinical presentation of breast cancer. In the absence of clear evidence, clinical practice involving patients of breast cancer in India should provide insights into stages of breast cancer with which women present to their clinics and mode of screening of breast cancer prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted to understand the perceptions of oncologists regarding clinical presentation of breast cancer, stages at which women present to clinics, and mode of screening of breast cancer prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. In-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with ten practising oncologists from various public and private cancer hospitals in Hyderabad city to understand their perspectives on breast cancer and screening. The data were triangulated to draw inferences suitable for the current public Health scenario. Results: Late presentation was indicated as the most important cause of decreased survival among women. Most women present at Stage 3 and 4 when there is no opportunity for surgical intervention. The results indicate that there is a huge gap in awareness about breast cancer, especially in rural areas and among poor socioeconomic groups. Even despite knowledge, most women delay in reporting due to reasons like fear, embarrassment, cost, ignorance, negligence, and easy going attitude. Conclusions: It is important to improve awareness about breast cancer and screening methods for promoting early screening. The study inferred that it would be beneficial to establish cancer registries in rural areas. Also, the policymakers need to make key decisions which among three methods (breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination and mammography) can best be used as a screening tool and how to successfully implement population wide screening program to prevent mortality and morbidity from breast cancer in India.

Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Breast Cancer in a Rural District of Central India

  • Gangane, Nitin;Ng, Nawi;Sebastian, Miguel San
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.6863-6870
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    • 2015
  • Background: Breast cancer accounted for almost 25% of all cancers in women globally in 2012. Although breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in India, there is no organised national breast cancer screening programme. Local studies on the burden of breast cancer are essential to develop effective context-specific strategies for an early detection breast cancer programme, considering the cultural and ethnic heterogeneity in India. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about breast cancer in rural women in Central India. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted in Wardha district, located in Maharashtra state in Central India in 2013. The sample included 1000 women (609 rural, 391 urban) aged 13-50 years, selected as representative from each of the eight development blocks in the district, using stratified cluster sampling. Trained social workers interviewed women and collected demographic and socio-economic data. The instrument also assessed respondents' knowledge about breast cancer and its symptoms, risks, methods of screening, diagnosis and treatment, as well as their attitudes towards breast cancer and selfreported practices of breast cancer screening. Chi-square and t-test were applied to assess differences in the levels of knowledge, attitude, and practice (the outcome variables) between urban and rural respondents. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to analyse the relationship between socio-demographic factors and the outcome variables. Results: While about two-thirds of rural and urban women were aware of breast cancer, less than 7% in rural and urban areas had heard about breast self-examination. Knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, and treatment was similarly poor in both rural and urban women. Urban women demonstrated more positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening practices than their rural counterparts. Better knowledge of breast cancer symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment correlated significantly with older age, higher levels of education, and being office workers or in business. Conclusions: Women in rural Central India have poor knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms and risk factors. Breast self-examination is hardly practiced, though the willingness to learn is high. Positive attitudes towards screening provide an opportunity to promote breast self-examination.

Differences in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Rates in Jordan among Women from Different Socioeconomic Strata: Analysis of the 2012 Population-Based Household Survey

  • Al Rifai, Rami;Nakamura, Keiko
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6697-6704
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    • 2015
  • Background: The burden of breast and cervical cancer is changing over time in developing countries. Regular screening is very important for early detection and treatment. In this study, we assessed inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening rates in women according to household wealth status, and analyzed the potential predictors associated with a low cancer screening rate in Jordan. Materials and Methods: A nationwide populationbased cross-sectional survey collected information on different variables at the national level. All ever-married women (the phrase is used throughout the text to refer to women who had ever married) aged 15-49 years were included in the survey. Analysis of breast self-examination (BSE) and clinical breast examination (CBE) at least once in the previous year was carried out in 11,068 women, while lifetime Pap-smear testing was carried out in 8,333 women, aged 20-49 years. Results: Over 39% and 19% of ever-married Jordanian women reported having undergone a breast examination during the previous year and Pap smear examination at least once in their lifetime, respectively. The rate of BSE in the previous year was 31.5%, that of CBE in the previous year was 19.3%, and that of Pap smear examination at least once in life was 25.5%. The adjusted OR was higher for performing BSE (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43), undergoing CBE (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.60) and undergoing Pap smear examination (aOR 2.38, 95% CI 1.92-2.93) among women in the highest wealth-index quintile as compared to those in the lowest quintile. The concentration index was 0.11 for BSE, 0.01 for CBE, and 0.27 for Pap smear examination. Women in their twenties, living in rural or the southern region of Jordan, with an elementary school education or less, who listened to the radio or read the newspaper not more than a few times a year, and nulliparous women were less likely to undergo breast and cervical cancer screening. Conclusions: The rates of breast and cervical cancer screening are low in Jordan. Reducing the sociodemographic and economic inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screenings requires concerted outreach activities for women living under socially deprived conditions.

The Results of a Breast Cancer Screening Camp at a District Level in Rural India

  • Reddy, Neha;Ninan, Tilu;Tabar, Laszlo;Bevers, Therese
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6067-6072
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    • 2012
  • Background: Breast cancer in developing countries is on the rise. There are currently no guidelines to screen women at risk in India. Since mammography in the western world is a well-accepted screening tool to prevent late presentation of breast cancer and improve mortality, it is intuitive to adopt mammography as a screening tool of choice. However, it is expensive and fraught with logistical issues in developing countries like India. Materials and Methods: Our breast cancer screening camp was done at a local district hospital in India after approval from the director and administrators. After initial training of local health care workers, a one-day camp was held. Clinical breast examination, mammograms, as well as diagnostic evaluation with ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy were utilized. Results: Out of total 68 women screened only 2 women with previous history of breast cancer were diagnosed with breast cancer recurrence. None of the women in other groups were diagnosed with breast cancer despite suspicious lesions either on clinical exam, mammogram or ultrasound. Most suspicious lesions were fibroadenomas. The average cost of screening women who underwent mammography, ultrasound and fine needle aspiration was $30 dollars, whereas it was $16 in women who had simple clinical breast examination. Conclusions: Local camps act as catalysts for women to seek medical attention or discuss with local health care workers concerns of discovering new lumps or developing breast symptoms. Our camp did diagnose recurrence of breast cancer in two previously treated breast cancer patients, who were promptly referred to a regional cancer hospital. Further studies are needed in countries like India to identify the best screening tool to decrease the presentation of breast cancer in advanced stages and to reduce mortality.

Intramammary sentinel lymph node with capsular extravasation in breast cancer

  • De Alcantara Filho, Paulo Roberto;Curi, Carla;Guatelli, Camila Souza;de Toledo Osorio, Cynthia Aparecida B.;Bezerra, Stephania Martins;Soares, Fernando Augusto;Makdissi, Fabiana Baroni
    • Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
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    • v.92 no.5
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    • pp.376-379
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    • 2017
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been developed as the standard of treatment in breast cancer. Status of axillary sentinel lymph node is known to be a significant prognostic factor. Nevertheless, involvement of an intramammary lymph node with metastasis in breast cancer is a rare radiological and clinical presentation, and with extracapsular extravasation even more uncommon. Historically, reported series of patients with intramammary lymph node diagnosed by final histological examination are small in number and clinical significance of metastasis is still unclear. Here, we report a case of conservative breast cancer surgery with 3 intramammary sentinel lymph nodes containing metastasis and extracapsular extravasation. After multidisciplinary consensus, the patient was surgically reapproached with mastectomy. Even though the 3 intramammary sentinel lymph nodes were positive for metastases, pathology examination did not reveal any signs of malignancy in the mastectomy specimen.

Breast Self-examination Practices and the Effect of a Planned Training Program in Western Turkey

  • Donmez, Yelda Candan;Dolgun, Eda;Yavuz, Meryem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6159-6161
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    • 2012
  • This cross-sectional and descriptive study was aimed to evaluate women breast self-examination (BSE) practice and effects of a planned educational programme for breast cancer and BSE. The samples of the study consisted 266 women. The study data were collected by a questionnaire in six months periods as two times in a month in which the periods were defined and announced to all women. After that all the women were informed about BSE. The statue of performing BSE of women (n=146) was evaluated. They were interviewed on phone after 6 months. The collected data were analyzed by using statistical SPSS program. The average age of women was $35.68{\pm}7.54$. It is also determined that (61.3%) had no knowledge about BSE, (87.6%) had examined clinical breast examination (CBE) in a year and half of them (50.8%) never practiced BSE, (29.0%) had BSE regularly every month. Concerning the status of BSE practice before the education and after the education significant difference is found statistically (p<0.00). The significance of this study is that it is to give education about breast cancer and BSE for raising awareness among women.