• Title/Summary/Keyword: citric acid

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Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Commercial Mukeunji Products (국내 시판 묵은지의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Hur, Sung-Won;Ko, Myeung-Sin;Kim, Mi-Ran;Lee, Hye-Ran;Chung, Seo-Jin;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.702-708
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of commercial Mukeunji product along with its sensory properties. Six different types of commercial Mukeunji products were purchased through an on-line market, and each product had a different fermentation period. General commercial Baechu Kimchi was compared with commercial Mukeunji products in order to standardize quality properties of Mukeunji. As a result, commercial Mukeunji showed a lower pH value (pH 3.96, mean value) than commercial Baechu Kimchi (pH 5.92), whereas commercial Mukeunji samples showed higher acidity and salinity. Color values (L, a, and b) of commercial Mukeunji decreased as the storage period increased. Hardness and thickness of commercial Mukeunji showed a lower range compared to Baechu Kimchi. The reducing sugar content decreased as the storage period of commercial Mukeunji increased. Acetic, lactic, and succinic acids were detected in commercial Mukeunji samples, whereas citric acid and malic acid were additionally detected in Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed lower contents of acetic and succinic acid and higher content of lactic acid than Baechu Kimchi. Commercial Mukeunji samples showed a significant difference in all descriptive sensory attributes except for bitterness. Overall intensity, sourness, moldy odor, redness, sour smell, saltiness, and carbonated taste increased as the storage period increased, whereas cabbage flavor, crispiness, sweetness, firmness, and savory taste decreased as the storage period increased.

Quality characteristics of rice and rice starch-based Yakju (쌀 및 쌀 전분을 활용한 약주의 품질특성)

  • Kang, Ji-Eun;Kim, Jae-Woon;Choi, Han-Seok;Kim, Chan-Woo;Yeo, Soo-Hwan;Jeong, Seok-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 2015
  • Yakju, a Korean traditional alcoholic beverage, is made from rice and Nuruk. In this study, the fermentation characteristics of Yakju was investigated using rice and rice starch. Ingredients was classified into raw material (rice, rice starch) and starter (enzyme supplements, modified Nuruk, traditional Nuruk, and yellow rice koji) for fermentation. The crude protein content of rice, rice starch, and starter were determined as follows (%): rice 6.69, rice starch 0.44, enzyme supplements 7.84, modified Nuruk 15.29, traditional Nuruk 14.28, and yellow rice koji 7.28. The alcohol content of rice with traditional Nuruk ($20.13{\pm}0.12%$) was higher than other Yakju. The concentration of organic acids of rice starch-based Yakju (389.83~538.34 mg%) was higher than that of rice Yakju (259.27~357.70 mg%). The concentration of nitrogen compound of rice Yakju (498.38~5976.93 ppm) was higher than that of rice starch-based Yakju (600.43~4463.79 ppm). In line with these findings, further studies will be necessary for the quality analysis of the rice, rice starch and fermented starter (enzyme supplements, modified Nuruk, traditional Nuruk and yellow rice koji).

Quality Characteristics of Kiwi Wine and Optimum Malolactic Fermentation Conditions (참다래 와인의 최적 malolactic fermentation 조건과 품질 특성)

  • Kang, Sang-Dong;Ko, Yu-Jin;Kim, Eun-Jung;Son, Yong-Hwi;Kim, Jin-Yong;Seol, Hui-Gyeong;Kim, Ig-Jo;Cho, Hyoun-Kook;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.509-514
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    • 2011
  • Maloactic fermentation (MLF) occurs after completion of alcoholic fermentation and is mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Oenococcus oeni. Kiwi wine more than commercial grape wine has the problem of high acidity. Therefore, we investigated the optimal MLF conditions for regulating strong acidity and improving the quality properties of wine fermented with Kiwi fruit cultivated in Korea. For alcohol fermentation, industrial wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 12650 strains and LAB, known as MLF strains, were used to alleviate wine acidity. First, the various experimental conditions of Kiwi fruit, initial pH (2.5, 3.5, 4.5), fermenting temperature (20, 25, $30^{\circ}C$), and sugar contents (24 $^{\circ}Brix$), were adjusted, and after the fermentation period, we measured the acidity, pH, and the change in organic acid content by the AOAC method and HPLC analysis. The alcohol content of fermented Kiwi wine was 12.75%. Further, total acidity and pH of Kiwi wine were 0.78% and 3.5, respectively. Total sugar and total polyphenol contents of Kiwi wine were 38.72 mg/ml and 60.18 mg/ml, respectively. With regard to organic acid content, the control contained 0.63 mg/ml of oxalic acid, 2.99 mg/ml of malic acid, and 0.71 mg/ml of lactic acid, whereas MLF wine contained 0.69 mg/ml of oxalic acid, 0.06 mg/ml of malic acid, and 3.12 mg/ml of lactic acid. Kiwi wine had lower malic acid values and total acidity than control after MLF processing. In MLF, the optimum initial pH value and fermentation temperature were 3.5 and $25^{\circ}C$, respectively. Therefore, these studies suggest that establishment of optimal MLF conditions could improve the properties of Kiwi wine manufactured in Korea.

THE EFFECTS OF THE PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR-BB ON THE PERIODONTAL TISSUE REGENERATION OF THE FURCATION INVOLVEMENT OF DOGS (혈소판유래성장인자-BB가 성견 치근이개부병변의 조직재생에 미치는 효과)

  • Cho, Moo-Hyun;Park, Kwang-Beom;Park, Joon-Bong
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.535-563
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    • 1993
  • New techniques for regenerating the destructed periodontal tissue have been studied for many years. Current acceptable methods of promoting periodontal regeneration alre basis of removal of diseased soft tissue, root treatment, guided tissue regeneration, graft materials, biological mediators. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of polypeptide growth factor. PDGF have been reported as a biological mediator which regulate activities of wound healing progress including cell proliferation, migration, and metabolism. The purposes of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using the PDGF as a regeneration promoting agent for furcation involvement defect. Eight adult mongrel dogs were used in this experiment. The dogs were anesthetized with Pentobarbital Sodium (25-30 mg/kg of body weight, Tokyo chemical Co., Japan) and conventional periodontal prophylaxis were performed with ultrasonic scaler. With intrasulcular and crestal incision, mucoperiosteal flap was elevated. Following decortication with 1/2 high speed round bur, degree III furcation defect was made on mandibular second(P2) and fourth(P4) premolar. For the basic treatment of root surface, fully saturated citric acid was applied on the exposed root surface for 3 minutes. On the right P4 20ug of human recombinant PDGF-BB dissolved in acetic acid was applied with polypropylene autopipette. On the left P2 and right P2 PDGF-BB was applied after insertion of ${\beta}-Tricalcium$ phosphate(TCP) and collagen (Collatape) respectively. Left mandibular P4 was used as control. Systemic antibiotics (Penicillin-G benzathine and penicillin-G procaine, 1 ml per 10-25 1bs body weight) were administrated intramuscular for 2 weeks after surgery. Irrigation with 0.1% Chlorhexidine Gluconate around operated sites was performed during the whole experimental period except one day immediate after surgery. Soft diets were fed through the whole experiment period. After 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed by perfusion technique. Tissue block was excised including the tooth and prepared for light microscope with H-E staining. At 2 weeks after surgery, therer were rapid osteogenesis phenomenon on the defected area of the PDGF only treated group and early trabeculation pattern was made with new osteoid tissue produced by activated osteoblast. Bone formation was almost completed to the fornix of furcation by 8 weeks after surgery. New cementum fromation was observed from 2 weeks after surgery, and the thickness was increased until 8 weeks with typical Sharpey’s fibers reembedded into new bone and cementum. In both PDGF-BB with TCP group and PDGF-BB with Collagen group, regeneration process including new bone and new cementum formation and the group especially in the early weeks. It might be thought that the migration of actively proliferating cells was prohibited by the graft materials. In conclusion, platelet-derived growth factor can promote rapid osteogenesis during early stage of periodontal tissue regeneration.

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Studies on the physio-chemical properties and the cultivation of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus) (느타리버섯의 생리화학적성질(生理化學的性質) 및 재배(栽培)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, Jai-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.150-184
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    • 1978
  • Nutritional characteristics and physio-chemical properties of mycelial growth and fruitbody formation of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus)in synthetic media, the curtural condition for the commerical production in the rice straw and poplar sawdust media, and the changes of the chemical components of the media and mushroom during the cultivation were investigated. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Among the carbon sources mannitol and sucrose gave rapid mycelial growth and rapid formation of fruit-body with higher yield, while lactose and rhamnose gave no mycelial growth. Also, citric acid, succinic acid, ethyl alcohol and glycerol gave poor fruit-body formation, and acetic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, n-butyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and iso-butyl alcohol inhibited mycelial growth. 2. Among the nitrogen sources peptone gave rapid mycelial growth and rapid formation of fruit-body with higher yield, while D,L-alanine, asparatic acid, glycine and serine gave very poor fruit-body formation, and nitrite nitrogens, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine inhibited mycelial growth. Inorganic nitrogens and amino acids added to peptone were effective for fruit-body growth, and thus addition of ammonium sulfate, ammonium tartarate, D,L-alanine and L-leucine resulted in about 10% increase fruit-body yield. L-asparic acid about 15%, L-arginine about 20%, L-glutamic acid, and L-lysine about 25%. 3. At C/N ratio of 15.23 fruit-body formation was fast, but the yield decreased, and at C/N ratio of 11.42 fruit-body formation was slow, but the yield increased. Also, at the same C/N ratio the higher the concentration of mannitol and petone, the higher yield was produced. Thus, from the view point of both yield of fruit-body and time required for fruiting the optimum C/N ratio would be 30. 46. 4. Thiamine, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and magnecium sulfate at the concentration of $50{\mu}g%$. 0.2% and 0.02-0.03%, respectively, gave excellent mycelial and fruit-body growth. Among the micronutrients ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate showed synergetic growth promoting effect but lack of manganese resulted in a little reduction in mycelial and fruit-body growth. The optimum concentrati on of each these nutrients was 0.02mg%. 5. Cytosine and indole acetic acid at 0.2-1mg% and 0.01mg%, respectively, increased amount of mycelia, but had no effect on yield of fruit-body. The other purine and pyrimidine bases and plant hormones also had no effect on mycelial and fruit-belly yield. 6. Illumination inhibited mycelial growth, but illumination during the latter part of vegetative growth induced primordia formation. The optimum light intensity and exposure time was 100 to 500 lux and 6-12 hours per day, respectively. Higher intensity of light was injurous, and in darkness only vegetative growth without primordia formation was continued. 7. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was $25^{\circ}C$ and for fruit-body formation 10 to $15^{\circi}C$. The optimum pH range was from 5.0 to 6.5. The most excellent fry it-body formation were produced from the mycelium grown for 7 to 10 days. The lesser the volume of media, the more rapid the formation of fruit-body; and the lower the yield of fruit-body; and the more the volume of media, the slower the formation of fruit-body, and the higher the yield of fruit-body. The primordia formation was inhibited by $CO_2$. 8. The optimum moisture content for mycelial growth was over 70% in the bottle media of rice straw and poplar sawdust. 10% addition of rice bran to the media exhibited excellent mycelial growth and fruit-body formation, and the addition of calciumcarbonate alone was effective, but the addition of calcium carbonate was ineffective in the presence of rice bran. 9. In the cultivation experiments the total yield of mushroom from the rice straw media was $14.99kg/m^2$, and from the sawdust media $6.52kg/m^2$, 90% of which was produced from the first and second cropping period. The total yield from the rice straw media was about 2.3 times as high as that from the sawdust media. 10. Among the chemical components of the media little change was observed in the content of ash on the dry weight basis, and organic matter content decreased as the cultivation progressed. Moisture content, which was about 79% at the time of spawning, decreased a little during the period of mycelial propagation, after which no change was observed. 11. During the period from spawning to the fourth cropping about 16.7% of the dry matter, about 19.3% of organic matter, and about 40% of nitrogen were lost from the rice straw media; about 7.5% of dry mallet, about 7.6% of organic matter, and about 20% of nitrogen were lost from the sawdust media. For the production of 1kg of mushroom about 232g of organic matter and about 7.0g of nitrogen were consumed from the rice straw media; about 235g of organic matter and about 6.8g of nitrogen were consumed from the sawdust media, 1㎏ of mushroom from either of media contains 82.4 and 82.3g of organic matter and 5.6 and 5.4g of nitrogen, respectively. 12. Total nitrogen content of the two media decreased gradually as the cultivation progressed, and total loss of insoluble nitrogen was greater than that of soluble nitrogen. Content of amino nitrogen continued to increase up to the third cropping time, after which it decreased. 13. In the rice straw media 28.0 and 13.8% of the total pentosan and ${\alpha}$-cellulose, respectively, lost during the whole cultivation period was lost during the period of mycelial growth; in the sawdust media 24.1 and 11.9% of the total pentosan and ${\alpha}$-cellulose, respectively, was lost during the period of mycelial growth. Lignin content in the media began to decrease slightly from the second cropping time, while the content of reduced sugar, trehalose and mannitol continued to increase. C/N ratio of the rice straw media decreased from 33.2 at spawining to 30.0 at ending; that of the sawdust media decreased from 61.3 to 60.0. 14. In both media phosphorus, potassium, manganese and zinc decreased, at magnesium, calcium and copper showed irregular changes, and iron had a tendency to be increased. 15. Enzyme activities are much higher in the rice straw media than in the sawdust media. CMC saccharifying and liquefying activity gradually increased from after mycelial propagation to the second cropping, after which it decreased in both media. Xylanase activity rapidly and greatly increased during the second cropping period rather than the first period. At the start of the third cropping period the activity decreased rapidly in the rice straw media, which was not observed in the sawdust media. Protease activity was highest after mycelial propagation, after which it gradually decreased. The pH of the rice straw media decreased from 6.3 at spawning to 5.0 after fourth cropping; that of the sawdust media decreased from 5.7 to 4.9. 16. The contents of all the components except crude fibre of the mushroom from the rice straw media were higher than those from the sawdust media. Little change was observed in the content of the components of mushroom cropped from the first to the third period, but slight decrease was noticed at the fourth cropping.

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